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Vaccines represent a medical intervention
designed to train our defense system.
Multiple diseases are currently prevented
by the use of vaccines. Modified,
weakened, or even dead versions of
bacteria, viruses, or toxins (pathogens)
are administered into the human body to
warn it, so if the natural version of those
pathogens appear, it is ready to fight
using antibodies and other means of
response.
The vaccines against Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)
While many types of coronavirus are
known, the variety found in 2019 is
capable of causing severe pneumonia
with a fatality of 1-2% of those affected. In
shorter than a year, and thanks to the
effort of some governments, the
pharmaceutical industry, and universities,
several vaccines against COVID-19 have
been developed, studied, approved, and
distributed around the world.
The vaccines against Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)
Which are the
different types of
vaccines?
01 Vaccines that use mRNA
Which are the different types of vaccines?
mRNA is the mold upon which all living cells make
proteins. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is
no more than mRNA surrounded by a capsule. On the
surface of this capsule we can find the so-called Spike
Protein that the virus uses to attach itself to the cells in
the human respiratory tract, and so enter the body and
cause infection. Of all the viral mRNA, only a fragment is
needed to form the spike protein. The mRNA vaccines
(Pfizer and Moderna) only inject this fragment into the
muscles of those who receive it. The injected mRNA will
disappear within three days.
Which are the different types of vaccines?
Vaccines that use mRNA
02 Vaccines that use DNA
Which are the different types of vaccines?
We said that SARS-CoV-2 uses mRNA, not DNA.
However, the fragment that molds the Spike Protein can
be attached to the DNA of a virus that does not cause
disease in humans, but can transport the relevant
material into the cells. Several strains of adenovirus are
used to achieve this goal: chimpanzee adenovirus 8
(Oxford/Astra Zeneca) and adenovirus 26 (Sputnik 5 and
Johnson & Johnson). The injected adenovirus is
programmed to have a limited replication to amplify the
response without causing disease in those who gets the
vaccine.
Which are the different types of vaccines?
Vaccines that use DNA
03 Vaccines that inject the
Spike Protein
Which are the different types of vaccines?
This type of vaccine is more similar to the one we use for
diseases like tetanus. The spike is produced in large
amounts and out of the body, and is then injected.
Defense cells recognize the protein and form antibodies
against it. So far, Novavax is the only company working
on this product.
Which are the different types of vaccines?
Vaccines that inject the spike protein
04 Vaccines that inject
dead virus
Which are the different types of vaccines?
The oldest vaccines develop viruses in the laboratory
and then weaken or kill them keeping enough integrity
for the body to create antibodies against the natural
virus. This type of vaccine is not being developed in the
USA (studied in India and China, for example)
Which are the different types of vaccines?
Vaccines that inject dead virus
COMPANY TYPE
Pfizer
Moderna
Oxford/
AstraZeneca
Johnson & Johnson
Novavax
Sputnik V
mRNA
mRNA
Andenovirus
vector
Andenovirus
vector
Spike
protein
Andenovirus
vector
DOSE
2
2
2
1
2
2
95%
95%
62-90%
70%
90%
92%
-70ºC
-20ºC
Regular
Refrigerator
Regular
Refrigerator
Regular
Refrigerator
Regular
Refrigerator
Which are the available vaccines?
EFFICACY STORAGE
The vaccine efficacy is measured during research
trials, in which a large group of people receive the
vaccine while another group of equal size receive
a false product called placebo.
Then, the number of people that get the disease
is measured in both groups. Although there are
obvious differences, all the vaccines presented
here are considered of enough potency to justify
their use. It is also important to highlight another
feature: all these vaccines significantly reduce
hospitalization and mortality due to COVID-19, even
among those who get sick.
The vaccines against Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)
The most frequently reported side effects are
local reactions in the injection site (pain, redness),
fever, muscle aches, joint pain, and headaches,
more notable after the first dose of the
adenovirus-based vaccines and the second dose
of the mRNA vaccines.
Recently, few cases have been described in which
clots appear together with a low blood level of
platelets (clotting cells) after the AstraZeneca and
Johnson & Johnson vaccines. This fact is being
studied.
The vaccines against Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)
While no vaccine is 100% effective in
preventing the disease, so far, they
are so to prevent mortality in
COVID-19. We are yet to know how
pregnant women and young
children respond to it, but it seems
that we are getting closer to the end
of this global health crisis.
In summary
f4ff.org
Thank you!
@cover_or_covid Cover or Covid @cover_or_covid | contact@coverorcovid.org A project by

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Types of vaccines

  • 1.
  • 2. Vaccines represent a medical intervention designed to train our defense system. Multiple diseases are currently prevented by the use of vaccines. Modified, weakened, or even dead versions of bacteria, viruses, or toxins (pathogens) are administered into the human body to warn it, so if the natural version of those pathogens appear, it is ready to fight using antibodies and other means of response. The vaccines against Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)
  • 3. While many types of coronavirus are known, the variety found in 2019 is capable of causing severe pneumonia with a fatality of 1-2% of those affected. In shorter than a year, and thanks to the effort of some governments, the pharmaceutical industry, and universities, several vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed, studied, approved, and distributed around the world. The vaccines against Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)
  • 4. Which are the different types of vaccines?
  • 5. 01 Vaccines that use mRNA Which are the different types of vaccines?
  • 6. mRNA is the mold upon which all living cells make proteins. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is no more than mRNA surrounded by a capsule. On the surface of this capsule we can find the so-called Spike Protein that the virus uses to attach itself to the cells in the human respiratory tract, and so enter the body and cause infection. Of all the viral mRNA, only a fragment is needed to form the spike protein. The mRNA vaccines (Pfizer and Moderna) only inject this fragment into the muscles of those who receive it. The injected mRNA will disappear within three days. Which are the different types of vaccines? Vaccines that use mRNA
  • 7. 02 Vaccines that use DNA Which are the different types of vaccines?
  • 8. We said that SARS-CoV-2 uses mRNA, not DNA. However, the fragment that molds the Spike Protein can be attached to the DNA of a virus that does not cause disease in humans, but can transport the relevant material into the cells. Several strains of adenovirus are used to achieve this goal: chimpanzee adenovirus 8 (Oxford/Astra Zeneca) and adenovirus 26 (Sputnik 5 and Johnson & Johnson). The injected adenovirus is programmed to have a limited replication to amplify the response without causing disease in those who gets the vaccine. Which are the different types of vaccines? Vaccines that use DNA
  • 9. 03 Vaccines that inject the Spike Protein Which are the different types of vaccines?
  • 10. This type of vaccine is more similar to the one we use for diseases like tetanus. The spike is produced in large amounts and out of the body, and is then injected. Defense cells recognize the protein and form antibodies against it. So far, Novavax is the only company working on this product. Which are the different types of vaccines? Vaccines that inject the spike protein
  • 11. 04 Vaccines that inject dead virus Which are the different types of vaccines?
  • 12. The oldest vaccines develop viruses in the laboratory and then weaken or kill them keeping enough integrity for the body to create antibodies against the natural virus. This type of vaccine is not being developed in the USA (studied in India and China, for example) Which are the different types of vaccines? Vaccines that inject dead virus
  • 13. COMPANY TYPE Pfizer Moderna Oxford/ AstraZeneca Johnson & Johnson Novavax Sputnik V mRNA mRNA Andenovirus vector Andenovirus vector Spike protein Andenovirus vector DOSE 2 2 2 1 2 2 95% 95% 62-90% 70% 90% 92% -70ºC -20ºC Regular Refrigerator Regular Refrigerator Regular Refrigerator Regular Refrigerator Which are the available vaccines? EFFICACY STORAGE
  • 14. The vaccine efficacy is measured during research trials, in which a large group of people receive the vaccine while another group of equal size receive a false product called placebo. Then, the number of people that get the disease is measured in both groups. Although there are obvious differences, all the vaccines presented here are considered of enough potency to justify their use. It is also important to highlight another feature: all these vaccines significantly reduce hospitalization and mortality due to COVID-19, even among those who get sick. The vaccines against Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)
  • 15. The most frequently reported side effects are local reactions in the injection site (pain, redness), fever, muscle aches, joint pain, and headaches, more notable after the first dose of the adenovirus-based vaccines and the second dose of the mRNA vaccines. Recently, few cases have been described in which clots appear together with a low blood level of platelets (clotting cells) after the AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson vaccines. This fact is being studied. The vaccines against Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)
  • 16. While no vaccine is 100% effective in preventing the disease, so far, they are so to prevent mortality in COVID-19. We are yet to know how pregnant women and young children respond to it, but it seems that we are getting closer to the end of this global health crisis. In summary
  • 17. f4ff.org Thank you! @cover_or_covid Cover or Covid @cover_or_covid | contact@coverorcovid.org A project by