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Trust
The Key to Project Team Collaboration
Name


Gifts to Offer    Challenges




   Personal      “Later”
  Objectives




Personal Motto or Life Lesson

                                2
We work as a Team when:
 Common purpose & performance goals
 Complementary skills for interdependent work

 Shared approach to work
 Joint accountability

 Small number of peers
 Mutual History


                                                3
Characteristics of Highly
  Collaborative Teams
Group of peers
Owns and controls the core of the work
Chooses and manages work as whole team
Responsible for problem-solving
Committed to continuous improvement
Prepared to deal with complexity

                                         4
“…[R]eal teams do not emerge unless the
individuals on them take risks involving conflict,
trust, interdependence, and hard work. Of the risks
required, the most formidable involve building the
trust and interdependence necessary to move from
individual accountability to mutual accountability.”
“Trust must be earned and demonstrated
repeatedly if it is to change behavior.”
              Katzenback and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams


The Five Persistent Feelings of Superior Work Teams:
inclusion, commitment, loyalty, pride, trust.
                  Kinlaw, Developing Superior Work Teams


                                                     5
Trust is a significant factor in project success. Trust
in leaders and other team members relates to
higher organizational performance. The level of
trust positively correlates to:
               • job performance
               • organizational citizenship behavior
               • turnover intentions
               • job satisfaction
               • organizational commitment
               • commitment to decisions

                                         summarized from
                                       Dirks & Ferrin, 2002
                                                          6
• “The key, we believe, is trust. When members
  of a group trust one another’s motives, their
  competence, and their concern for the task, the
  work of any becomes the work of all. Group
  dynamicists know that. It’s one reason they try to
  build interpersonal trust from the very start.”
                              Lipman-Blumen and Leavitt.
                                             Hot Groups
Contractual Trust:
A mutual understanding
     that people in a
relationship will do what
  they say they will do.
                Reina & Reina. Trust and
                Betrayal in the Workplace.
Interdependence gives rise
   to our need for Trust.

   CBT - Calculus-Based Trust
Collaborative Team Communication
               Model           10
Signs of Professional Trust
 1) Team members report confident expectations
   about each other’s behavior and intentions.
 2) Team members extend trust when others offer
   basic support.
 3) Team members value and show appreciation for
   everyone’s contributions to team’s effectiveness.
 4) Team members talk as openly with one another
   about work-related failures, weaknesses and
   fears as about competencies, strengths, and
   achievements.
                                                  11
Credibility, Support, Consistency
       Three Aspects of Professional Trust




                                             12
Credibility
competence, believability, integrity, capability



                                              13
Build credibility:
Share information openly and broadly

Stay accessible and visible to each other

Engage hard questions; answer them where possible

Offer objective, candid insights about the organization
or team
                                                    14
Support
respect, civility, interest, self-disclosure, intimacy



                                                  15
Show support:
Recognize and appreciate each other

Exhibit sincere personal concern for each
other’s well-being

Maintain civil discourse and courteous
interactions
                                            16
Consistency
reliability, dependability, accountability, character

                                                 17
Demonstrate consistency:
Follow through on promises and commitments

Preserve working agreements

Seek and offer feedback
                                             18
Through repeated
  interactions, we reach
awareness of shared values
     & personal goals.
  IBT: Identification-based Trust
Teamwork requires trust among team members—trust that members
can depend on one another, that all members will contribute their share
of the work, that the team will fairly distribute resources, and that the
team will include and inform everyone through open, honest
communication. High performing teams consciously establish and
maintain an environment of trust. Trust becomes a felt presence, an
accepted norm, and a foundation for all that the team does.

Think about all the teams you have been on. Tell the story of one that
you would say was characterized by an environment of trust.

A. Describe the team. What did it do? How did you know an
environment of trust was present? What did you see, hear and
experience? How was it established? What were the benefits to team
members? …to their work?…to their organization?

B. What one thing can we learn from this team that might help our
current teams build a stronger environment of trust?
                                                     adapted from Whitney et al,
                                                     Appreciative Team Building
                                                                      20
Trust is Growing
               When You Notice
          Two Kinds of Trust on Teams

Trusting – Team members assume each other’s
competence, commitment, and positive intentions.
Perceptions of mutuality, dependency, and
confidence.

Trustworthiness – Team members’ actions are
consistent, reliable, supportive, known, competent,
and credible. Perceptions of respect, obligation,
and responsibility.
                                                 21
“The best way to find out if
you can trust someone is to
trust them.”
         Ernest Hemingway
Team Members
Develop Interaction Skills
    Self-disclose
    Empathize
    Generously interpret
      puzzling behavior
    Share information
    Ask for help
    Admit mistakes
    Accept responsibility
    Give and seek feedback
                             23
Prompt




Factual                                Specific

                   Feedback




      Supportive              Considerate


                                                  24
To encourage or discourage behavior, and
build or sustain trust, use this framework to
offer feedback with caring and respect:
1. Create an opening
2. Describe the behavior
3. State the impact


4. Make a request




                                                25
Twenty-One Tips
for Growing Trust within a Team
Team Leaders
1. Trust first—To get trust, give trust and act
   trustworthy
2. Set a tone for interaction and collaboration
3. Identify clear, consistent purpose and
   performance goals
4. Expect and allow emotional release, find (or
   provide) safe space to vent
5. Establish strong business ethics


                                                  26
As a Team
6. Communicate openly, freely, and honestly
7. Listen carefully and seek fairness
8. Develop comfort with discussing mistakes,
    concerns, and limitations
9. Respect each other’s opinions
10. Learn about each other’s perspectives
11. Decide how the team will decide
12. Create social time for the team
13. Empower team members to take risks and act



                                                 27
As an individual Team Member
14. Interact with the team consistently and
    predictably
15. Take responsibility for team action
16. Give credit to team members
17. Make yourself available, accessible, and
   responsive
18. Show awareness, sensitivity, and support for
   the needs of other team members
19. Maintain confidences
20. Watch your language
21. Visibly do what you say you’ll do

                   adapted from K. and M. Fisher, The Distance Manager
                and Robbins and Finley, The New Why Teams Don’t Work
Seven team activities to
       cultivate trust
1. Sponsor a Project Jump Start

2. Make and Discuss Personal Shields/
   Posters
3. Develop Working Agreements

4. Hold Frequent Retrospectives

5. Plan Team Social Events

6. Explore Cultures and/or Individual Styles

7. Celebrate Small Successes
                                               29
Working Agreements for Trust
We agree to assume positive intent and give generous
interpretations to actions or words we don’t understand, then
we seek clarity from one another.

We keep our agreements or, if we can’t, we advise teammates
of problems as soon as possible.

We cast no “silent vetos”. We speak up if we disagree.

We seek and offer feedback on the impact of our actions,
inactions, and interactions.



                                                           30
Team Members Decide When to Trust:
        Ten Factors that Tip the Balance


                    Factor          High or Low?
         Risk Tolerance
Self     Adjustment
         Relative Power
         Security
         Similarity
         Interest Alignment
Other
         Benevolent Concern
         Capability
         Predictability/Integrity      adapted from: Robert F. Hurley,
                                    “The Decision to Trust,” HBR, 2006
         Communication
                                                           31
Judgement, Blaming, and
   The Fundamental
    Attribution Error
The Enemies of
Organizational Trust
Inconsistent messages
Inequitable treatment from inconsistent
   standards or policies
Misplaced kindness
Elephants in the Room (a.k.a. Dead fish
   on the table)
Rumors in a vacuum
                 adapted from Galford and Drapeau,
                 The Enemies of Trust, HBR, 2003     33
Suspect Distrust
        When You See or Hear These Symptoms

Rule-bound and rigid             Payback or retaliation
Bullying                         Venting frustration on people
Insensitivity to the impact of   Misunderstandings construed as
behavior on others               betrayals
Focus on self-interest           Over-personalized criticism
Apathy and low energy            Hiding mistakes or poor performance
Ignoring feelings                Wordy, defensive communication
Resentments                      Insincerity



                                                            34
But what about my team…?

Distributed
              Dispersed
                          Diverse




                                    35
Six Keys to Trust for Virtual Teams

Create Face Time
Set Clear Goals & Expectations
Make the Work Visible
Provide Ongoing Feedback
Showcase Team Members’ Competence
Foster Cultural Understanding
                        Ross. “Trust Makes the Team Go ‘Round”
                        HBR 2006

                                                      36
Bibliography - 1

Samuel A. Culbert and John J. McDonough. Radical Management: Power Politics
and the Pursuit of Trust. The Free Press. 1985.
Tom DeMarco and Timothy Lister, Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams. 2nd
edition. Dorset House. 1999.
Esther Derby and Diana Larsen. Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great!
Pragmatic Programmers. 2006.
K. T. Dirks and D. L Ferrin, “Trust in Leadership: Meta-analytic Findings and
Implications for Organizational Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4)
2002: 611-628.
Kimball Fisher and Maureen D. Fisher. The Distance Manager: A Hands-on Guide
to Managing Off-site Employees and Virtual Teams. McGraw Hill. 2001.
Robert F. Hurley, R. Galford, A. S. Drapeau, W.C. Kim, and R. Mauborgne.
“Winning Your Employees’ Trust” compilation. Harvard Business Review On Point
Collection. Harvard Business Review. 2006.
Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith. The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the
High Performance Organization. Harvard Business School Press. 1993.
                                                                          37
Bibliography - 2

Dennis C. Kinlaw. Developing Superior Work Teams: Building Quality and the
Competitive Edge. Lexington Books. 1991.
Patrick Lencioni. Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of a Team. Jossey-Bass. 2005.
Roy J. Lewicki and Edward C. Tomlinson. “Trust and Trust Building.” Beyond
Intractability. beyondintractability.org/essay/trust_building December 2003
Jean Lipman-Blumen and Harold J. Leavit. Hot Groups; Seeding Them, Feeding
Them and Using Them to Ignite Your Organization. Oxford University Press. 1999.
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner.
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach. Pearson Prentice Hall. 2007.
Harvey Robbins and Michael Finley. The New Why Teams Don’t Work: What Goes
Wrong and How to Make it Right. Berrett-Koehler. 2000.
Judith A. Ross. “Trust Makes the Team Go ‘Round.” Harvard Business School
Publishing Corp. 2006
Diana Whitney, Amanda Trosten-Bloom, Jay Cherney and Ron Fry. Appreciative
Team Building. iUniverse Inc. 2004.
                                                                         38
Biography
Diana Larsen consults with leaders and teams to create works
processes where innovation, inspiration and imagination flourish. With
more than 15 years working with technical professionals, she discovers
solutions and possibilities where others find only barriers and
obstacles.
Diana co-authored Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great.
She writes an occasional blog post at “Partnerships & Possibilities”
http://www.futureworksconsulting.com/blog/ . Find more information
about FutureWorks Consulting, Diana Larsen, and additional
resources at the website, http://www.futureworksconsulting.com .




                                                                39

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Trust - Diana Larsen at Agiles 2009

  • 1. Trust The Key to Project Team Collaboration
  • 2. Name Gifts to Offer Challenges Personal “Later” Objectives Personal Motto or Life Lesson 2
  • 3. We work as a Team when: Common purpose & performance goals Complementary skills for interdependent work Shared approach to work Joint accountability Small number of peers Mutual History 3
  • 4. Characteristics of Highly Collaborative Teams Group of peers Owns and controls the core of the work Chooses and manages work as whole team Responsible for problem-solving Committed to continuous improvement Prepared to deal with complexity 4
  • 5. “…[R]eal teams do not emerge unless the individuals on them take risks involving conflict, trust, interdependence, and hard work. Of the risks required, the most formidable involve building the trust and interdependence necessary to move from individual accountability to mutual accountability.” “Trust must be earned and demonstrated repeatedly if it is to change behavior.” Katzenback and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams The Five Persistent Feelings of Superior Work Teams: inclusion, commitment, loyalty, pride, trust. Kinlaw, Developing Superior Work Teams 5
  • 6. Trust is a significant factor in project success. Trust in leaders and other team members relates to higher organizational performance. The level of trust positively correlates to: • job performance • organizational citizenship behavior • turnover intentions • job satisfaction • organizational commitment • commitment to decisions summarized from Dirks & Ferrin, 2002 6
  • 7. • “The key, we believe, is trust. When members of a group trust one another’s motives, their competence, and their concern for the task, the work of any becomes the work of all. Group dynamicists know that. It’s one reason they try to build interpersonal trust from the very start.” Lipman-Blumen and Leavitt. Hot Groups
  • 8. Contractual Trust: A mutual understanding that people in a relationship will do what they say they will do. Reina & Reina. Trust and Betrayal in the Workplace.
  • 9. Interdependence gives rise to our need for Trust. CBT - Calculus-Based Trust
  • 11. Signs of Professional Trust 1) Team members report confident expectations about each other’s behavior and intentions. 2) Team members extend trust when others offer basic support. 3) Team members value and show appreciation for everyone’s contributions to team’s effectiveness. 4) Team members talk as openly with one another about work-related failures, weaknesses and fears as about competencies, strengths, and achievements. 11
  • 12. Credibility, Support, Consistency Three Aspects of Professional Trust 12
  • 14. Build credibility: Share information openly and broadly Stay accessible and visible to each other Engage hard questions; answer them where possible Offer objective, candid insights about the organization or team 14
  • 15. Support respect, civility, interest, self-disclosure, intimacy 15
  • 16. Show support: Recognize and appreciate each other Exhibit sincere personal concern for each other’s well-being Maintain civil discourse and courteous interactions 16
  • 18. Demonstrate consistency: Follow through on promises and commitments Preserve working agreements Seek and offer feedback 18
  • 19. Through repeated interactions, we reach awareness of shared values & personal goals. IBT: Identification-based Trust
  • 20. Teamwork requires trust among team members—trust that members can depend on one another, that all members will contribute their share of the work, that the team will fairly distribute resources, and that the team will include and inform everyone through open, honest communication. High performing teams consciously establish and maintain an environment of trust. Trust becomes a felt presence, an accepted norm, and a foundation for all that the team does. Think about all the teams you have been on. Tell the story of one that you would say was characterized by an environment of trust. A. Describe the team. What did it do? How did you know an environment of trust was present? What did you see, hear and experience? How was it established? What were the benefits to team members? …to their work?…to their organization? B. What one thing can we learn from this team that might help our current teams build a stronger environment of trust? adapted from Whitney et al, Appreciative Team Building 20
  • 21. Trust is Growing When You Notice Two Kinds of Trust on Teams Trusting – Team members assume each other’s competence, commitment, and positive intentions. Perceptions of mutuality, dependency, and confidence. Trustworthiness – Team members’ actions are consistent, reliable, supportive, known, competent, and credible. Perceptions of respect, obligation, and responsibility. 21
  • 22. “The best way to find out if you can trust someone is to trust them.” Ernest Hemingway
  • 23. Team Members Develop Interaction Skills Self-disclose Empathize Generously interpret puzzling behavior Share information Ask for help Admit mistakes Accept responsibility Give and seek feedback 23
  • 24. Prompt Factual Specific Feedback Supportive Considerate 24
  • 25. To encourage or discourage behavior, and build or sustain trust, use this framework to offer feedback with caring and respect: 1. Create an opening 2. Describe the behavior 3. State the impact 4. Make a request 25
  • 26. Twenty-One Tips for Growing Trust within a Team Team Leaders 1. Trust first—To get trust, give trust and act trustworthy 2. Set a tone for interaction and collaboration 3. Identify clear, consistent purpose and performance goals 4. Expect and allow emotional release, find (or provide) safe space to vent 5. Establish strong business ethics 26
  • 27. As a Team 6. Communicate openly, freely, and honestly 7. Listen carefully and seek fairness 8. Develop comfort with discussing mistakes, concerns, and limitations 9. Respect each other’s opinions 10. Learn about each other’s perspectives 11. Decide how the team will decide 12. Create social time for the team 13. Empower team members to take risks and act 27
  • 28. As an individual Team Member 14. Interact with the team consistently and predictably 15. Take responsibility for team action 16. Give credit to team members 17. Make yourself available, accessible, and responsive 18. Show awareness, sensitivity, and support for the needs of other team members 19. Maintain confidences 20. Watch your language 21. Visibly do what you say you’ll do adapted from K. and M. Fisher, The Distance Manager and Robbins and Finley, The New Why Teams Don’t Work
  • 29. Seven team activities to cultivate trust 1. Sponsor a Project Jump Start 2. Make and Discuss Personal Shields/ Posters 3. Develop Working Agreements 4. Hold Frequent Retrospectives 5. Plan Team Social Events 6. Explore Cultures and/or Individual Styles 7. Celebrate Small Successes 29
  • 30. Working Agreements for Trust We agree to assume positive intent and give generous interpretations to actions or words we don’t understand, then we seek clarity from one another. We keep our agreements or, if we can’t, we advise teammates of problems as soon as possible. We cast no “silent vetos”. We speak up if we disagree. We seek and offer feedback on the impact of our actions, inactions, and interactions. 30
  • 31. Team Members Decide When to Trust: Ten Factors that Tip the Balance Factor High or Low? Risk Tolerance Self Adjustment Relative Power Security Similarity Interest Alignment Other Benevolent Concern Capability Predictability/Integrity adapted from: Robert F. Hurley, “The Decision to Trust,” HBR, 2006 Communication 31
  • 32. Judgement, Blaming, and The Fundamental Attribution Error
  • 33. The Enemies of Organizational Trust Inconsistent messages Inequitable treatment from inconsistent standards or policies Misplaced kindness Elephants in the Room (a.k.a. Dead fish on the table) Rumors in a vacuum adapted from Galford and Drapeau, The Enemies of Trust, HBR, 2003 33
  • 34. Suspect Distrust When You See or Hear These Symptoms Rule-bound and rigid Payback or retaliation Bullying Venting frustration on people Insensitivity to the impact of Misunderstandings construed as behavior on others betrayals Focus on self-interest Over-personalized criticism Apathy and low energy Hiding mistakes or poor performance Ignoring feelings Wordy, defensive communication Resentments Insincerity 34
  • 35. But what about my team…? Distributed Dispersed Diverse 35
  • 36. Six Keys to Trust for Virtual Teams Create Face Time Set Clear Goals & Expectations Make the Work Visible Provide Ongoing Feedback Showcase Team Members’ Competence Foster Cultural Understanding Ross. “Trust Makes the Team Go ‘Round” HBR 2006 36
  • 37. Bibliography - 1 Samuel A. Culbert and John J. McDonough. Radical Management: Power Politics and the Pursuit of Trust. The Free Press. 1985. Tom DeMarco and Timothy Lister, Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams. 2nd edition. Dorset House. 1999. Esther Derby and Diana Larsen. Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great! Pragmatic Programmers. 2006. K. T. Dirks and D. L Ferrin, “Trust in Leadership: Meta-analytic Findings and Implications for Organizational Research.” Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4) 2002: 611-628. Kimball Fisher and Maureen D. Fisher. The Distance Manager: A Hands-on Guide to Managing Off-site Employees and Virtual Teams. McGraw Hill. 2001. Robert F. Hurley, R. Galford, A. S. Drapeau, W.C. Kim, and R. Mauborgne. “Winning Your Employees’ Trust” compilation. Harvard Business Review On Point Collection. Harvard Business Review. 2006. Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith. The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High Performance Organization. Harvard Business School Press. 1993. 37
  • 38. Bibliography - 2 Dennis C. Kinlaw. Developing Superior Work Teams: Building Quality and the Competitive Edge. Lexington Books. 1991. Patrick Lencioni. Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of a Team. Jossey-Bass. 2005. Roy J. Lewicki and Edward C. Tomlinson. “Trust and Trust Building.” Beyond Intractability. beyondintractability.org/essay/trust_building December 2003 Jean Lipman-Blumen and Harold J. Leavit. Hot Groups; Seeding Them, Feeding Them and Using Them to Ignite Your Organization. Oxford University Press. 1999. Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner. Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach. Pearson Prentice Hall. 2007. Harvey Robbins and Michael Finley. The New Why Teams Don’t Work: What Goes Wrong and How to Make it Right. Berrett-Koehler. 2000. Judith A. Ross. “Trust Makes the Team Go ‘Round.” Harvard Business School Publishing Corp. 2006 Diana Whitney, Amanda Trosten-Bloom, Jay Cherney and Ron Fry. Appreciative Team Building. iUniverse Inc. 2004. 38
  • 39. Biography Diana Larsen consults with leaders and teams to create works processes where innovation, inspiration and imagination flourish. With more than 15 years working with technical professionals, she discovers solutions and possibilities where others find only barriers and obstacles. Diana co-authored Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great. She writes an occasional blog post at “Partnerships & Possibilities” http://www.futureworksconsulting.com/blog/ . Find more information about FutureWorks Consulting, Diana Larsen, and additional resources at the website, http://www.futureworksconsulting.com . 39