At the end of the course, participants should be
able to do the following:
Identify characteristic features of teams
Identify types of teams
Explain principles of group dynamics in teams
Differentiate high performance teams from
“People who work together will win,
whether it be against complex football
defenses, or the problems of modern
- Vince Lombardi
“A team is a group of people organized to
work together with an overall common
purpose and a shared accountability for
- Nick Krym, Basic of Team Building
“A team is a group of people working together
to achieve common objectives and willing to
commit all their energies necessary to
ensuring that the objectives are achieved.”
- John Humphries, Managing Successful Teams
Benefits of Working Through Teams
Increases organisational agility
Stimulates individual commitment
Catalyses organisational learning
Improves customer satisfaction
Increases efficiency and effectiveness
Promotes job satisfaction
Drivers of Team Member Commitment
Basis of a Team
• Common Purpose
• Mutual Trust
• Role Identity
• Shared Accountability
Factors that Impinge on Synergy
• Behaviour of team members
• Components of team’s tasks
• The team leader’s approach to leadership
• Provision of requisite resources
• Team values
• Standard procedures
This is a characteristic name that stands out
as representation of the team’s vision,
purpose, and/or strategic imperatives.
1.Service Delivery Development Team
2.Best Industry Service Team
Establish team identity for each of the following:
1.A group of workers given assignment to
improve visibility of a firm.
2.A group of managers with responsibility for
aligning a firm to customers.
“No organisation can function without teams.
Even a sole practitioner, with the exception of
a hermit on a desert island, is dependent on a
network of collaborative relationships.”
- Peter Honey, Teams and Teamwork
Team in a Small Enterprise
Source: Elijah Ezendu, Teams
Teams in a Large Organisation
Source: Elijah Ezendu, Teams
These are acceptations of a team and its members
pertaining to the right way to act in relation to
people, situations and other things.
They represent acceptable behaviour in a team,
and determine culture, business philosophy and
leadership principles therein.
They provide driving force for evolution of team
character and serve as compass for code of
Characteristics of an Effective Team 1
1. Clear Purpose: The vision, mission, goal or task of the team has been
defined and is now accepted by everyone. There is an action plan.
2. Informality: The climate tends to be informal, comfortable, and relaxed.
There is no obvious tensions or signs of boredom.
3. Participation: There is much discussion and everyone is encouraged to
4. Listening: The members use effective listening techniques such as
questioning, paraphrasing, and summarizing to get out ideas.
5. Civilized Disagreement: There is disagreement, but the team is comfortable
with this and shows no signs of avoiding, smoothing over, or suppressing
6. Consensus Decisions: For important decisions, the goal is substantial but
not necessarily unanimous agreement through open discussion of
everyone’s ideas, avoidance of formal voting, or easy compromises.
7. Open Communication: Team members feel free to express their feelings
on the tasks as well as on the group’s operation. There are few hidden
agendas. Communication takes place outside of meetings.
8. Clear Roles and Work Assignments: There are clear expectations about the
roles played by each team member. When action is taken, clear
assignments are made, accepted, and carried out. Work is fairly
distributed among team members.
9. Shared Leadership: While the team has a formal leader, leadership
functions shift from time to time depending upon the circumstances, the
needs of the group, and the skills of the members. The formal leader
models the appropriate behavior and helps establish positive norms.
10. External Relations: The team spends time developing key outside
relationships, mobilizing resources, and building credibility with important
players in other parts of the organization.
11. Style Diversity: The team has a broad spectrum of team-player types
including members who emphasize attention to task, goal setting, focus
on process, and questions about how the team is functioning.`
12. Self-Assessment: Periodically, the team stops to examine how well it is
functioning and what may be interfering with its effectiveness.
Characteristics of an Effective Team 2
Source: Brian Cooke
Types of Teams
• Problem-Solving Teams
• Self-Managed Work Teams
• Virtual Teams
• Cross-Functional Teams
17 Essential Qualities of a Team Player
Adapted from John Maxwell
“The term group dynamics implies that individual
behaviours differ depending on individual’s
current or prospective connections to a group.
Group dynamics is the field of study within the
social sciences that focuses on the nature and
functions of groups.”
- Mark Hardwick, Group Dynamics and the Art of Facilitation
In the course of interaction of people in a firm,
their power, personalities and behaviours
influence the path, process and effect of
Interaction and Group
Task Interdependence Groups
• Pooled Task Interdependence Group: The performance of this
group is the aggregate of independent contributions of each
member. Individual contributions can be ascertained.
• Sequential Task Interdependence Group: The performance of
each member cannot be easily determined because
contributions are injected sequentially and a member’s
performance depends on his predecessor’s input.
• Reciprocal Task Interdependence Group: In this case, its hard to
ascertain performance of each member because every
member’s performance affects all other members.
• Intense Task Interdependence Group: This is the greatest form
of interdependence. All members act together in order to
perform a task.
Stages in Group Development
1. Forming: Members familiarize themselves with task and
2. Storming: Members confront and criticize one another
and approach to execute their tasks.
3. Norming: Members begin to resolve conflicting issues,
build cohesion and establish norms.
4. Performing: Establishment of structure, goals, and
individual roles provide opportunity for the group to
identify its independence and work so as to carry out
5. Adjourning: Introduction of system for commemoration
Determinants of Group’s
Effectiveness and Productivity
• Task Functions: Initiating, Information-Seeking,
Information Giving, Clarifying Ideas, Bringing Closure,
• Maintenance Behaviour: Encouraging, Improving
Group Atmosphere, Harmonizing, Compromising,
Gate-Keeping, Standard Setting
• Self-Interest Behaviour: Dominating and Controlling,
Blocking, Manipulating, Denigration, Undermining
This is characterized by the types, dimensions
and levels of participation between individuals
in a group.
Ego States in Transactions
• Parent: Controlling, Nurturing, Critical and
• Adult: Unemotional, Rational, Calculating and
• Child: Emotional demonstration in the form
of dependence, rebellion or impulsiveness.
Thirty-Two Tips for a Successful Team-Building Programme 1
1. What is the size of your group, average age and gender ratio?
2. Has the group participated in a team-building activity before?
3. Why are you contemplating a team-building activity? (For example, are you primarily looking for your
group to bond or to walk away with a new attitude?)
4. What is the culture of your group? Are they academics (teachers, researchers), professionals (bankers,
lawyers, doctors, executives) or creative types (editors, illustrators, designers)?
5. Is the group comfortable together in a non-work setting, or do they rarely interact outside the office?
6. What is the overall personality of the group? Do they have a sense of humor, or are they serious?
7. Is the group competitive or more laid-back?
8. Does the group prefer adventurous, outdoor pursuits, or are they inclined to indoor activities?
9. Will everyone in the group be able to participate, or will some individuals be excluded for health or
10. Will your group participate willingly or are they resistant to the idea?
11. Provide the team-building company with as much information on your group as you can. Be sure to
highlight the group's strengths, weaknesses, why you are considering a team-building activity and what
you hope to achieve.
12. Was considerable time spent discussing your group's goals, philosophies and objectives?
13. Is the company interested in integrating personal goals into the overall team-building concept?
14. Is the supplier willing to customize a program to fit your group’s particular needs?
15. What is the largest group the team-building company has handled?
16. Does the company provide post-program workshops to help attendees transfer team-building skills from
the course to their jobs?
17. Did you walk away from initial discussions with a solid grasp of what each team-building activity
accomplishes? If not, chances are neither will your attendees.
18. Is the company willing to accept physically challenged attendees? Do they work to successfully
incorporate them into the activities?
19. Meet personally with the facilitator assigned to your group. Is he or she engaging and energetic?
20. Ask about safety precautions.
21. What contingency plans are in place in the event of bad weather?
22. How long has the company been in business?
23. Ask for references -- and check them.
24. Ask for a breakdown of what is included in the service price.
25. Inquire about liability insurance.
26. Are the programs interesting, challenging and fun?
27. Would they appeal to your group as a whole? (While the prospect of scaling a 60-foot wall might motivate
some participants, it could also demoralize more than a few.)
28. How much time is required for each program? Consider your agenda and how much time should be
allotted to team-building activities.
29. Inquire if any special skills are required.
30. Are the goals of each activity clearly outlined?
31. Are they realistic?
32. If possible, have the team-building company arrange for you to observe a program. At the very least,
arrange to see the course.
Thirty-Two Tips for a Successful Team-Building Programme 2
Source: Cheryl-Anne Sturken, Meetings and Conventions
Types of Intraorganisational Groups
• Working Group: Members interact with one another but are not
ready to build a team.
• Pseudo-Team: It’s a group attempting to be a team but devoid of
shared values and common goals. This exhibits the lowest
• Potential Team: This could have common goals but experiencing
hitches due to weakness in shared values and joint work approach.
• Real Team: This comprises people who are focused on common
goals, purpose, values, and work approach; thereby leveraging on
synergy and the performance is greater than the sum of individual
performance of its members.
• High Performance Team: This is the highest team level whereupon
members go beyond the threshold of a real team, and engage in
transcendent learning, development, growth and success by
influencing and inducing one another for continuous improvement.
Appoint your group members and work
together for development of a team with fully
articulated features and components.
Dr Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise
in Interim Management, Strategy, Competitive Intelligence, Transformation, Restructuring, Turnaround
Management, Business Development, Marketing, Project & Cost Management, Leadership, HR, CSR, e-
Business & Software Architecture. He had functioned as Founder, Initiative for Sustainable Business
Equity; Chairman of Board, Charisma Broadcast Film Academy; Group Chief Operating Officer, Idova
Group; CEO, Rubiini (UAE); Special Advisor, RTEAN; Director, MMNA Investments; Chair, Int’l Board of
GCC Business Council (UAE); Senior Partner, Shevach Consulting; Chairman (Certification & Training),
Coordinator (Board of Fellows), Lead Assessor & Governing Council Member, Institute of Management
Consultants, Nigeria; Lead Resource, Centre for Competitive Intelligence Development; Lead
Consultant/ Partner, JK Michaels; Turnaround Project Director, Consolidated Business Holdings Limited;
Technical Director, Gestalt; Chief Operating Officer, Rohan Group; Executive Director (Various Roles),
Fortuna, Gambia & Malta; Chief Advisor/ Partner, D & E; Vice Chairman of Board, Refined Shipping;
Director of Programmes & Governing Council Member, Institute of Business Development, Nigeria;
Member of TDD Committee, International Association of Software Architects, USA; Member of Strategic
Planning and Implementation Committee, Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria;
Country Manager (Nigeria) & Adjunct Faculty (MBA Programme), Regent Business School, South Africa;
Adjunct Faculty (MBA Programme), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology; Editor-in-Chief, Cost
Management Journal; Council Member, Institute of Internal Auditors of Nigeria; Member, Board of
Directors (Several Organizations). He holds Doctoral Degree in Management, Master of Business
Administration and Fellow of Professional Institutes in North America, UK & Nigeria. He is Innovator of
Corporate Investment Structure Based on Financials and Intangibles, for valuation highlighting
intangible contributions of host communities and ecological environment: A model celebrated globally
as remedy for unmitigated depreciation of ecological capital and developmental deprivation of host
communities. He had served as Examiner to Professional Institutes and Universities. He had been a
member of Guild of Soundtrack Producers of Nigeria. He's an author and extensively featured speaker.