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Subphylum Mandibulata
1
Characteristics:
members of this group bear mandibles
mandibles - a pair of arthropod mouthparts used for biting,
chewing, cutting, injecting poison, holding food, etc.
Body of two or three tagmata:
- Two tagmata: head and trunk
-Three tagmata:head, thorax, and abdomen
Appendages multiarticulate and uniramous or biramous
Monoecious/Dioecious
Subphylum Mandibulata 2
Subphylum Mandibulata
Sensory Organs:
One or two pairs of antennae
Circulatory System:
Open circulatory system
Respiratory system:
-Tracheal system – Class Myriapoda (except Order Pauropoda)
and Class Insecta
-Gills/Tracheal system - Class Crustacea
Skeleton
-Exoskeleton
Subphylum Mandibulata 3
∗ Tracheal System
Subphylum Mandibulata 4
Subphylum Mandibulata
∗Taxonomic Summary
∗ Phylum Arthropoda
∗ Subphylum Mandibulata
∗ Class Myriapoda
∗ - millipedes, centipedes, pauropods, sympylans
∗ Class Insecta
∗ - flies, beetles, butterflies, grasshopper, etc.
∗ Class Crustacea
∗ - crabs, lobsters, shrimp, etc.
∗Adapted from Pechenik
Subphylum Mandibulata 5
Mandibles
∗Class Insecta
Order Coleoptera
Order Hymenoptera
Order Lepidoptera
Subphylum Mandibulata 6
Mandibles
Class Myriapoda
∗Order Chilopoda Order Diplopoda
Subphylum Mandibulata 7
Mandibles
Class Crustacea
Lobster Crab
Subphylum Mandibulata 8
∗Class Myriapoda
∗ Myriapods (Gr. myrias, a myriad + pous, podus, foot)
General characteristics
∗ Loss of compound eyes
∗ All appendages uniramous;
∗ Head appendages consisting of:
∗ one pair of antennae,
∗ one or two pairs of mandibles,
∗ one or two pairs of maxillae.
Repugnatorial glands
Organs of Tomosvary
Subphylum Mandibulata 9
∗Class Myriapoda
∗ Class Myriapoda includes 4 orders:
Order Chilopoda (centipedes),
Order Diplopoda (millipedes),
Order Pauropoda (pauropods),
Order Symphyla (symphylans)
Subphylum Mandibulata 10
Subphylum Mandibulata 11
∗Order Chilopoda
∗ Chilopoda (ki-lop o-da) (Gr. cheilos, margin, lip, pous, podos, foot)
∗ Commonly known as centipede mean “hundred feet”
∗ There are about 3,000 species worldwide.
∗ Most species of centipedes are harmless to humans, although
many tropical centipedes are dangerous
∗ Centipedes prefer moist places such as under logs, bark, and stones
∗ Centipedes, are land forms with somewhat flattened bodies.
∗ Centipede bodies may contain from a 15 to 177 segments
Feeding:
∗ Carnivores , they kill their prey with their venom claws and then
chew it with their mandibles.
Subphylum Mandibulata 12
∗ Reproduction
∗ Sexes are separate (Dioecious).
∗ Some centipedes lay eggs and others are viviparous.
∗ The young are similar in form to adults and do not undergo
metamorphosis (Direct development)
∗ Respiration
∗ a tracheal system of branched air tubes that come from a pair of
spiracles in each segment.
∗ Nervous system
∗ divided brain connected with a ventral chain of ganglia, or two
nerve cords, stretching the entire length of its body
∗ Excretory system
∗ Malpighian tubule system
Subphylum Mandibulata 13
∗ Nervous System
Subphylum Mandibulata 14
∗ Order Chilopoda
Subphylum Mandibulata 15
∗Order Diplopoda
Diplopoda (Gr. diploo, double, two, pous, podos, foot)
∗ Commonly called millipedes, which literally means “thousand feet”
∗ They prefer dark, moist places under logs or stones
∗ There are more than 10,000 species of millipedes worldwide.
∗ They are also terrestrial that have cylindrical bodies containing 25
to more than 100 segments.
∗ Millipedes are mainly nocturnal, although pill millipedes are usually
active during the day.
Subphylum Mandibulata 16
∗ Defense mechanism
secreting toxic or repellent fluids from special glands
(repugnatorial glands) positioned along the sides of the body.
millipedes is to curl up tightly into a coil, protecting their legs inside
an armored exterior, as they lack the ability to sting or bite.
Many species also emit a poisonous secretion through microscopic
pores along the sides of their body. This substance is strong
enough to burn the exoskeleton of ants and other insects and also
the skin of larger predators.
∗ Feeding
∗ Most millipedes are herbivorous, feeding on decayed plant matter,
∗ although sometimes they eat living plants
Subphylum Mandibulata 17
∗ Reproduction
∗ Millipedes generally reproduce
∗ 1. via copulation
∗ 2. parthenogenesis
∗ 3. male leave their spermatophore in the ground and the female
will find it.
∗ Respiration
∗ Millipedes have a tracheal respiratory system and take in air
through spiracles that occur down each side of the body
Subphylum Mandibulata 18
∗ Nervous system
∗ The nervous system consists of a three-part mandibulate
brain :protocerebrum, deuterocerebrum, and tritocerebrum,
,ganglionated, ventral longitudinal nerve cord
∗ Excretory system
∗ Malpighian tubule system
Subphylum Mandibulata 19
∗ Malpighian Tubules
Subphylum Mandibulata 20
∗Order Diplopoda
Subphylum Mandibulata 21
∗Order Pauropoda
Pauropoda (Gr. pauros, small, pous, podos, foot)
∗ a group of minute organisms(2 mm or less), soft-bodied myriapods,
∗ Numbering almost 500 species.
∗ They live in moist soil, leaf litter, or decaying vegetation and under
bark and debris.
∗ Pauropods have branched antennae
∗ No true eyes, but they have a pair of sense organs that resemble
∗ eyes called pseudoculi
∗ Their 12 trunk segments usually bear nine pairs of legs
∗ Tracheae, spiracles, and circulatory system are lacking.
Subphylum Mandibulata 22
∗ Feeding
∗ Pauropods apparently feed on fungi, decaying plant and animal
material
∗ Reproduction
∗ Parthenogenesis
∗ Respiration
∗ Respiration is cutaneous.
∗ Excretory system
∗ Malphighian tubule system
Subphylum Mandibulata 23
∗Order Pauropoda
Subphylum Mandibulata 24
∗Order Sympylan
∗ Symphyla (Gr. sym, together, phylon, tribe)
∗ are small (2 to 10 mm) and have centipede-like bodies
∗ They live in humus, leaf mold, and debris.
∗ Examples:
∗ Scutigerella often pests on vegetables and fl owers, particularly in
greenhouses.
∗ They are soft bodied, with 14 segments, 12 of which bear legs and
one a pair of spinnerets.
∗ The antennae are long and unbranched.
∗ Lacking eyes, their long antennae serve as sense organs
Subphylum Mandibulata 25
∗ Feeding
∗ They are mainly scavengers on decayed vegetation, but one
species, Scutigerella immaculata, is a serious pest of certain crops.
∗ Reproduction
∗ Dioecious, Males deposit sperm packets on the ground. The
females later pick up the sperm packets in their mouths.
∗ Respiration
∗ Tracheal system and spiracles
∗ Excretory system
∗ Malphighian tubule system
Subphylum Mandibulata 26
∗Order Sympylan
Subphylum Mandibulata 27
Superclass Hexapoda
28
∗ Super Class Hexapoda
∗ Presence of six legs in members of the group.
∗ All legs are uniramous
∗ Hexapods have three tagmata —head, thorax, and abdomen—
with appendages on the head and thorax.
∗ Abdominal appendages are greatly reduced or absent. There are
two classes within Hexapoda:
Class Entognatha
Class Insecta
29
∗Class Entognatha
∗ Entognatha is a small group whose members have the bases of
mouthparts enclosed within the head capsule called as
entognathous
∗ Ametabolous arthropods
∗ Apterous (wingless)
∗ 3 orders of entognathans.
∗ Order Protura
∗ Order Diplura
∗ Order Collembola
30
∗ Ametabolous development
31
Order Protura
∗A group of small (less than 2mm), wingless, eyeless creatures living
in leaf litter and decomposing vegetation.
∗2250 species
∗Proturans live chiefly in soil, mosses, and leaf litter of moist
temperate forests[
that and also found beneath rocks or under
the bark of trees
∗They feed on mycorrhizal fungi, dead Acari, and mushroom
powder , and are thought to feed on decaying vegetable matter
∗ There are no cerci at the end of the abdomen
∗The first three abdominal segments bear limb-like appendagescalled
"styli"
32
∗ Lacks an antenna
∗ Respiration depends on the species members
of Eosentomoidea possess spiracles and a tracheal system, while
those in the Acerentomoidea lack these structures and perform gas
exchange by diffusion.
33
∗ Order Protura
34
∗Order Diplura
∗ sometimes called "two-pronged bristletails”
∗ Small (less than 4 mm), white, wingless and eyeless herbivores
and predators lacking Malpighian tubules
∗ 650 species
∗ They have no eyes and, apart from the darkened cerci in some
species, they are unpigmented.
∗ They have long antennae with 10 or more bead-like segments
projecting forward from the head,and a pair of cerci projecting
backwards
∗ Live in concealed, damp situations in the soil, under stones, in
dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying
vegetable matter.
35
∗ Order Diplura
36
Order Collembola
∗Are commonly called “springtails” because of their ability to leap
∗An animal 4 mm long may leap 20 times its body length
∗Collembolans live in soil, in decaying plant matter, on freshwater
pond surfaces, and along the seashore.
∗ They can be very abundant, reaching millions per hectare in some
soils, but like other entognathans, their small size makes them less
visible to the casual observer.
∗Collembolans are omnivorous
∗They do not directly engage in the decomposition of organic matter,
but, rather, can indirectly through the fragmentation of organic
matter
37
∗Order Collembola
38
∗ Credits to J.Q
END…
Subphylum Mandibulata 39

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Subphylum mandibulata (By: J.Q)

  • 2. Characteristics: members of this group bear mandibles mandibles - a pair of arthropod mouthparts used for biting, chewing, cutting, injecting poison, holding food, etc. Body of two or three tagmata: - Two tagmata: head and trunk -Three tagmata:head, thorax, and abdomen Appendages multiarticulate and uniramous or biramous Monoecious/Dioecious Subphylum Mandibulata 2 Subphylum Mandibulata
  • 3. Sensory Organs: One or two pairs of antennae Circulatory System: Open circulatory system Respiratory system: -Tracheal system – Class Myriapoda (except Order Pauropoda) and Class Insecta -Gills/Tracheal system - Class Crustacea Skeleton -Exoskeleton Subphylum Mandibulata 3
  • 5. Subphylum Mandibulata ∗Taxonomic Summary ∗ Phylum Arthropoda ∗ Subphylum Mandibulata ∗ Class Myriapoda ∗ - millipedes, centipedes, pauropods, sympylans ∗ Class Insecta ∗ - flies, beetles, butterflies, grasshopper, etc. ∗ Class Crustacea ∗ - crabs, lobsters, shrimp, etc. ∗Adapted from Pechenik Subphylum Mandibulata 5
  • 6. Mandibles ∗Class Insecta Order Coleoptera Order Hymenoptera Order Lepidoptera Subphylum Mandibulata 6
  • 7. Mandibles Class Myriapoda ∗Order Chilopoda Order Diplopoda Subphylum Mandibulata 7
  • 9. ∗Class Myriapoda ∗ Myriapods (Gr. myrias, a myriad + pous, podus, foot) General characteristics ∗ Loss of compound eyes ∗ All appendages uniramous; ∗ Head appendages consisting of: ∗ one pair of antennae, ∗ one or two pairs of mandibles, ∗ one or two pairs of maxillae. Repugnatorial glands Organs of Tomosvary Subphylum Mandibulata 9
  • 10. ∗Class Myriapoda ∗ Class Myriapoda includes 4 orders: Order Chilopoda (centipedes), Order Diplopoda (millipedes), Order Pauropoda (pauropods), Order Symphyla (symphylans) Subphylum Mandibulata 10
  • 12. ∗Order Chilopoda ∗ Chilopoda (ki-lop o-da) (Gr. cheilos, margin, lip, pous, podos, foot) ∗ Commonly known as centipede mean “hundred feet” ∗ There are about 3,000 species worldwide. ∗ Most species of centipedes are harmless to humans, although many tropical centipedes are dangerous ∗ Centipedes prefer moist places such as under logs, bark, and stones ∗ Centipedes, are land forms with somewhat flattened bodies. ∗ Centipede bodies may contain from a 15 to 177 segments Feeding: ∗ Carnivores , they kill their prey with their venom claws and then chew it with their mandibles. Subphylum Mandibulata 12
  • 13. ∗ Reproduction ∗ Sexes are separate (Dioecious). ∗ Some centipedes lay eggs and others are viviparous. ∗ The young are similar in form to adults and do not undergo metamorphosis (Direct development) ∗ Respiration ∗ a tracheal system of branched air tubes that come from a pair of spiracles in each segment. ∗ Nervous system ∗ divided brain connected with a ventral chain of ganglia, or two nerve cords, stretching the entire length of its body ∗ Excretory system ∗ Malpighian tubule system Subphylum Mandibulata 13
  • 16. ∗Order Diplopoda Diplopoda (Gr. diploo, double, two, pous, podos, foot) ∗ Commonly called millipedes, which literally means “thousand feet” ∗ They prefer dark, moist places under logs or stones ∗ There are more than 10,000 species of millipedes worldwide. ∗ They are also terrestrial that have cylindrical bodies containing 25 to more than 100 segments. ∗ Millipedes are mainly nocturnal, although pill millipedes are usually active during the day. Subphylum Mandibulata 16
  • 17. ∗ Defense mechanism secreting toxic or repellent fluids from special glands (repugnatorial glands) positioned along the sides of the body. millipedes is to curl up tightly into a coil, protecting their legs inside an armored exterior, as they lack the ability to sting or bite. Many species also emit a poisonous secretion through microscopic pores along the sides of their body. This substance is strong enough to burn the exoskeleton of ants and other insects and also the skin of larger predators. ∗ Feeding ∗ Most millipedes are herbivorous, feeding on decayed plant matter, ∗ although sometimes they eat living plants Subphylum Mandibulata 17
  • 18. ∗ Reproduction ∗ Millipedes generally reproduce ∗ 1. via copulation ∗ 2. parthenogenesis ∗ 3. male leave their spermatophore in the ground and the female will find it. ∗ Respiration ∗ Millipedes have a tracheal respiratory system and take in air through spiracles that occur down each side of the body Subphylum Mandibulata 18
  • 19. ∗ Nervous system ∗ The nervous system consists of a three-part mandibulate brain :protocerebrum, deuterocerebrum, and tritocerebrum, ,ganglionated, ventral longitudinal nerve cord ∗ Excretory system ∗ Malpighian tubule system Subphylum Mandibulata 19
  • 22. ∗Order Pauropoda Pauropoda (Gr. pauros, small, pous, podos, foot) ∗ a group of minute organisms(2 mm or less), soft-bodied myriapods, ∗ Numbering almost 500 species. ∗ They live in moist soil, leaf litter, or decaying vegetation and under bark and debris. ∗ Pauropods have branched antennae ∗ No true eyes, but they have a pair of sense organs that resemble ∗ eyes called pseudoculi ∗ Their 12 trunk segments usually bear nine pairs of legs ∗ Tracheae, spiracles, and circulatory system are lacking. Subphylum Mandibulata 22
  • 23. ∗ Feeding ∗ Pauropods apparently feed on fungi, decaying plant and animal material ∗ Reproduction ∗ Parthenogenesis ∗ Respiration ∗ Respiration is cutaneous. ∗ Excretory system ∗ Malphighian tubule system Subphylum Mandibulata 23
  • 25. ∗Order Sympylan ∗ Symphyla (Gr. sym, together, phylon, tribe) ∗ are small (2 to 10 mm) and have centipede-like bodies ∗ They live in humus, leaf mold, and debris. ∗ Examples: ∗ Scutigerella often pests on vegetables and fl owers, particularly in greenhouses. ∗ They are soft bodied, with 14 segments, 12 of which bear legs and one a pair of spinnerets. ∗ The antennae are long and unbranched. ∗ Lacking eyes, their long antennae serve as sense organs Subphylum Mandibulata 25
  • 26. ∗ Feeding ∗ They are mainly scavengers on decayed vegetation, but one species, Scutigerella immaculata, is a serious pest of certain crops. ∗ Reproduction ∗ Dioecious, Males deposit sperm packets on the ground. The females later pick up the sperm packets in their mouths. ∗ Respiration ∗ Tracheal system and spiracles ∗ Excretory system ∗ Malphighian tubule system Subphylum Mandibulata 26
  • 29. ∗ Super Class Hexapoda ∗ Presence of six legs in members of the group. ∗ All legs are uniramous ∗ Hexapods have three tagmata —head, thorax, and abdomen— with appendages on the head and thorax. ∗ Abdominal appendages are greatly reduced or absent. There are two classes within Hexapoda: Class Entognatha Class Insecta 29
  • 30. ∗Class Entognatha ∗ Entognatha is a small group whose members have the bases of mouthparts enclosed within the head capsule called as entognathous ∗ Ametabolous arthropods ∗ Apterous (wingless) ∗ 3 orders of entognathans. ∗ Order Protura ∗ Order Diplura ∗ Order Collembola 30
  • 32. Order Protura ∗A group of small (less than 2mm), wingless, eyeless creatures living in leaf litter and decomposing vegetation. ∗2250 species ∗Proturans live chiefly in soil, mosses, and leaf litter of moist temperate forests[ that and also found beneath rocks or under the bark of trees ∗They feed on mycorrhizal fungi, dead Acari, and mushroom powder , and are thought to feed on decaying vegetable matter ∗ There are no cerci at the end of the abdomen ∗The first three abdominal segments bear limb-like appendagescalled "styli" 32
  • 33. ∗ Lacks an antenna ∗ Respiration depends on the species members of Eosentomoidea possess spiracles and a tracheal system, while those in the Acerentomoidea lack these structures and perform gas exchange by diffusion. 33
  • 35. ∗Order Diplura ∗ sometimes called "two-pronged bristletails” ∗ Small (less than 4 mm), white, wingless and eyeless herbivores and predators lacking Malpighian tubules ∗ 650 species ∗ They have no eyes and, apart from the darkened cerci in some species, they are unpigmented. ∗ They have long antennae with 10 or more bead-like segments projecting forward from the head,and a pair of cerci projecting backwards ∗ Live in concealed, damp situations in the soil, under stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter. 35
  • 37. Order Collembola ∗Are commonly called “springtails” because of their ability to leap ∗An animal 4 mm long may leap 20 times its body length ∗Collembolans live in soil, in decaying plant matter, on freshwater pond surfaces, and along the seashore. ∗ They can be very abundant, reaching millions per hectare in some soils, but like other entognathans, their small size makes them less visible to the casual observer. ∗Collembolans are omnivorous ∗They do not directly engage in the decomposition of organic matter, but, rather, can indirectly through the fragmentation of organic matter 37
  • 39. ∗ Credits to J.Q END… Subphylum Mandibulata 39