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Presented by
Ch.Naga Satyasri
M.Sc(Ag)-I year
STUDY OF MOUTH
PARTS IN INSECTS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
MOUTHPARTS
Biting and Chewing type
Chewing and lapping type
Lacerating and sucking type
Piercing and sucking type
Sponging type
Siphoning type
Mask type
Degenerate type
BITING AND CHEWING MOUTH
PARTS
 ORDER: ORTHOPTERA, eg: grasshopper
Mouth parts are typical mandibulate type useful
for biting, chewing and consisting of
Labrum (upper lip)
Mandibles (Ist pair of jaws)
Maxillae (first maxilla-2nd pair of jaws)
Labium (second maxilla or lower lip-3rd pair of
jaws)
Hypopharynx (tongue).
Labrum:
 A simple plate like structure situated below
the clypeus on the anterior side of the head
and moves up and down.
 The functions of the labrum are to close the
front of the moth cavity, protect the mandibles,
guide the food into the mouth.
Mandibles:
Paired un segmented, heavily sclerotized jaws
lying immediately below the labrum.
Articulate with the headcapsule side wise by
means of two joints; ginglymus and condyl.
Possess two types of teeth; incisors and
molars.
Adopted for cutting and masticating the food
material.
Maxillae:
 Paired segmented structures lying below the
mandibles.
 Each maxilla bears a feeler-like organ, the palpus
(which discharges a gustatory or tasting function).
 Have two segments, the basal cardo and apical
stipes.
 Palpus arise on a lobe of the stipes called the
palpifer.
 Stipes bears two lobe like structures at its apex
(outer simple galea and inner jaw like structure
lacinia)
 Functionally maxillae are of accessory jaws, their
lacinia aiding mandibles in holding the food.
Hypopharynx:
A short tongue like structure located above
the labium and between the maxillae.
The ducts from salivary glands open on or
near the base of hypopharynx.
Labium:
Lies behind the maxillae
Derived by the fusion of the second pair of
maxillae, hence also referred as the second
maxillae.
Divided by transverse suture (labial suture) into
two portions, basal postmentum and distal
prementum
Postmentum is usually divided into basal
submentum and distal mentum.
Prementum bears a pair of palpi called labial
palpi and a group of apical lobes which
constitute the ligula.
Labial palpi arise on lateral lobes of the
prementum called palpigers.
Ligula consists of a pair of small lobes in the
middle, inner glossae and outer paraglossae.
Labial palpi act as sense organs comparable to
the gustatory function of maxillary palpi.
Biting and chewing mouth parts
Insect Mouthparts
Labrum
Mandible
1st Maxilla
Labium (2nd maxilla)
Hypopharynx
Biting and chewing
mouthparts
Feeding mechanism :
 The labrum or upper lip helps the insect to pull the
food into the mouth.
 Mandibles masticate the food. They cut off the food
material. Small teeth present in each mandible work
against those of the opposite for effective grinding.
 The maxillae aid in holding the food in mouth while it
chewed by mandibles. They also aid in breaking up
the food.
 Both maxillae and mandibles move side ways.
 Labial palpi works similar to that of maxillary palpi.
 The maxillae and labium helps in passing the food
into oesophagus
Grasping Type
 Mandibles – slender, elongate, curved at their
ends bearing 1-3 sharp teeth. Extreme
development in males of many of the Lucanidae
and Chiasognathus
 Maxillae – Single-lobed in lucanids called “mala”
 Other parts – normal
 Soldiers of Termites – Large, twisted,
asymmetrical mandibles with peculiar “snapping
action”. Some posses salivary or frontal glands
(adhesive secretions).
 Examples : Soldier termites and stag beetles
(Lucanids)
Grasping Type
Soldier termite
GRASPING AND SUCKING TYPE
 Mandibles and maxillae – long, exerted adopted for
seizing the prey
 Mandibles – sickle – shaped and armed with teeth.
Grooved along their ventral surface and a lobe or
maxillae (perhaps lacinia) similar in size and shape fits
each groove forming a pair of imperfect suctorial tubes.
Blood imbibed by means of pumping action of pharynx.
 Maxillary palpi – absent; labium – greatly reduced,
 labial palps - variable or aborted
 Examples: larvae of Antlions and Aphid lions,
Lampyrid larvae.
GRASPING AND SUCKING TYPE
Antlion larva
. SCRAPING TYPE
 Mouthparts – adopted for dealing with liquid and soft
food.
 Labrum – membranous and concealed
 Mandibles – membranous, thin, sometimes
concealed, incapable of biting, used for moulding wax
mud, dung etc.
 Maxillae – inverted with long hairs, used for feeding
pollen (in pollen feeders)
 Ligula sometimes atrophied, galeae – free
 Examples : Pollen feeders (e.g. Yucca moth,
Tegeticula yuccasella feeding on Yucca filamentosa)
dung beetles (Scarabaeinae)
Dung beetle
BITING AND MASTICATION AND LICKING
TYPE
 Mandibles – eventually biting nature
 Maxillae – Comparatively little modified, palps are 6-
segmented
 Laciniae – reduced to small scales
 Galeae – broad membranous lobes
 Labium – large shield – shaped prementum; bearing
4-segmented labial palps
 Ligula – curiously elongated paraglossae and a wide
bilobed glossa.
 Examples : Vespula germanica (worker) and the
Primitive bee (Hylaeus)
BITING AND MASTICATION AND LICKING TYPE
Vespula germanica
SIPHONING OR SIMPLE SUCKING
TYPE
 Order: Lepidoptera, e.g.: butterflies and moths
 Mandibles totally absent. Majority of Lepidoptera
mandibles are wanting and maxillae to form a
suctorial proboscis
 Maxillae is composed of elongated galea. Each galea
of maxillia elongated, semi-circular towards inner
side. Galea of both the sides meet together forming
into a tubular structure, proboscis.
 Observe the coiled proboscis beneath the head.
 Liquid food is imbibed through groove formed by
galea
 All other mouth parts highly reduced.
 When fully developed mouth parts, maxillary palpi are
5 or 6 segmented.
 Labium reduced to small ventral plate.
 Hypopharynx is present on floor of mouth.
Feeding mechanism:
 When not in use, proboscis is spirally coiled and
beneath the thorax.
 It presents an extraordinary variation in length. Eg.
Sphingidae, Danaus.
 According to Breitenback they are often developed
into denticulate spines.
 Proboscis extended by blood pressure. Eastham and
Eassa (1955).
SIPHONING
OR SIMPLE
SUCKING
TYPE
PIERCING AND SUCKING TYPE
 Order : Hemiptera
 Mandibles and maxillae being modified to form
slender bristle like stylet which rest in grooved labium.
 Both pairs of stylets are hollow seta-like structures.
 These stylets back into prothorax (Cranston and
Sprague, 1961).
 Stylets withdrawn into a pocket connected with the
channel of the labium.
 Mandibular stylets form anterior (outer) pair and
posterior pair of stylets (inner) constitute part of
maxilla.
 Dorsal stylet as a suction canal.
 Ventral stylet as a salivary canal.
 Labium no part in perforating the tissue of host plant.
 Hypopharynx is highly specialized in Hemiptera.
 Salivarium is modified into a powerful salivary pump.
Feeding mechanism:
 At rest rostrum is flexed beneath the body.
 In most Hemiptera stylets are only slightly longer than
the rostrum. Eg. Aphididae, Lygus.
 In Coccoidea stylets are forced deeper and deeper
into the plant.
 Mandibles are first pushed then followed by maxillae.
PIERCING
AND
SUCKING
TYPE
SPONGING TYPE
Eg: HOUSEFLY.
 Mandibles are absent.
 Maxillae are represented by a pair of maxillary palp.
 Labium is divided into basal rostrum, middle haustellum
and distal labellar lobes. Labella are tranversed by
small channels known as pseudotrachia which
converge at one point and open into the food channel.
 Epipharynx and hypopharynx together form the food
channel which leads to Oesophagous
Mode of feeding: It is used for food which is
either liquid or readily soluble in saliva. While
feeding after dissolving the food by saliva, the
labella is thrust into the liquid food as a result
the pseudotracheae get filled with the liquid by
capillary action. The food is then passed
through the food channel to the Oesophagous
Eg. Houseflies
CHEWING AND LAPPING TYPE
Eg: HONEYBEES
 Mandibles and labrum are of chewing type and
help in bolding the food.
 Maxillae and labrum are elongated and united.
There are suspended from the cranium and
articulate to it through the base of the maxillae.
Maxillae :
 Palps are very small
 Galea with its concaves inner surface forms a
roof over the glossa and fits length wise against
labial palps. In this way a food channel is formed.
Labium:
 Palps are long and form food channel with galea
 Glossae are fused to form a channeled organ
termed as alaglossa which can reach deep into
nectar of blossoms.
 Mode of feeding: The mandibles and labrum
help in holding food / prey. In honey bees the
labrum is used for molding wax into cells.
Regarding intake of nectar king, Imm’s and
Snodgrass gave their own view.
King’s Views: After sucking the nectar with
the tip of glossa, it is retracted into labial palp
and galea, where the latter squeezes off the
nectar which is deposited at the base of the
glossa in a small cavity formed by the
paraglossa. Finally as a result of bending of
the labium upward, the base of the glossa
comes near the mouth cavity and the
accumulated nectar is sucked into the
Oesophagous by the action of the pharyngeal
pump.
CHEWING AND LAPPING TYPE
MASK TYPE
 These are modified biting and chewing type.
 Labrum, mandibles, maxillae, hypopharynx are typically
developed as in biting type of mouth parts.
 Labium – in the nymph this organ is modified for prehensile
purpose and is known as mask.
 The prementum and post mentum are markedly lengthened.
 The ligula is undivided and represented by a median lobe which
is fused with the prementum.
 The labial palpi are modified to form a lateral lobes each of which
carries on its outer side a movable hook.
 These hooks which help in catching the prey.
 Ex : Dragon fly naiads.
Naiad
DEGENERATE TYPE
 Eg: MAGGOTS
 In maggots, a definite head is always absent.
 The mouth parts are highly reduced and are
represented y one or two mouth spines or hooks.
 Hypopharynx, clypeus and associated sclerites of
the head form upper pharyngeal skeleton or
hypopharyngeal sclerite around the beginning of
the alimentary canal.
DEGENERAE TYPE
Lacerating and sucking or rasping
and sucking type
 Order: Thysanoptera. eg. Thrips.
 Labrum, labium and bases of maxillae combine
and unite to form a mouth cone.
 Both maxillae and the left mandible are modified
as stylets.
 Right mandible rudimentary.
 Hypopharynx reduced.
Thrips
Chewing and Lapping Type
• (e.g. Honey bee)
• This type of mouthparts are possessed by
Honey bee wherein, the Labrum & Mandibles
remain more or less similar as that of the
Generalized type, whereas the other
components viz. (Maxillae & Labium) are
greatly modified.
• Labrum; It is narrow and quite simple.
Mandibles: They are blunt dumble shaped and
are not toothed.
• They are not used for feeding but are useful for
moulding wax into cells for comb (next)
building.
 Libium: The glossae are greatly elongated to
form a hairy, flexible tongue. The glossa
terminates into a small circular spoon shaped
lobe called flabellum, which is useful to lick the
nectar. Labial palms are elongate and four
segmented.
 Maxillolabial Structures: Maxillobial Structures
are modified to form the lapping tongue. The
tongue unit consists of the two galeae of
maxillae, two labial Palpi and elongated flexible
hairy glossa of labium.
 Feeding Mechanism: The galeae fit tightly
lengthwise, against the elongated labial palps
and they in turn roof over the elongated
glossae (tongue) to form a temporary food
channel through which saliva is discharged. The
tongue (glossae) is trusted into flower, which
gets smeared with nectar. It is then retracted
between labial palps & galeae. Nectar is then
squeezed by galeae and is deposited in the
cavity formed by the paraglossae. Accumulated
nectar is then drawn into oesophagus by the
pharyngeal pump.
Honey bee
Chelicerate mouthparts
It means the ‘claw-bearers’, in reference to the
claw- or fang-shaped mouthparts that
characterize the group.
chelicerates are defined by their jaws. Whereas
most modern arthropods have chewing
mouthparts called mandibles, the jaws of
chelicerates — the chelicerae, which give the
group its name — are usually shaped like claws
or pincers and are mostly used for grasping and
tearing up prey Most chelicerates are predators,
and most catch live prey which is then chewed or
dismembered using the chelicerae.
 The aquatic horseshoe crabs and eurypterids
haverows of teeth on the inner sides of their
leg coxae (the segment where the leg joins the
body), and these ‘gnathobases’ chew up the
food before it is passed to the mouth.
 This style of feeding is only practical in water;
arachnids tend instead to regurgitate enzymes
onto their food and begin the digestion process
in front of the mouth, sometimes in a special
‘preoral cavity’.
 Numerous groups of mites have given up on
being predators, and as a group they show the
greatest diversity of habitats and feeding
strategies: they include blood-sucking parasites
and feeders on plant sap or decaying material.
Sea spiders uniquely have a proboscis and either
prey on sedentary animals, sucking up their body
fluids, or — in some cases — actively hunt
moving prey.
Chelicerate mouthparts
 In carnivorous chewing insects, the mandibles can
be modified to be more knife-like, whereas in
herbivorous chewing insects, they are more
typically broad and flat on their opposing faces
(e.g., caterpillars).
 In male stag beetles, the mandibles are modified to
such an extent that they do not serve any feeding
function, but are instead used to defend mating
sites from other males.
STAG BEETLE
 In ants, the mandibles also serve a defensive
function (particularly in soldier castes)
Soldier castes
 In bull ants, the mandibles are elongate and
toothed, used as hunting (and defensive)
appendages.
 In bees, which feed primarily by use of a
proboscis, the primary use of the mandibles is to
manipulate and shape wax, and many wasps have
mandibles adapted to scraping and ingesting wood
fibres.
 Potter wasps use their mandibles to mix droplets of
water with clay while constructing a nest.
 The defining feature of the order Hemiptera is the
possession of mouthparts where the mandibles and
maxillae are modified into a proboscis, sheathed
within a modified labium, which is capable of
piercing tissues and sucking out the liquids. For
example, true bugs, such as shield bugs, feed on
the fluids of plants. Predatory bugs such
as assassin bugs have the same mouthparts, but
they are used to pierce the cuticles of captured
prey.
Assassin bug
 Myriapod mouthparts are similar to those of
chewing insects, although there is some variation
between the myriapod classes. A labrum is present
but sometimes is not obvious and forms an upper
lip, often in association with an epistome. The
labium is formed by first maxillae in diplopoda
forming the gnathochilarium. The preoral cavity so-
formed contains paired mandibles and any maxillae
which are present.
Myriapod
 Forcipules
 Centipedes, in addition to their mouthparts, possess
a pair of "poison claws", or forcipules. These, like
the maxillipeds of crustaceans, are modified legs
and not true mouthparts. The forcipules arise from
the first body segment, curving forward and to the
midline. The tip is a pointed , which has an
opening from a venom gland. The forcipules are
used to capture and poison prey.
Ventral view of forcipules of a centipede,
arising from the first body segment
 Crustaceans comprise a number of classes, with
various feeding modes supported by a range of
adaptations to the mouthparts. In general, however,
crustaceans possess paired mandibles with
opposing biting and grinding surfaces. The
mandibles are followed by paired first and second
maxillae. Both the mandibles and the maxillae have
been variously modified in different crustacean
groups for filter feeding with the use of setae.
Insects provide an astonishing variety of
unusual structures from feathery antennae to
mouth parts that look like they belong to some
creature.
Here we have the elaborate mouth parts of a blowfly
Insect Mouthparts
Insect Mouthparts

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Insect Mouthparts

  • 1.
  • 2. Presented by Ch.Naga Satyasri M.Sc(Ag)-I year STUDY OF MOUTH PARTS IN INSECTS
  • 3. DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOUTHPARTS Biting and Chewing type Chewing and lapping type Lacerating and sucking type Piercing and sucking type Sponging type Siphoning type Mask type Degenerate type
  • 4. BITING AND CHEWING MOUTH PARTS  ORDER: ORTHOPTERA, eg: grasshopper Mouth parts are typical mandibulate type useful for biting, chewing and consisting of Labrum (upper lip) Mandibles (Ist pair of jaws) Maxillae (first maxilla-2nd pair of jaws) Labium (second maxilla or lower lip-3rd pair of jaws) Hypopharynx (tongue).
  • 5. Labrum:  A simple plate like structure situated below the clypeus on the anterior side of the head and moves up and down.  The functions of the labrum are to close the front of the moth cavity, protect the mandibles, guide the food into the mouth.
  • 6. Mandibles: Paired un segmented, heavily sclerotized jaws lying immediately below the labrum. Articulate with the headcapsule side wise by means of two joints; ginglymus and condyl. Possess two types of teeth; incisors and molars. Adopted for cutting and masticating the food material.
  • 7. Maxillae:  Paired segmented structures lying below the mandibles.  Each maxilla bears a feeler-like organ, the palpus (which discharges a gustatory or tasting function).  Have two segments, the basal cardo and apical stipes.  Palpus arise on a lobe of the stipes called the palpifer.  Stipes bears two lobe like structures at its apex (outer simple galea and inner jaw like structure lacinia)  Functionally maxillae are of accessory jaws, their lacinia aiding mandibles in holding the food.
  • 8. Hypopharynx: A short tongue like structure located above the labium and between the maxillae. The ducts from salivary glands open on or near the base of hypopharynx. Labium: Lies behind the maxillae Derived by the fusion of the second pair of maxillae, hence also referred as the second maxillae.
  • 9. Divided by transverse suture (labial suture) into two portions, basal postmentum and distal prementum Postmentum is usually divided into basal submentum and distal mentum. Prementum bears a pair of palpi called labial palpi and a group of apical lobes which constitute the ligula. Labial palpi arise on lateral lobes of the prementum called palpigers. Ligula consists of a pair of small lobes in the middle, inner glossae and outer paraglossae. Labial palpi act as sense organs comparable to the gustatory function of maxillary palpi.
  • 10. Biting and chewing mouth parts
  • 13. Feeding mechanism :  The labrum or upper lip helps the insect to pull the food into the mouth.  Mandibles masticate the food. They cut off the food material. Small teeth present in each mandible work against those of the opposite for effective grinding.  The maxillae aid in holding the food in mouth while it chewed by mandibles. They also aid in breaking up the food.  Both maxillae and mandibles move side ways.  Labial palpi works similar to that of maxillary palpi.  The maxillae and labium helps in passing the food into oesophagus
  • 14. Grasping Type  Mandibles – slender, elongate, curved at their ends bearing 1-3 sharp teeth. Extreme development in males of many of the Lucanidae and Chiasognathus  Maxillae – Single-lobed in lucanids called “mala”  Other parts – normal  Soldiers of Termites – Large, twisted, asymmetrical mandibles with peculiar “snapping action”. Some posses salivary or frontal glands (adhesive secretions).  Examples : Soldier termites and stag beetles (Lucanids)
  • 16. GRASPING AND SUCKING TYPE  Mandibles and maxillae – long, exerted adopted for seizing the prey  Mandibles – sickle – shaped and armed with teeth. Grooved along their ventral surface and a lobe or maxillae (perhaps lacinia) similar in size and shape fits each groove forming a pair of imperfect suctorial tubes. Blood imbibed by means of pumping action of pharynx.  Maxillary palpi – absent; labium – greatly reduced,  labial palps - variable or aborted  Examples: larvae of Antlions and Aphid lions, Lampyrid larvae.
  • 17. GRASPING AND SUCKING TYPE Antlion larva
  • 18. . SCRAPING TYPE  Mouthparts – adopted for dealing with liquid and soft food.  Labrum – membranous and concealed  Mandibles – membranous, thin, sometimes concealed, incapable of biting, used for moulding wax mud, dung etc.  Maxillae – inverted with long hairs, used for feeding pollen (in pollen feeders)  Ligula sometimes atrophied, galeae – free  Examples : Pollen feeders (e.g. Yucca moth, Tegeticula yuccasella feeding on Yucca filamentosa) dung beetles (Scarabaeinae)
  • 20. BITING AND MASTICATION AND LICKING TYPE  Mandibles – eventually biting nature  Maxillae – Comparatively little modified, palps are 6- segmented  Laciniae – reduced to small scales  Galeae – broad membranous lobes  Labium – large shield – shaped prementum; bearing 4-segmented labial palps  Ligula – curiously elongated paraglossae and a wide bilobed glossa.  Examples : Vespula germanica (worker) and the Primitive bee (Hylaeus)
  • 21. BITING AND MASTICATION AND LICKING TYPE Vespula germanica
  • 22. SIPHONING OR SIMPLE SUCKING TYPE  Order: Lepidoptera, e.g.: butterflies and moths  Mandibles totally absent. Majority of Lepidoptera mandibles are wanting and maxillae to form a suctorial proboscis  Maxillae is composed of elongated galea. Each galea of maxillia elongated, semi-circular towards inner side. Galea of both the sides meet together forming into a tubular structure, proboscis.  Observe the coiled proboscis beneath the head.  Liquid food is imbibed through groove formed by galea
  • 23.  All other mouth parts highly reduced.  When fully developed mouth parts, maxillary palpi are 5 or 6 segmented.  Labium reduced to small ventral plate.  Hypopharynx is present on floor of mouth. Feeding mechanism:  When not in use, proboscis is spirally coiled and beneath the thorax.  It presents an extraordinary variation in length. Eg. Sphingidae, Danaus.  According to Breitenback they are often developed into denticulate spines.  Proboscis extended by blood pressure. Eastham and Eassa (1955).
  • 24.
  • 26. PIERCING AND SUCKING TYPE  Order : Hemiptera  Mandibles and maxillae being modified to form slender bristle like stylet which rest in grooved labium.  Both pairs of stylets are hollow seta-like structures.  These stylets back into prothorax (Cranston and Sprague, 1961).  Stylets withdrawn into a pocket connected with the channel of the labium.  Mandibular stylets form anterior (outer) pair and posterior pair of stylets (inner) constitute part of maxilla.  Dorsal stylet as a suction canal.
  • 27.  Ventral stylet as a salivary canal.  Labium no part in perforating the tissue of host plant.  Hypopharynx is highly specialized in Hemiptera.  Salivarium is modified into a powerful salivary pump. Feeding mechanism:  At rest rostrum is flexed beneath the body.  In most Hemiptera stylets are only slightly longer than the rostrum. Eg. Aphididae, Lygus.  In Coccoidea stylets are forced deeper and deeper into the plant.  Mandibles are first pushed then followed by maxillae.
  • 29.
  • 30. SPONGING TYPE Eg: HOUSEFLY.  Mandibles are absent.  Maxillae are represented by a pair of maxillary palp.  Labium is divided into basal rostrum, middle haustellum and distal labellar lobes. Labella are tranversed by small channels known as pseudotrachia which converge at one point and open into the food channel.  Epipharynx and hypopharynx together form the food channel which leads to Oesophagous
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33. Mode of feeding: It is used for food which is either liquid or readily soluble in saliva. While feeding after dissolving the food by saliva, the labella is thrust into the liquid food as a result the pseudotracheae get filled with the liquid by capillary action. The food is then passed through the food channel to the Oesophagous Eg. Houseflies
  • 34. CHEWING AND LAPPING TYPE Eg: HONEYBEES  Mandibles and labrum are of chewing type and help in bolding the food.  Maxillae and labrum are elongated and united. There are suspended from the cranium and articulate to it through the base of the maxillae. Maxillae :  Palps are very small  Galea with its concaves inner surface forms a roof over the glossa and fits length wise against labial palps. In this way a food channel is formed.
  • 35. Labium:  Palps are long and form food channel with galea  Glossae are fused to form a channeled organ termed as alaglossa which can reach deep into nectar of blossoms.  Mode of feeding: The mandibles and labrum help in holding food / prey. In honey bees the labrum is used for molding wax into cells. Regarding intake of nectar king, Imm’s and Snodgrass gave their own view.
  • 36. King’s Views: After sucking the nectar with the tip of glossa, it is retracted into labial palp and galea, where the latter squeezes off the nectar which is deposited at the base of the glossa in a small cavity formed by the paraglossa. Finally as a result of bending of the labium upward, the base of the glossa comes near the mouth cavity and the accumulated nectar is sucked into the Oesophagous by the action of the pharyngeal pump.
  • 38. MASK TYPE  These are modified biting and chewing type.  Labrum, mandibles, maxillae, hypopharynx are typically developed as in biting type of mouth parts.  Labium – in the nymph this organ is modified for prehensile purpose and is known as mask.  The prementum and post mentum are markedly lengthened.  The ligula is undivided and represented by a median lobe which is fused with the prementum.  The labial palpi are modified to form a lateral lobes each of which carries on its outer side a movable hook.  These hooks which help in catching the prey.  Ex : Dragon fly naiads.
  • 39. Naiad
  • 40. DEGENERATE TYPE  Eg: MAGGOTS  In maggots, a definite head is always absent.  The mouth parts are highly reduced and are represented y one or two mouth spines or hooks.  Hypopharynx, clypeus and associated sclerites of the head form upper pharyngeal skeleton or hypopharyngeal sclerite around the beginning of the alimentary canal.
  • 42. Lacerating and sucking or rasping and sucking type  Order: Thysanoptera. eg. Thrips.  Labrum, labium and bases of maxillae combine and unite to form a mouth cone.  Both maxillae and the left mandible are modified as stylets.  Right mandible rudimentary.  Hypopharynx reduced.
  • 44. Chewing and Lapping Type • (e.g. Honey bee) • This type of mouthparts are possessed by Honey bee wherein, the Labrum & Mandibles remain more or less similar as that of the Generalized type, whereas the other components viz. (Maxillae & Labium) are greatly modified. • Labrum; It is narrow and quite simple. Mandibles: They are blunt dumble shaped and are not toothed. • They are not used for feeding but are useful for moulding wax into cells for comb (next) building.
  • 45.  Libium: The glossae are greatly elongated to form a hairy, flexible tongue. The glossa terminates into a small circular spoon shaped lobe called flabellum, which is useful to lick the nectar. Labial palms are elongate and four segmented.  Maxillolabial Structures: Maxillobial Structures are modified to form the lapping tongue. The tongue unit consists of the two galeae of maxillae, two labial Palpi and elongated flexible hairy glossa of labium.
  • 46.  Feeding Mechanism: The galeae fit tightly lengthwise, against the elongated labial palps and they in turn roof over the elongated glossae (tongue) to form a temporary food channel through which saliva is discharged. The tongue (glossae) is trusted into flower, which gets smeared with nectar. It is then retracted between labial palps & galeae. Nectar is then squeezed by galeae and is deposited in the cavity formed by the paraglossae. Accumulated nectar is then drawn into oesophagus by the pharyngeal pump.
  • 48. Chelicerate mouthparts It means the ‘claw-bearers’, in reference to the claw- or fang-shaped mouthparts that characterize the group. chelicerates are defined by their jaws. Whereas most modern arthropods have chewing mouthparts called mandibles, the jaws of chelicerates — the chelicerae, which give the group its name — are usually shaped like claws or pincers and are mostly used for grasping and tearing up prey Most chelicerates are predators, and most catch live prey which is then chewed or dismembered using the chelicerae.
  • 49.  The aquatic horseshoe crabs and eurypterids haverows of teeth on the inner sides of their leg coxae (the segment where the leg joins the body), and these ‘gnathobases’ chew up the food before it is passed to the mouth.  This style of feeding is only practical in water; arachnids tend instead to regurgitate enzymes onto their food and begin the digestion process in front of the mouth, sometimes in a special ‘preoral cavity’.
  • 50.  Numerous groups of mites have given up on being predators, and as a group they show the greatest diversity of habitats and feeding strategies: they include blood-sucking parasites and feeders on plant sap or decaying material. Sea spiders uniquely have a proboscis and either prey on sedentary animals, sucking up their body fluids, or — in some cases — actively hunt moving prey.
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54.  In carnivorous chewing insects, the mandibles can be modified to be more knife-like, whereas in herbivorous chewing insects, they are more typically broad and flat on their opposing faces (e.g., caterpillars).  In male stag beetles, the mandibles are modified to such an extent that they do not serve any feeding function, but are instead used to defend mating sites from other males.
  • 56.  In ants, the mandibles also serve a defensive function (particularly in soldier castes)
  • 58.  In bull ants, the mandibles are elongate and toothed, used as hunting (and defensive) appendages.
  • 59.  In bees, which feed primarily by use of a proboscis, the primary use of the mandibles is to manipulate and shape wax, and many wasps have mandibles adapted to scraping and ingesting wood fibres.
  • 60.  Potter wasps use their mandibles to mix droplets of water with clay while constructing a nest.
  • 61.  The defining feature of the order Hemiptera is the possession of mouthparts where the mandibles and maxillae are modified into a proboscis, sheathed within a modified labium, which is capable of piercing tissues and sucking out the liquids. For example, true bugs, such as shield bugs, feed on the fluids of plants. Predatory bugs such as assassin bugs have the same mouthparts, but they are used to pierce the cuticles of captured prey.
  • 63.  Myriapod mouthparts are similar to those of chewing insects, although there is some variation between the myriapod classes. A labrum is present but sometimes is not obvious and forms an upper lip, often in association with an epistome. The labium is formed by first maxillae in diplopoda forming the gnathochilarium. The preoral cavity so- formed contains paired mandibles and any maxillae which are present.
  • 65.  Forcipules  Centipedes, in addition to their mouthparts, possess a pair of "poison claws", or forcipules. These, like the maxillipeds of crustaceans, are modified legs and not true mouthparts. The forcipules arise from the first body segment, curving forward and to the midline. The tip is a pointed , which has an opening from a venom gland. The forcipules are used to capture and poison prey.
  • 66. Ventral view of forcipules of a centipede, arising from the first body segment
  • 67.  Crustaceans comprise a number of classes, with various feeding modes supported by a range of adaptations to the mouthparts. In general, however, crustaceans possess paired mandibles with opposing biting and grinding surfaces. The mandibles are followed by paired first and second maxillae. Both the mandibles and the maxillae have been variously modified in different crustacean groups for filter feeding with the use of setae.
  • 68.
  • 69. Insects provide an astonishing variety of unusual structures from feathery antennae to mouth parts that look like they belong to some creature. Here we have the elaborate mouth parts of a blowfly