Materi BIOLOGI SMA Kelas X
Dibuat oleh Drs. Arif Priadi, M.Ed
SK/KD INDIKATOR MATERI EVALUASI KELUAR
SK DAN KD
• STANDAR KOMPETENSI
Memahami manfaat keanekaragaman hayati
• KOMPETENSI DASAR
Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri filum dalam dunia Hewan
dan peranannya bagi kehidupan
• Mengenal ciri-ciri umum Arthropoda.
• Mengidentifikasi karakteristik berbagai kelas
anggota filum arthropoda.
• Menyajikan data (gambar, foto, deskripsi)
berbagai arthropoda yang hidup di
lingkungan sekitarnya berdasarkan
CIRI UMUM ARTHROPODA
•Tubuh beruas-ruas (antar ruas lunak utk pergerakan)
•Eksoskeleton ( zat khitin)
•Tubuh : kepala, dada, perut/ cephalothorax, perut/ kepala, perut
•Sistem digestivus lengkap
•Respirasi: insang/ trachea/ paru-paru buku
•Transportasi: terbuka (darah biru, jantung di dorsal)
•Sistem syaraf: tangga tali (otak, tali syaraf kanan kiri, ganglion)
•Hidup bebas atau parasit
•Klassifikasi: Crustacea, Myriapoda, Insecta/Hexapoda,
Generalized Anatomy of a Crustacean
Crustacean anatomy is characterized by an external skeleton and a segmented body.
In different crustacean species these segments and the accompanying limbs have
evolved into specialized appendages for respiration, swimming, crawling, and
feeding. The extended inner cavity contains the digestive and nervous systems .
The hard shell, or exeskeleton of the Shore Crab does not grow
Instead, a soft shell grows inside the crab. Eventually, the crab grows too big and it has to shed its old hard shell. This
process is called 'moulting' and it is a very dangerous time for the crab. The new shell is larger than the old one, but it is soft
and takes time to harden.
While it remains soft, the crab tries to stay hidden so that it is not attacked by hungry fish and other animals. During the
moult, the crab can grow back a lost claw, but it will be smaller than the one that was broken off.
The old discarded shell looks like a dead crab, but if you look closely you will find there are holes where the eyes should be.
It is hollow inside and it will sometimes float to the surface where it may be washed ashore.
1. Premoult (Peeler) stage;
A new soft exoskeleton forms underneath the old outer shell, and the calcium is resorbed into the blood from the old skeleton.
The old exoskeleton splits open and the crab withdraws and begins to rapidly absorb water. Prawns 'jacknife' out of their skeleton
leaving a spectre of their former selves.
3. Postmoult (Soft-back) stage:
The crab hides away until the new skeleton hardens. In large crab species, feeding stops for several days.
This is the intervening stage. However, it should be noted that changes are constantly in progress, the carapace becomes rigid
first, before the legs, and tissue growth continues internally.
The centipede is distinguished by a segmented body, with each segment bearing a
single pair of legs. The antennae and modified front pair of legs are also segmented.
Centipedes are carnivorous, using the modified legs, strong mandibles, and a poison
gland to capture and kill their prey.
The millipede is a segmented arthropod found in damp, moist habitats worldwide. The body of the
millipede may have from 9 to over 100 individual segments, each of which bears a pair of legs. Millipedes
feed on decaying vegetation and are generally harmless. When threatened or handled, they curl up in a
tight ball. For defense against insect predators, millipedes rely on their stink glands, which secrete a
noxious chemical substance that repels predators.
Generalized Anatomy of an Arachnid
This illustration shows a generalized anatomy of arachnids, the group that includes scorpions, ticks, mites,
and spiders. Anatomical features such as the pedipalps and chelicerae modify for different uses in various
arachnid species. While arachnids are sometimes mistakenly grouped with insects, the two groups differ in
at least two key anatomical features. Arachnids do not possess antennae, whereas insects do; and
arachnids have four pairs of walking legs, rather than the three pairs possessed by insects. Among
arachnids, only spiders have the spinneret appendage, used for spinning silk.
Anatomy of a Grasshopper
This illustration of a grasshopper depicts the tiny circular openings called spiracles through
which most insects obtain oxygen. From the spiracles, tubes called tracheae reach deep within
the body to supply oxygen to every cell
Anatomy of an Insect
This jewel beetle has been dissected to show the various components of its anatomy. The head,
or front segment, contains the mouth, eyes, and antennae. The first segment of the thorax,
located just behind the head, bears the first pair of legs. The large posterior section of the body,
including the second and third segments of the thorax and the abdomen, contains the
remainder of the walking legs and all the vital body organs. The wings lack muscles and are
manipulated by muscles located inside the abdomen. The outer surface of the body, called the
exoskeleton, is protected by a hard chitinous material.Dorling Kindersley
Butterfly and Moth Anatomy
Some of the anatomical features of butterflies and moths are shown in this
illustration. Like all insects, they have a body with three main parts —head, thorax,
and abdomen—and have three pairs of jointed legs on the thorax. Butterflies and
moths are also characterized by their two pairs of large, scale-covered wings and by
mouthparts that form a long proboscis for sipping nectar.
External Anatomy of a Fly
Like other insects, the fly has three distinct body regions: the head, the thorax, and
the abdomen. The head bears the eyes, a pair of antennae, and the mouthparts.
Legs and wings attach to the thorax. The segmented abdomen contains the tiny
openings through which the fly breathes. The last few segments of the abdomen are
modified for mating and egg laying
Generalized Anatomy of an Insect
All adult insects have three main body parts—the head, which holds an insect’s primary sense
organs; the thorax, which is the attachment site for the legs and wings; and the abdomen, which
contains the organs for digestion and reproduction. All of the insect’s soft inner body parts are
protected by an external skeleton, or exoskeleton, made of semirigid plates and tubes.
Compound Eyes of a Fly
The head of the common house fly is dominated by a pair of large compound eyes containing
approximately 4,000 image-forming elements called ommatidia. Each cone-shaped ommatidium
consists of a lens, a crystalline rod, and a collection of light-sensitive cells.Oxford Scientific
Films/Kjell B. Sandved
Antennae of an Atlas Moth
The featherlike antennae of this atlas moth make it extremely sensitive to scents. Male atlas
moths can detect odor-carrying molecules called pheromones released by females at a distance
of many kilometers away.
Aphids are small, plant-sucking insects harmful to many commercially important
plants. Although humans consider them pests, aphids are important to a number of
species of ants. For example, honeydew ants keep herds of aphids and periodically
“milk” them for their honeydew by stroking the aphids gently with their antennae.
Ants will aggressively protect their aphids and may even move them when they are
in danger, transferring them into temporary shelters or new nests. Some ant species
also move their aphids into underground shelters or burrows during the winter
Aphids on a Cabbage Plant
Aphids are small insects found throughout temperate regions of the world. They
parasitize a variety of wild and commercially important plants by sucking out plant
fluids. Because aphids exude a sweet, sticky fluid that can be used by certain
species of ants, herds of aphids are often found guarded and tended by ants.
This order contains at least 100,000
species in two suborders; Symphyta
(wood wasps and sawflies), and
Apocrita (wasps, bees and ants)
The hymenopteran life cycle involves
metamorphosis of egg-larva-pupa-adult.
The honey bee provides the honey and
bee's wax of commerce which is worth
millions of dollars annually. Of even
greater value is the pollination of crops:
fruits, seeds, timber, etc
The dragonfly is commonly seen around ponds, lakes, swamps, and marshes. It has large compound
eyes and two pairs of large wings. The dragonfly captures flies, gnats, mosquitoes, and other small
insects with its basketlike legs as it flies above the water surface. All dragonflies have an aquatic
larval form that may spend up to two years or more on the bottoms of ponds, lakes, and streams
feeding on small fish, tadpoles, and other aquatic insects and their larvae.
Camponotus chromaiodes Pseudomyrmex apache
Eciton hamatum, Army Ant
They are most active at night, feeding as herbivores or
scavengers on algae, mosses, lichens, or decaying organic
Sexual maturity is reached after at least eight juvenile instars spanning up to two years. Molting
continues periodically even after adulthood. The sexes are separate, but copulation does not
occur. Males produce a packet of sperm (spermatophore) and leave it on the ground to be picked
up by a female. Females cannot store sperm (they lack a spermatheca), and evidently acquire a
new spermatophore before each bout of egg laying. Eggs are laid singly or in small groups (<30).
Some species have elaborate courtship rituals to insure that females are able to locate a
Some bristletails can jump up to 10 cm (4 inches) by snapping their abdomen against the ground.
Jawablah pertanyaan berikut dengan tepat
1. sebutkan minimal 3 ciri umum arthropoda
2. Jelaskan perbedaan yang ada pada masing-masing kelas anggota
arthropoda dalam hal:
a. pembagian tubuh
b. jumlah alat gerak dan letaknya pada tubuh
c. alat pernafasan
3. Sebutkan kelima kelas yang ada pada arthropoda beserta contoh
speciesnya masing-masing minimal 2
4. Sebutkan masing-masing 3 contoh arthropoda yang
menguntungkan dan merugikan.