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  1. 1. ARTHROPODA Materi BIOLOGI SMA Kelas X Semester Gasal Dibuat oleh Drs. Arif Priadi, M.Ed SK/KD INDIKATOR MATERI EVALUASI KELUAR
  2. 2. SK DAN KD • STANDAR KOMPETENSI Memahami manfaat keanekaragaman hayati • KOMPETENSI DASAR Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri filum dalam dunia Hewan dan peranannya bagi kehidupan
  3. 3. INDIKATOR • Mengenal ciri-ciri umum Arthropoda. • Mengidentifikasi karakteristik berbagai kelas anggota filum arthropoda. • Menyajikan data (gambar, foto, deskripsi) berbagai arthropoda yang hidup di lingkungan sekitarnya berdasarkan pengamatan.
  5. 5. CIRI UMUM ARTHROPODA •Tubuh beruas-ruas (antar ruas lunak utk pergerakan) •Eksoskeleton ( zat khitin) •Tubuh : kepala, dada, perut/ cephalothorax, perut/ kepala, perut •Sistem digestivus lengkap •Respirasi: insang/ trachea/ paru-paru buku •Transportasi: terbuka (darah biru, jantung di dorsal) •Sistem syaraf: tangga tali (otak, tali syaraf kanan kiri, ganglion) •Gonokhoris •Hidup bebas atau parasit •Klassifikasi: Crustacea, Myriapoda, Insecta/Hexapoda, Arachnoidea
  6. 6. Generalized Anatomy of a Crustacean Crustacean anatomy is characterized by an external skeleton and a segmented body. In different crustacean species these segments and the accompanying limbs have evolved into specialized appendages for respiration, swimming, crawling, and feeding. The extended inner cavity contains the digestive and nervous systems .
  7. 7. Astacopsis mollucensis
  8. 8. Astacopsis madagascar
  9. 9. Astacopsis desmaresti (jantan)
  10. 10. Astacopsis desmaresti (betina)
  11. 11. Astacoides madagascare
  12. 12. Astacus astacus
  13. 13. Atya gabonensis
  14. 14. Udang karang/ lobster
  15. 15. Xantho xantho
  16. 16. Daphnia
  17. 17. Necora puber.
  18. 18. Carcinus maenas
  19. 19. Moulting/Ecdysis The hard shell, or exeskeleton of the Shore Crab does not grow Instead, a soft shell grows inside the crab. Eventually, the crab grows too big and it has to shed its old hard shell. This process is called 'moulting' and it is a very dangerous time for the crab. The new shell is larger than the old one, but it is soft and takes time to harden. While it remains soft, the crab tries to stay hidden so that it is not attacked by hungry fish and other animals. During the moult, the crab can grow back a lost claw, but it will be smaller than the one that was broken off. The old discarded shell looks like a dead crab, but if you look closely you will find there are holes where the eyes should be. It is hollow inside and it will sometimes float to the surface where it may be washed ashore. 1. Premoult (Peeler) stage; A new soft exoskeleton forms underneath the old outer shell, and the calcium is resorbed into the blood from the old skeleton. 2. Ecdysis: The old exoskeleton splits open and the crab withdraws and begins to rapidly absorb water. Prawns 'jacknife' out of their skeleton leaving a spectre of their former selves. 3. Postmoult (Soft-back) stage: The crab hides away until the new skeleton hardens. In large crab species, feeding stops for several days. 4. Intermoult This is the intervening stage. However, it should be noted that changes are constantly in progress, the carapace becomes rigid first, before the legs, and tissue growth continues internally.
  20. 20. Pagurus bernhardus
  21. 21. Glaucus
  22. 22. Udang galah Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
  23. 23. Udang harimau
  24. 24. Udang minyak
  25. 25. Udang puteh
  26. 26. Udang solo
  27. 27. Centipede The centipede is distinguished by a segmented body, with each segment bearing a single pair of legs. The antennae and modified front pair of legs are also segmented. Centipedes are carnivorous, using the modified legs, strong mandibles, and a poison gland to capture and kill their prey.
  28. 28. Millipede The millipede is a segmented arthropod found in damp, moist habitats worldwide. The body of the millipede may have from 9 to over 100 individual segments, each of which bears a pair of legs. Millipedes feed on decaying vegetation and are generally harmless. When threatened or handled, they curl up in a tight ball. For defense against insect predators, millipedes rely on their stink glands, which secrete a noxious chemical substance that repels predators. .
  29. 29. Generalized Anatomy of an Arachnid This illustration shows a generalized anatomy of arachnids, the group that includes scorpions, ticks, mites, and spiders. Anatomical features such as the pedipalps and chelicerae modify for different uses in various arachnid species. While arachnids are sometimes mistakenly grouped with insects, the two groups differ in at least two key anatomical features. Arachnids do not possess antennae, whereas insects do; and arachnids have four pairs of walking legs, rather than the three pairs possessed by insects. Among arachnids, only spiders have the spinneret appendage, used for spinning silk.
  30. 30. Florida Argiope (Argiope florida)
  31. 31. Daddy Longlegs (Leiobunum sp.)
  32. 32. Spider.wmv
  33. 33. Anatomy of a Grasshopper This illustration of a grasshopper depicts the tiny circular openings called spiracles through which most insects obtain oxygen. From the spiracles, tubes called tracheae reach deep within the body to supply oxygen to every cell
  34. 34. Anatomy of an Insect This jewel beetle has been dissected to show the various components of its anatomy. The head, or front segment, contains the mouth, eyes, and antennae. The first segment of the thorax, located just behind the head, bears the first pair of legs. The large posterior section of the body, including the second and third segments of the thorax and the abdomen, contains the remainder of the walking legs and all the vital body organs. The wings lack muscles and are manipulated by muscles located inside the abdomen. The outer surface of the body, called the exoskeleton, is protected by a hard chitinous material.Dorling Kindersley
  35. 35. Butterfly and Moth Anatomy Some of the anatomical features of butterflies and moths are shown in this illustration. Like all insects, they have a body with three main parts —head, thorax, and abdomen—and have three pairs of jointed legs on the thorax. Butterflies and moths are also characterized by their two pairs of large, scale-covered wings and by mouthparts that form a long proboscis for sipping nectar.
  36. 36. External Anatomy of a Fly Like other insects, the fly has three distinct body regions: the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. The head bears the eyes, a pair of antennae, and the mouthparts. Legs and wings attach to the thorax. The segmented abdomen contains the tiny openings through which the fly breathes. The last few segments of the abdomen are modified for mating and egg laying
  37. 37. Generalized Anatomy of an Insect All adult insects have three main body parts—the head, which holds an insect’s primary sense organs; the thorax, which is the attachment site for the legs and wings; and the abdomen, which contains the organs for digestion and reproduction. All of the insect’s soft inner body parts are protected by an external skeleton, or exoskeleton, made of semirigid plates and tubes.
  38. 38. Compound Eye The eyes of insects and many other arthropods are compound, each composed of up to several thousand individual visual organs called ommatidia. The surface of each ommatidium is a hexagonal lens, below which is a second, conical lens. Light entering the ommatidium is focused by these lenses down a central structure called the rhabdom, where an inverted image forms on light- sensitive retinular cells. Pigment cells surrounding the rhabdom keep light from other ommatidia from entering. Optic nerve fibers transmit information from each rhabdom separately to the brain, where it is combined to form a single image of the outside world.© Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
  39. 39. Compound Eyes of a Fly The head of the common house fly is dominated by a pair of large compound eyes containing approximately 4,000 image-forming elements called ommatidia. Each cone-shaped ommatidium consists of a lens, a crystalline rod, and a collection of light-sensitive cells.Oxford Scientific Films/Kjell B. Sandved
  40. 40. Antennae of an Atlas Moth The featherlike antennae of this atlas moth make it extremely sensitive to scents. Male atlas moths can detect odor-carrying molecules called pheromones released by females at a distance of many kilometers away.
  41. 41. Aphids Aphids are small, plant-sucking insects harmful to many commercially important plants. Although humans consider them pests, aphids are important to a number of species of ants. For example, honeydew ants keep herds of aphids and periodically “milk” them for their honeydew by stroking the aphids gently with their antennae. Ants will aggressively protect their aphids and may even move them when they are in danger, transferring them into temporary shelters or new nests. Some ant species also move their aphids into underground shelters or burrows during the winter months.
  42. 42. Aphids on a Cabbage Plant Aphids are small insects found throughout temperate regions of the world. They parasitize a variety of wild and commercially important plants by sucking out plant fluids. Because aphids exude a sweet, sticky fluid that can be used by certain species of ants, herds of aphids are often found guarded and tended by ants.
  43. 43. Tiger Beetle (Cicindela duodecimguttata)
  44. 44. Hymenoptera This order contains at least 100,000 species in two suborders; Symphyta (wood wasps and sawflies), and Apocrita (wasps, bees and ants) The hymenopteran life cycle involves metamorphosis of egg-larva-pupa-adult. The honey bee provides the honey and bee's wax of commerce which is worth millions of dollars annually. Of even greater value is the pollination of crops: fruits, seeds, timber, etc
  45. 45. Dragonfly The dragonfly is commonly seen around ponds, lakes, swamps, and marshes. It has large compound eyes and two pairs of large wings. The dragonfly captures flies, gnats, mosquitoes, and other small insects with its basketlike legs as it flies above the water surface. All dragonflies have an aquatic larval form that may spend up to two years or more on the bottoms of ponds, lakes, and streams feeding on small fish, tadpoles, and other aquatic insects and their larvae.
  46. 46. Camponotus chromaiodes Pseudomyrmex apache Eciton hamatum, Army Ant worker Formicidae
  47. 47. Acanaloniid planthoppers Homoptera
  48. 48. Alleculidae Coleoptera
  49. 49. Blatella Orthoptera
  50. 50. Apterygota They are most active at night, feeding as herbivores or scavengers on algae, mosses, lichens, or decaying organic matter Sexual maturity is reached after at least eight juvenile instars spanning up to two years. Molting continues periodically even after adulthood. The sexes are separate, but copulation does not occur. Males produce a packet of sperm (spermatophore) and leave it on the ground to be picked up by a female. Females cannot store sperm (they lack a spermatheca), and evidently acquire a new spermatophore before each bout of egg laying. Eggs are laid singly or in small groups (<30). Some species have elaborate courtship rituals to insure that females are able to locate a spermatophore. Some bristletails can jump up to 10 cm (4 inches) by snapping their abdomen against the ground.
  51. 51. Autochton cellus
  52. 52. Nymphalis antiopa
  53. 53. Agraulis vanillae
  54. 54. Hemiargus ceraunus
  55. 55. Battus philenor
  56. 56. EVALUASI Jawablah pertanyaan berikut dengan tepat 1. sebutkan minimal 3 ciri umum arthropoda 2. Jelaskan perbedaan yang ada pada masing-masing kelas anggota arthropoda dalam hal: a. pembagian tubuh b. jumlah alat gerak dan letaknya pada tubuh c. alat pernafasan 3. Sebutkan kelima kelas yang ada pada arthropoda beserta contoh speciesnya masing-masing minimal 2 4. Sebutkan masing-masing 3 contoh arthropoda yang menguntungkan dan merugikan.