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Reuters Institute
Digital News Report 2021
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
You are welcome to use the data and slides in this report for any
purpose (commercial or non-commercial) in return for simple
attribution under a Creative Commons license
Please cite as: Newman, Nic, Richard Fletcher, Anne Schulz, Simge Andı, Craig T. Robertson, Rasmus Kleis
Nielsen. 2021. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2020. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.
92,000
respondents
46 Markets
1
2
4
5
3
Continents
6
Including India, Indonesia, Thailand, Nigeria,
Colombia and Peru for the first time
Now representing half the world’s population
6
Online poll conducted between January to early February 2021
Market Sample Size Population
Internet
Penetration
Europe
UK 2,039 67m 95%
Austria 2,000 9.0m 88%
Belgium 2,008 11.6m 94%
Bulgaria 2,018 7.0m 67%
Croatia 2,008 4.1m 92%
Czech Republic 2,007 10.6m 88%
Denmark 2,005 5.8m 98%
Finland 2,009 5.6m 94%
France 2,012 65m 92%
Germany 2,011 82m 96%
Greece 2,017 11.1m 73%
Hungary 2,032 9.7m 89%
Ireland 2,031 4.8m 92%
Italy 2,010 59m 93%
Netherlands 2,006 17m 96%
Norway 2,010 5.4m 98%
Market Sample Size Population
Internet
Penetration
Poland 2,009 38m 78%
Portugal 2,101 10.2m 78%
Romania 2,010 19m 74%
Slovakia 2,024 5.5m 85%
Spain 2,019 46m 93%
Sweden 2,005 10.1m 96%
Switzerland 2,000 8.6m 94%
Turkey 2,022 83m 83%
Americas
USA 2,001 327m 96%
Argentina 2,007 45m 93%
Brazil 2,009 211m 71%
Canada 2,036 37m 90%
Chile 2,009 18m 78%
Colombia 2,046 49m 63%
Mexico 2,036 131m 65%
Peru 2,010 33m 68%
Market Sample Size Population
Internet
Penetration
Asia Pacific
Australia 2,034 26m 84%
Hong Kong 1,501 7.6m 89%
India 2,049 1393m 54%
Indonesia 2,007 276m 71%
Japan 2,004 126m 95%
Malaysia 2,019 33m 89%
Philippines 2,029 111m 78%
Singapore 2,034 5.9m 88%
South Korea 2,006 51m 96%
Taiwan 2,042 24m 92%
Thailand 2,015 70m 82%
Africa
Kenya 2,005 55m 85%
Nigeria 2,051 211m 73%
South Africa 2,009 60m 58%
Polling by Supported by
3
Lockdown impact
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
1 2 3 4 5 6
Coronavirus
% using TV news weekly, 2016-21:
5
2021
2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Germany 69%
Ireland 68%
France 68%
Denmark 67%
Spain 64%
Norway 63%
UK 60%
TV news retains viewers as the crisis continues
79%
78%
73%
70%
72%
74%
Q3. Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news? Base: Total 2016–21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000).
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
1 2 3 4 5 6
Coronavirus
% using print weekly, 2016-21:
2021
2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Switzerland 37%
Portugal 27%
Germany 26%
Poland 17%
Brazil 12%
63%
47%
32%
38%
40%
Accelerated decline for print
Q3. Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news? Base: Total 2016–21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000).
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
+10pp
+0pp
-5pp
+5pp
% of that trust 2021
Trusted brands still doing better online a year on…
Change in online reach, 2020-21:
SRF [Switzerland]
VG [Nor]
Irish Times [IRL]
Yle [Fin]
Observador [PRT]
Higher trust:
often public
broadcasters
or commercial
brands with
long history of
accurate news
Lower trust:
often popular
brands or those
with partisan
reputation
Overall trust in news is up– reversing recent declines
8
Proportion that trusts most news most of the time is up six percentage points while trust in distributed
environments stays at similar levels to last year
Q6_1/2/3/4. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements: I think you can trust the news/news I use/news in social media/news in search most
of the time. Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
9
Proportion that trusts the news by country/region
Q6_1/2/3/4. Please indicate your level of agreement with the
following statement I think you can trust the news/most of the
time. Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
Misinformation
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
More people say they have seen misinformation
about COVID-19 than about politics
Much higher levels in Africa and Latin America than in Europe:
54%
say they have seen
misinformation about
COVID-19
29%
say they have seen
misinformation about
celebrities
20%
say they have seen
misinformation about
climate change
43%
say they have seen
misinformation about
politics
Politicians are seen as a big part of the problem
Higher in countries where COVID-19 has become highly politicised such as Brazil
% that find each most concerning – all markets:
29%
Most concerned
about behaviour
of politicians
15%
Most concerned
about behaviour
of activists
11%
Most concerned
about behaviour
of journalists
9%
Most concerned
about behaviour of
foreign governments
16%
Most concerned
about behaviour
of ordinary people
41% in Brazil, but just 19% in Germany and 10% in Norway
False & misleading misinformation
is spreading through different platforms
Can be harder to spot and debunk in messaging apps like WhatsApp
% that find each most concerning – selected markets:
13
Q_FAKE_NEWS_2021c. Thinking specifically about coronavirus (COVID-19) and its effects, which of the following, if any, are you most concerned about
online? False or misleading information via…
Base: Total sample in all markets = 93,372
Paying for news
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
🇳🇴
🇸🇪
🇫🇮
🇩🇰
Proportion paying for any online news in the last year
subscription, membership, donation or one-off for an article or e-edition
15
XX
28%
Average in Nordic
countries pay (+2)
21%
USA
was 9% in 2016
17%
Netherlands
(+3)
NORWAY
45% (+3)
SWEDEN
30% (+3)
FINLAND
20%
DENMARK
16%
BUT LITTLE PROGRESS ELSEWHERE
🇫🇷 France 11%, 🇩🇪 Germany 9%, 🇬🇧 UK 8%
Q7a. Have you paid for ONLINE news content, or accessed a paid for ONLINE news service in the last year ? (This could be a digital subscription,
combined digital/print subscription or one off payment for an article or app or e-edition) Base: Total sample in each market
1 2 3 4 5 6
Growth of online payment over time (2016-21)
Most success in a handful of richer countries
16
XX
2021
2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Norway 45%
Sweden 30%
United States 21%
France 11%
UK 8%
Netherlands 17%
Coronavirus bumps
in some countries
More/tighter
paywalls
27%
20%
9%
12%
11%
7%
Trump bump
Swedish Elections
Q7a. Have you paid for ONLINE news content, or accessed a paid for ONLINE news service in the last year? (This could be a digital subscription, combined digital/print subscription or one-off
payment for an article or app or e-edition). Base: Total 2016-21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000). Note: 20 market average includes USA, UK Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland,
Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Canada, Australia, Japan, Poland.
31%
24%
7%
New York
Times
Washington
Post
Wall Street
Journal
Quality national titles still benefitting most…
20%
19%
16%
The Telegraph
The Times
The Guardian
United States Norway
19%
16%
13%
VG (Verdens
Gang)
Aftenposten
Dagbladet
23%
Local, regional, and
city
papers/websites
57%
Local, regional, and
city papers/websites
3%
Local, regional, and
city
papers/websites
45% of
subscribers
United Kingdom
52% of
subscribers
41% of
subscribers
Winner takes most dynamics persisting but local subscription is important in some countries
Q7_subs_name. You said you have paid a subscription/membership to one or more digital news services in the last year… Please enter the name of the news
subscription you value most, followed by your supplementary subscriptions? Base: All that paid for a subscription/membership to a digital news service in the last
year: Norway = 656; USA = 336; UK = 125.
Quality national titles still benefitting most…
18
XX
Example of national titles
Median number
of subscriptions
Ave age subscriber
(ongoing payment)
% of subscribers
paying for local titles
Australia Sydney Morning Herald, Herald Sun 1 50-55 30%
Austria Kronen Zeitung, Der Standard 1 45-50 13%
Canada Globe & Mail, Toronto Star 1 50-55 9%
Denmark Berlingske, Politiken 1 55-60 25%
France Le Monde, Mediapart 1 45-50 15%
Finland Helsingin Sanomat, Aamulehti 1 45-50 31%
Germany Bild, Der Spiegel 1 45-50 31%
Ireland Irish Times, Irish Independent 1 40-45 1%
Italy Corriere della Serra, La Repubblica 1 50-55 14%
Netherlands De Telegraaf, AD, Volkskrant 1 45-50 16%
Norway VG, Aftenposten, Dagbladet 1 50-55 57%
Sweden Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter 1 50-55 37%
Spain El Pais, El Mundo, elDiario.es 1 40-45 15%
United States New York Times, Washington Post 2 50-55 23%
United Kingdom Times, Telegraph, Guardian 1 50-55 3%
Why are people taking out more than one subscription?
19
VALUES
BASED
“I believe strongly and
profoundly in the value of fact-
based, investigative journalism.
If I want to live in a free and
democratic society, I believe
it is my duty as a citizen to
support a free, independent,
and fact-based press and
media”
Subscribes to nine publications
including New York Times,
W Post, Indy Star, Economist,
Wall Street Journal, ProPublica,
NY review of Books, New
Yorker and Guardian (R-W)
M, 54, USA
SPECIAL
OFFERS
“I got an offer for
Aftonbladet + for SEK 1 –
I took it (on top of local paper)
F, 45 Sweden
DIFFERENT
PERSPECTIVES
“Each provides a different
perspective about different
topics and fills different needs.
They tend to provide accurate
or alternative viewpoints”
Wall Street Journal, The
Athletic (Sport), National
Review (conservative opinion
magazine/website)
M, 52, USA
BREADTH
AND DEPTH
“Apple News+ provides the
greatest breadth of information.
New York Times and
Washington Post offer the
most in-depth information”
M, 62, USA
How fair is the news?
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
-37
-59
-1
-25
31
-4
16
-2
24
17
-8
-12
Perceptions of fairness by politics
Those on the political right feel the news media is unfair to them. In Spain and the UK criticism of the
media also comes from the left.
Spain
UK
USA
Germany
Left Centre Right
0
-60 40 60
20
-40 -20
Net: Fair
Net: Unfair
Q1F. Some people talk about ‘left’, ‘right’, and ‘centre’ to
describe parties and politicians. With this in mind, where
would you place yourself on the following scale?
Div2_2021_1. Thinking about the news in general in your
country, do you think that news organisations in your
country cover each of the following fairly or unfairly? Base:
Left/Centre/Right: Germany = 265/1443/125, USA =
429/809/446, UK = 358/1010/254, Spain = 530/916/214.
-20
8
-18
6
9
22
29
35
Perceptions of fairness amongst the young
Young people in general and young women in particular are most likely to feel media coverage is
unfair
18-24s:
Germany
USA
UK
Spain
Male Female
0
-60 40 60
20
-40 -20
Net: Fair
Net: Unfair
Div2_2021_3. Thinking about the news in general
in your country, do you think that news
organisations in your country cover each of the
following fairly or unfairly? Base: Male/Female:
Germany = 101/93, USA = 114/101, UK = 88/117,
Spain = 65/87.
Perceptions of fairness by region
23
USA By race/ethnicity
Impartiality
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
Across all countries, audiences still want a range of views
25
XX
12%
15%
74%
Don't know
News outlets should argue for the views
that they think are the best
News outlets should reflect a range of
different views and leave it up to people
to decide With subjects like politics and
COVID-19 – it is really important
to remain neutral and allow the
reader or listener or the watcher
to make their decisions on their
own about how they feel
about something”
F, 21, UK focus group
“
Still a strong commitment to ideal of impartial and objective news
Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view?
Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
10%
24%
66%
Don't know
There are some issues where it
makes no sense for news
outlets to try to be neutral
News outlets should try to be
neutral on every issue
But there are some issues where it is hard to be neutral
26
“
“
U35 35+
31% 22%
It’s OK to lean to another side
on [a subject] like domestic
abuse and [for a journalist]
to express an opinion on that”
F, UK focus group
Younger groups are more likely to want news organisations to take a stand on some issues
Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view?
Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
Left-leaning people are more likely to say neutrality
sometimes doesn't make sense
27
“
Those on the right are more strongly wedded to neutrality
Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view?
Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
11%
17%
72%
Don't know
News outlets should give less
time to sides they think have a
weaker argument
News outlets should give equal
time to all sides
Commitment to equal time to all sides of an argument
28
XX
“ These [anti-vaccination] opinions
exist, so we have to see them …
Do not just sweep it under the
table and then suddenly be
surprised that something exists”
F, Germany focus group
Public has a strong preference to allow all views to be heard but those on the left (and young)
more likely to want to close down some debates
LEFT RIGHT
22% 15%
Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/3_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view?
Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
Gateways and
social media
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
25%
26%
25%
9% 8%
5%
8%
(+1)
7%
(+1) 5% (-)
18%
34%
26%
8%
9%
3%
How do people prefer to access news online?
Each year, more say they people prefer to access news via search or social
media
30
Direct Social Media Search Mobile Alerts Aggregators Email
80% (+1)
side-door
access
73% (+2)
side-door
access
Direct Social Media Search Mobile Alerts Aggregators Email
Under 35s – all countries
All ages – all countries
Q10a. Which of these was the **MAIN** way in which you came across news in the last week?
Base: All/U35s that came across news online last week in all markets: 85,831/26,985.
Facebook becoming less important for news, visual
networks like Instagram (and TikTok) on the rise
% use each social network for news
weekly (2014-21)
31
XX
2021
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
36%
16%
9%
7%
2% 2%
1%
1%
36%
20%
17%
11%
8%
2%
3%
Q12B. Which, if any, of the following have you used for news in the last week? Base: Total 2014-21 sample in selected markets (most n ≈ 2000). Note: From
2015–21 the 12 countries included are UK, USA, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Australia, and Brazil. In 2014, we did not poll
in Australia or Ireland.
Profile of Tik Tok users…
Younger, tend to be in global south
32
How people use different social
networks for news
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
25%
16%
13%
11% 11%
13%
17% 16%
11%
10%
13%
9%
20%
11% 12% 12% 12%
16%
10%
21%
23%
30%
35%
16%
11%
13%
12%
11% 11%
9%
14%
17%
23%
18%
15%
32%
34
Q12_Social_motivations. You said that you use [social network] for news… What is the MAIN reason that you use [social network] for news?
Base: All that use Twitter/Facebook/YouTube/Instagram/Snapchat/TikTok for news in all markets: 6,338/28,762/15,663/6,570/924/1,500.
Latest News
Entertainment
Other reasons
Latest News
Entertainment
Other reasons
Latest News
Entertainment
Other reasons
Latest News
Entertainment
Other reasons
Latest News
Entertainment
Other reasons
Latest News
Entertainment
Other reasons
Twitter Facebook
YouTube Instagram Snapchat TikTok
Good place to get the very latest news Enjoy the debate and comments Gives me news that is personally important to me
Perspectives not available in mainstream media Fun and entertaining way to pass the time I mostly see news while I’m there for other reasons
Motivations around news are very different across networks
Main motivation for each network when it comes to news
31%
28%
25%
21%
17%
14%
11%
14%
16%
14% 13% 14%
18%
10%
12%
8%
7%
8%
18%
14%
24%
34%
35%
36%
16%
25%
15%
17%
20%
23%
6%
9% 9%
7%
8%
5%
Where do we pay most attention
when it comes to social platforms?
Mainstream media and journalists often lead conversations in Twitter
and Facebook but they struggle to get attention in newer networks.
35
Q12_Social_sources. You said that you use [social platform] for news… When it comes to news on [social platform] which of these do you generally pay most attention to?
Base – all markets Twitter= 6,338, Facebook=28,766, YouTube=15,667, Instagram=6,571, Snapchat=925, TikTok=1,500
Mainstream news
Ordinary people
Personalities
Mainstream news
Ordinary people
Personalities
Mainstream news
Ordinary people
Personalities
Mainstream news
Ordinary people
Personalities
Mainstream news
Ordinary people
Personalities
Mainstream news
Ordinary people
Personalities
Mainstream news outlets/mainstream journalists
Smaller or alternative news sources
Politicians/political activists
Personalities (incl. celebrities and influencers)
Ordinary people
Other/none
Twitter Facebook YouTube Instagram Snapchat TikTok
Local news
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
Proportion that accessed selected local topics in the last
week
Market-level community attachment by market-level
average access rate across 15 local topics
Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for
different local topics – 38 markets
Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for
different local topics – Norway, Germany, USA
Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for
different local topics – Japan, UK, Chile
Financing of the Commercial
News Media
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
Low awareness about the problems of the news industry,
little support for government help
In 33 markets:
43
XX
53%
are not concerned
about financial state
of commercial news media
27%
would support
government stepping
in to help
31%
are aware that news
is less profitable
these days
Proportion that thinks commercial news media have
become more profitable in the last decade – 33 markets
Proportion concerned about the financial state of
commercial news organisations by knowledge and interest
– selected markets
Proportion that thinks the government should step in to
help commercial news organisations that can’t make
enough money on their own by concern– selected markets
Country and market data
EUROPE
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
United Kingdom – Changing media
United Kingdom – Trust
Austria – Changing media
Austria – Trust
RISJ Digital News Report 2020 55
Belgium – Weekly Reach (French)
Belgium – Changing Media
Belgium – Trust
Bulgaria – Changing media
Bulgaria – Trust
Croatia – Changing media
Croatia – Trust
Czech Republic – Changing media
Czech Republic-Trust
Denmark – Changing media
Denmark - Trust
Finland – Changing media
Finland – Trust
France – Changing media
France – Trust
Germany – Changing media
Germany – Trust
Greece – Changing media
Greece – Trust
Hungary – Changing media
Hungary – Trust
Ireland – Changing media
Ireland – Trust
Italy – Changing media
Italy – Trust
Netherlands – Changing media
Netherlands – Trust
Norway – Changing media
Norway – Trust
Poland – Changing media
Poland – Trust
Portugal – Changing media
Portugal – Trust
Romania – Changing media
Romania – Trust
Slovakia – Changing media
Slovakia – Trust
Spain – Changing media
Spain – Trust
Sweden – Changing media
Sweden – Trust
Switzerland – Weekly Reach (French)
Switzerland – Changing media
Switzerland – Trust
RISJ Digital News Report 2021 119
120
Turkey – Changing media
RISJ Digital News Report 2020 121
Turkey – Trust
Country and market data
AMERICAS
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
United States – Changing media
United States – Trust
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Argentina – Changing media
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Argentina – Trust
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Brazil – Changing media
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Brazil – Trust
Canada – Weekly Reach (French)
Canada – Changing media
Canada – Trust
Chile – Changing media
Chile – Trust
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Colombia – Changing media
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Colombia – Trust
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Mexico – Changing media
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Mexico – Trust
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Peru – Changing media
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Peru – Trust
Country and market data
ASIA PACIFIC
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
Australia – Changing media
Australia – Trust
Hong Kong – Changing media
Hong Kong – Trust
These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal
education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
India – Changing media
These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal
education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
India – Trust
These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal
education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Indonesia – Changing media
Indonesia – Trust
Japan – Changing media
Japan – Trust
Malaysia – Changing media
Malaysia – Trust
Philippines – Changing media
Philippines – Trust
Singapore – Changing media
Singapore – Trust
South Korea – Changing media
South Korea – Trust
Taiwan – Changing media
Taiwan – Trust
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Thailand – Changing media
Thailand – Trust
Country and market data
AFRICA
@risj_oxford | #DNR21
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Kenya – Changing media
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Kenya - Trust
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Nigeria – Changing media
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
Nigeria - Trust
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
South Africa – Changing media
*Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
South Africa – Trust
Access or download the full report
https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk
@risj_oxford | #DNR21

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Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2021

  • 1. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2021 @risj_oxford | #DNR21 You are welcome to use the data and slides in this report for any purpose (commercial or non-commercial) in return for simple attribution under a Creative Commons license Please cite as: Newman, Nic, Richard Fletcher, Anne Schulz, Simge Andı, Craig T. Robertson, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. 2021. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2020. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.
  • 2. 92,000 respondents 46 Markets 1 2 4 5 3 Continents 6 Including India, Indonesia, Thailand, Nigeria, Colombia and Peru for the first time Now representing half the world’s population 6
  • 3. Online poll conducted between January to early February 2021 Market Sample Size Population Internet Penetration Europe UK 2,039 67m 95% Austria 2,000 9.0m 88% Belgium 2,008 11.6m 94% Bulgaria 2,018 7.0m 67% Croatia 2,008 4.1m 92% Czech Republic 2,007 10.6m 88% Denmark 2,005 5.8m 98% Finland 2,009 5.6m 94% France 2,012 65m 92% Germany 2,011 82m 96% Greece 2,017 11.1m 73% Hungary 2,032 9.7m 89% Ireland 2,031 4.8m 92% Italy 2,010 59m 93% Netherlands 2,006 17m 96% Norway 2,010 5.4m 98% Market Sample Size Population Internet Penetration Poland 2,009 38m 78% Portugal 2,101 10.2m 78% Romania 2,010 19m 74% Slovakia 2,024 5.5m 85% Spain 2,019 46m 93% Sweden 2,005 10.1m 96% Switzerland 2,000 8.6m 94% Turkey 2,022 83m 83% Americas USA 2,001 327m 96% Argentina 2,007 45m 93% Brazil 2,009 211m 71% Canada 2,036 37m 90% Chile 2,009 18m 78% Colombia 2,046 49m 63% Mexico 2,036 131m 65% Peru 2,010 33m 68% Market Sample Size Population Internet Penetration Asia Pacific Australia 2,034 26m 84% Hong Kong 1,501 7.6m 89% India 2,049 1393m 54% Indonesia 2,007 276m 71% Japan 2,004 126m 95% Malaysia 2,019 33m 89% Philippines 2,029 111m 78% Singapore 2,034 5.9m 88% South Korea 2,006 51m 96% Taiwan 2,042 24m 92% Thailand 2,015 70m 82% Africa Kenya 2,005 55m 85% Nigeria 2,051 211m 73% South Africa 2,009 60m 58% Polling by Supported by 3
  • 5. 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 1 2 3 4 5 6 Coronavirus % using TV news weekly, 2016-21: 5 2021 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Germany 69% Ireland 68% France 68% Denmark 67% Spain 64% Norway 63% UK 60% TV news retains viewers as the crisis continues 79% 78% 73% 70% 72% 74% Q3. Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news? Base: Total 2016–21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000).
  • 6. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 1 2 3 4 5 6 Coronavirus % using print weekly, 2016-21: 2021 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Switzerland 37% Portugal 27% Germany 26% Poland 17% Brazil 12% 63% 47% 32% 38% 40% Accelerated decline for print Q3. Which, if any, of the following have you used in the last week as a source of news? Base: Total 2016–21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000).
  • 7. 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% +10pp +0pp -5pp +5pp % of that trust 2021 Trusted brands still doing better online a year on… Change in online reach, 2020-21: SRF [Switzerland] VG [Nor] Irish Times [IRL] Yle [Fin] Observador [PRT] Higher trust: often public broadcasters or commercial brands with long history of accurate news Lower trust: often popular brands or those with partisan reputation
  • 8. Overall trust in news is up– reversing recent declines 8 Proportion that trusts most news most of the time is up six percentage points while trust in distributed environments stays at similar levels to last year Q6_1/2/3/4. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements: I think you can trust the news/news I use/news in social media/news in search most of the time. Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  • 9. 9 Proportion that trusts the news by country/region Q6_1/2/3/4. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statement I think you can trust the news/most of the time. Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  • 11. More people say they have seen misinformation about COVID-19 than about politics Much higher levels in Africa and Latin America than in Europe: 54% say they have seen misinformation about COVID-19 29% say they have seen misinformation about celebrities 20% say they have seen misinformation about climate change 43% say they have seen misinformation about politics
  • 12. Politicians are seen as a big part of the problem Higher in countries where COVID-19 has become highly politicised such as Brazil % that find each most concerning – all markets: 29% Most concerned about behaviour of politicians 15% Most concerned about behaviour of activists 11% Most concerned about behaviour of journalists 9% Most concerned about behaviour of foreign governments 16% Most concerned about behaviour of ordinary people 41% in Brazil, but just 19% in Germany and 10% in Norway
  • 13. False & misleading misinformation is spreading through different platforms Can be harder to spot and debunk in messaging apps like WhatsApp % that find each most concerning – selected markets: 13 Q_FAKE_NEWS_2021c. Thinking specifically about coronavirus (COVID-19) and its effects, which of the following, if any, are you most concerned about online? False or misleading information via… Base: Total sample in all markets = 93,372
  • 15. 🇳🇴 🇸🇪 🇫🇮 🇩🇰 Proportion paying for any online news in the last year subscription, membership, donation or one-off for an article or e-edition 15 XX 28% Average in Nordic countries pay (+2) 21% USA was 9% in 2016 17% Netherlands (+3) NORWAY 45% (+3) SWEDEN 30% (+3) FINLAND 20% DENMARK 16% BUT LITTLE PROGRESS ELSEWHERE 🇫🇷 France 11%, 🇩🇪 Germany 9%, 🇬🇧 UK 8% Q7a. Have you paid for ONLINE news content, or accessed a paid for ONLINE news service in the last year ? (This could be a digital subscription, combined digital/print subscription or one off payment for an article or app or e-edition) Base: Total sample in each market
  • 16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Growth of online payment over time (2016-21) Most success in a handful of richer countries 16 XX 2021 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Norway 45% Sweden 30% United States 21% France 11% UK 8% Netherlands 17% Coronavirus bumps in some countries More/tighter paywalls 27% 20% 9% 12% 11% 7% Trump bump Swedish Elections Q7a. Have you paid for ONLINE news content, or accessed a paid for ONLINE news service in the last year? (This could be a digital subscription, combined digital/print subscription or one-off payment for an article or app or e-edition). Base: Total 2016-21 samples in each market (most n ≈ 2000). Note: 20 market average includes USA, UK Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Canada, Australia, Japan, Poland.
  • 17. 31% 24% 7% New York Times Washington Post Wall Street Journal Quality national titles still benefitting most… 20% 19% 16% The Telegraph The Times The Guardian United States Norway 19% 16% 13% VG (Verdens Gang) Aftenposten Dagbladet 23% Local, regional, and city papers/websites 57% Local, regional, and city papers/websites 3% Local, regional, and city papers/websites 45% of subscribers United Kingdom 52% of subscribers 41% of subscribers Winner takes most dynamics persisting but local subscription is important in some countries Q7_subs_name. You said you have paid a subscription/membership to one or more digital news services in the last year… Please enter the name of the news subscription you value most, followed by your supplementary subscriptions? Base: All that paid for a subscription/membership to a digital news service in the last year: Norway = 656; USA = 336; UK = 125.
  • 18. Quality national titles still benefitting most… 18 XX Example of national titles Median number of subscriptions Ave age subscriber (ongoing payment) % of subscribers paying for local titles Australia Sydney Morning Herald, Herald Sun 1 50-55 30% Austria Kronen Zeitung, Der Standard 1 45-50 13% Canada Globe & Mail, Toronto Star 1 50-55 9% Denmark Berlingske, Politiken 1 55-60 25% France Le Monde, Mediapart 1 45-50 15% Finland Helsingin Sanomat, Aamulehti 1 45-50 31% Germany Bild, Der Spiegel 1 45-50 31% Ireland Irish Times, Irish Independent 1 40-45 1% Italy Corriere della Serra, La Repubblica 1 50-55 14% Netherlands De Telegraaf, AD, Volkskrant 1 45-50 16% Norway VG, Aftenposten, Dagbladet 1 50-55 57% Sweden Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter 1 50-55 37% Spain El Pais, El Mundo, elDiario.es 1 40-45 15% United States New York Times, Washington Post 2 50-55 23% United Kingdom Times, Telegraph, Guardian 1 50-55 3%
  • 19. Why are people taking out more than one subscription? 19 VALUES BASED “I believe strongly and profoundly in the value of fact- based, investigative journalism. If I want to live in a free and democratic society, I believe it is my duty as a citizen to support a free, independent, and fact-based press and media” Subscribes to nine publications including New York Times, W Post, Indy Star, Economist, Wall Street Journal, ProPublica, NY review of Books, New Yorker and Guardian (R-W) M, 54, USA SPECIAL OFFERS “I got an offer for Aftonbladet + for SEK 1 – I took it (on top of local paper) F, 45 Sweden DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES “Each provides a different perspective about different topics and fills different needs. They tend to provide accurate or alternative viewpoints” Wall Street Journal, The Athletic (Sport), National Review (conservative opinion magazine/website) M, 52, USA BREADTH AND DEPTH “Apple News+ provides the greatest breadth of information. New York Times and Washington Post offer the most in-depth information” M, 62, USA
  • 20. How fair is the news? @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  • 21. -37 -59 -1 -25 31 -4 16 -2 24 17 -8 -12 Perceptions of fairness by politics Those on the political right feel the news media is unfair to them. In Spain and the UK criticism of the media also comes from the left. Spain UK USA Germany Left Centre Right 0 -60 40 60 20 -40 -20 Net: Fair Net: Unfair Q1F. Some people talk about ‘left’, ‘right’, and ‘centre’ to describe parties and politicians. With this in mind, where would you place yourself on the following scale? Div2_2021_1. Thinking about the news in general in your country, do you think that news organisations in your country cover each of the following fairly or unfairly? Base: Left/Centre/Right: Germany = 265/1443/125, USA = 429/809/446, UK = 358/1010/254, Spain = 530/916/214.
  • 22. -20 8 -18 6 9 22 29 35 Perceptions of fairness amongst the young Young people in general and young women in particular are most likely to feel media coverage is unfair 18-24s: Germany USA UK Spain Male Female 0 -60 40 60 20 -40 -20 Net: Fair Net: Unfair Div2_2021_3. Thinking about the news in general in your country, do you think that news organisations in your country cover each of the following fairly or unfairly? Base: Male/Female: Germany = 101/93, USA = 114/101, UK = 88/117, Spain = 65/87.
  • 23. Perceptions of fairness by region 23 USA By race/ethnicity
  • 25. Across all countries, audiences still want a range of views 25 XX 12% 15% 74% Don't know News outlets should argue for the views that they think are the best News outlets should reflect a range of different views and leave it up to people to decide With subjects like politics and COVID-19 – it is really important to remain neutral and allow the reader or listener or the watcher to make their decisions on their own about how they feel about something” F, 21, UK focus group “ Still a strong commitment to ideal of impartial and objective news Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view? Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  • 26. 10% 24% 66% Don't know There are some issues where it makes no sense for news outlets to try to be neutral News outlets should try to be neutral on every issue But there are some issues where it is hard to be neutral 26 “ “ U35 35+ 31% 22% It’s OK to lean to another side on [a subject] like domestic abuse and [for a journalist] to express an opinion on that” F, UK focus group Younger groups are more likely to want news organisations to take a stand on some issues Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view? Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  • 27. Left-leaning people are more likely to say neutrality sometimes doesn't make sense 27 “ Those on the right are more strongly wedded to neutrality Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/2_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view? Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  • 28. 11% 17% 72% Don't know News outlets should give less time to sides they think have a weaker argument News outlets should give equal time to all sides Commitment to equal time to all sides of an argument 28 XX “ These [anti-vaccination] opinions exist, so we have to see them … Do not just sweep it under the table and then suddenly be surprised that something exists” F, Germany focus group Public has a strong preference to allow all views to be heard but those on the left (and young) more likely to want to close down some debates LEFT RIGHT 22% 15% Q_IMPARTIAL1_2021/3_2021. Thinking about the news in general in your country, when news outlets report on social and political issues, which of the following comes closest to your view? Base: Total sample in all markets: 92,372.
  • 30. 25% 26% 25% 9% 8% 5% 8% (+1) 7% (+1) 5% (-) 18% 34% 26% 8% 9% 3% How do people prefer to access news online? Each year, more say they people prefer to access news via search or social media 30 Direct Social Media Search Mobile Alerts Aggregators Email 80% (+1) side-door access 73% (+2) side-door access Direct Social Media Search Mobile Alerts Aggregators Email Under 35s – all countries All ages – all countries Q10a. Which of these was the **MAIN** way in which you came across news in the last week? Base: All/U35s that came across news online last week in all markets: 85,831/26,985.
  • 31. Facebook becoming less important for news, visual networks like Instagram (and TikTok) on the rise % use each social network for news weekly (2014-21) 31 XX 2021 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 36% 16% 9% 7% 2% 2% 1% 1% 36% 20% 17% 11% 8% 2% 3% Q12B. Which, if any, of the following have you used for news in the last week? Base: Total 2014-21 sample in selected markets (most n ≈ 2000). Note: From 2015–21 the 12 countries included are UK, USA, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Australia, and Brazil. In 2014, we did not poll in Australia or Ireland.
  • 32. Profile of Tik Tok users… Younger, tend to be in global south 32
  • 33. How people use different social networks for news @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  • 34. 25% 16% 13% 11% 11% 13% 17% 16% 11% 10% 13% 9% 20% 11% 12% 12% 12% 16% 10% 21% 23% 30% 35% 16% 11% 13% 12% 11% 11% 9% 14% 17% 23% 18% 15% 32% 34 Q12_Social_motivations. You said that you use [social network] for news… What is the MAIN reason that you use [social network] for news? Base: All that use Twitter/Facebook/YouTube/Instagram/Snapchat/TikTok for news in all markets: 6,338/28,762/15,663/6,570/924/1,500. Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Latest News Entertainment Other reasons Twitter Facebook YouTube Instagram Snapchat TikTok Good place to get the very latest news Enjoy the debate and comments Gives me news that is personally important to me Perspectives not available in mainstream media Fun and entertaining way to pass the time I mostly see news while I’m there for other reasons Motivations around news are very different across networks Main motivation for each network when it comes to news
  • 35. 31% 28% 25% 21% 17% 14% 11% 14% 16% 14% 13% 14% 18% 10% 12% 8% 7% 8% 18% 14% 24% 34% 35% 36% 16% 25% 15% 17% 20% 23% 6% 9% 9% 7% 8% 5% Where do we pay most attention when it comes to social platforms? Mainstream media and journalists often lead conversations in Twitter and Facebook but they struggle to get attention in newer networks. 35 Q12_Social_sources. You said that you use [social platform] for news… When it comes to news on [social platform] which of these do you generally pay most attention to? Base – all markets Twitter= 6,338, Facebook=28,766, YouTube=15,667, Instagram=6,571, Snapchat=925, TikTok=1,500 Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news Ordinary people Personalities Mainstream news outlets/mainstream journalists Smaller or alternative news sources Politicians/political activists Personalities (incl. celebrities and influencers) Ordinary people Other/none Twitter Facebook YouTube Instagram Snapchat TikTok
  • 37. Proportion that accessed selected local topics in the last week
  • 38. Market-level community attachment by market-level average access rate across 15 local topics
  • 39. Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for different local topics – 38 markets
  • 40. Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for different local topics – Norway, Germany, USA
  • 41. Proportion that thinks each is the best source of news for different local topics – Japan, UK, Chile
  • 42. Financing of the Commercial News Media @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  • 43. Low awareness about the problems of the news industry, little support for government help In 33 markets: 43 XX 53% are not concerned about financial state of commercial news media 27% would support government stepping in to help 31% are aware that news is less profitable these days
  • 44. Proportion that thinks commercial news media have become more profitable in the last decade – 33 markets
  • 45. Proportion concerned about the financial state of commercial news organisations by knowledge and interest – selected markets
  • 46. Proportion that thinks the government should step in to help commercial news organisations that can’t make enough money on their own by concern– selected markets
  • 47. Country and market data EUROPE @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  • 48.
  • 49. United Kingdom – Changing media
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  • 55. RISJ Digital News Report 2020 55 Belgium – Weekly Reach (French)
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  • 65. Czech Republic – Changing media
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  • 115.
  • 116. Switzerland – Weekly Reach (French)
  • 119. RISJ Digital News Report 2021 119
  • 121. RISJ Digital News Report 2020 121 Turkey – Trust
  • 122. Country and market data AMERICAS @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  • 123.
  • 124. United States – Changing media
  • 126. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 127. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Argentina – Changing media
  • 128. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Argentina – Trust
  • 129. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 130. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Brazil – Changing media
  • 131. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Brazil – Trust
  • 132.
  • 133. Canada – Weekly Reach (French)
  • 136.
  • 139. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 140. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Colombia – Changing media
  • 141. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Colombia – Trust
  • 142. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 143. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Mexico – Changing media
  • 144. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Mexico – Trust
  • 145. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 146. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Peru – Changing media
  • 147. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Peru – Trust
  • 148. Country and market data ASIA PACIFIC @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  • 149.
  • 152.
  • 153. Hong Kong – Changing media
  • 154. Hong Kong – Trust
  • 155. These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
  • 156. India – Changing media These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
  • 157. India – Trust These data are based on a survey of mainly English-speaking, online news users in India – a small subset of a larger, more diverse, media market. Respondents are generally more affluent, younger, have higher levels of formal education, and are more likely to live in cities than the wider Indian population. Findings should not be taken to be nationally representative.
  • 158. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 161.
  • 164.
  • 167.
  • 170.
  • 173.
  • 174. South Korea – Changing media
  • 175. South Korea – Trust
  • 176.
  • 179. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 182. Country and market data AFRICA @risj_oxford | #DNR21
  • 183. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 184. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Kenya – Changing media
  • 185. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Kenya - Trust
  • 186. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 187. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Nigeria – Changing media
  • 188. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users Nigeria - Trust
  • 189. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users
  • 190. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users South Africa – Changing media
  • 191. *Data are from more urban areas, rather than a fully nationally representative sample. These will tend to represent richer and more connected users South Africa – Trust
  • 192. Access or download the full report https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk @risj_oxford | #DNR21