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RELIGION AND BELIEF
SYSTEMS in the WORLD
Prof. Michael M. Isidoro
•• Explain what is religion
•• Discuss the different belief
systems in our society
•Explain the impact
ofglobalization to RELIGION.
BELIEF SYSTEM
• A belief system is a set of beliefs regarding what is
true and false, what is good or bad, what is beautiful
and ugly, what is acceptable by society and what is
considered as unacceptable. A belief system usually
possesses the foundational principles on which a
religion, a science, a culture, or a philosophy is
based but may not necessarily be the religion, the
science, the culture, or the philosophy itself.
RELIGION
• Meanwhile religion is a belief system that relates
humanity to the transcendental, and just like
culture, it has its own set of rules, norms, values,
and rituals, which are generally accepted by its
group of believers. To better understand the
concept, we must first trace the origin of the term.
The word religion comes from the latin word
religionem which means “respect for what is sacred,
reverence for the gods”.
• It also comes from the latin word re which means
again and ligare which means to connect. Put
together, re–ligare therefore means “to reconnect”,
in this sense, to the to the divine, the sacred, the
supernatural, and the spiritual. According to Emile
Durkheim, “Religion answers all the unanswered
questions of human existence.” Most of the things
that human reason cannot comprehend as of the
moment can find answers in transcendental ideas
such as religion.
SPIRITUALITY
•Spirituality is a broad concept with room for
many perspectives. In general, it includes a
sense of connection to something bigger
than ourselves, and it typically involves a
search for meaning in life. As such, it is a
universal human experience—something that
touches us all.
PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION
•Philosophy of Religion is rational thought
about religious issues and concerns
without a presumption of the existence of
a deity or reliance on acts of faith.
Philosophers examine the nature of religion
and religious beliefs.
UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF RELIGION
Kinds Description
Monism
there is no real distinction between god
and the universe
Polytheism the belief and worship of many gods
Monotheism
the doctrine or belief in one supreme
god
Atheism
disbelief in or denial of the existence of
a personal god
Agnosticism god cannot be known
Name of Social Background View on Religion
Scientist
Edward Burnett Taylor
English anthropologist; founding
figure of the belief in spiritual beings
(1832-1917) the science of social anthropology
James George Frazer Scottish social anthropologist; one
a propitiation or conciliation of
powers
(1854-1941) of the founding figures of modern
superior to man which are believed
to
anthropology
control and direct the course of
nature and
of human life
Bronislaw Kasper an eminent 20th-century Polish a body of self-contained acts being
Malinowski anthropologist
themselves the fulfilment of their
purpose;
(1884-1942)
an affair of all, in which everyone
takes an
active and equivalent part
David Ëmile Durkheim
French sociologist; father of
sociology
a unified system of beliefs and
practices
(1858-1917) relative to sacred things
What is Animism?
•During the old days when science was not
yet dominant, our ancestors could not
understand many things in nature. When the
lightning struck or when the volcanoes
erupted, there were no reasonable or
scientific explanation available to them.
• Thus, our primitive ancestors were compelled to
come up with mythical explanations to many things
they saw in nature. Most, if not all, of ancient
cultures are animistic, that is, the belief that all
things found in nature are guided and inhabited by
spirits and deities. Basic questions such as: how does
the sun rise? Where do the rains come? How far is the
sea? What is thunder? are all answered by spirits
residing in those elements in nature.
• Thus, primitive cultures attribute the rising of
the sun to the sun god; that the lightning and
thunder are ruled by deities and gods; that the
trees and the land are all animated by spirits. In
order for nature to be kind to them, our human
ancestors performed sacrifices and rituals to
ensure the good favor of the gods.
Examples of Animism
• The existence of souls or spirits which are viewed as the life-force of all things –
from human beings, animals, plants, and even non-living things and phenomena;
• The souls and spirits are found in nature. They may take the form of plants,
animals, trees;
• There exists a spirit world. There is a world where unattached spirits dwell. Such
spirits may be evil and may bring chaos, hunger, death in the world of humans;
• There are human beings in the community who have the capacity to access the
spirit world in order to communicate and control the evil spirits;
• The spirit of human beings survive physical death. Their spirits may go back to the
world in the form of natural objects, or they can become one of the unattached
spirits that bring evil to the world.
Belief Systems in the World
• Monotheism is the belief in one god while
polytheism is the belief in many gods. The
foundation of polytheism is the belief that there
are different gods and goddesses that typically
have physical bodies, and have human
characteristics. Such deities are representations
of forces of nature, and are accorded with their
own supernatural capacities.
The following are the characteristics of a
polytheistic religion:
• Gods of polytheistic religions are many, with each one having their
own personalities, needs, and desires.
• These gods intervene in the daily life of people as each one govern
various aspects of human life. Gods of polytheistic religions are
thought to have the qualities, vices, and defects of human beings,
but their physical appearances are rarely human.
• Though human in their personalities and characteristics, but they
have their divine characteristics which belong to a different order
of reality not attainable for man.
• Gods are immortal, but they are neither omnipotent nor
omniscient.
• There is no single theory of belief because each god has the
capacity to circumvent the other.
• Polytheistic religions are closely related to the cultural, social,
and political conditions of the society where it exists. Its forms,
rituals and belief systems are typically representative of the
culture where it can be found.
• According to history, polytheism was the typical
form of religion during the Bronze Age and it
dominated until the Axial Age, a period of
history which occurred during the 8th to the 3rd
century BCE. This age was notable because this
was when new ways of thinking appeared in
many different countries in the world.
• Monotheism is the belief in one god while polytheism is
the belief in many gods. The foundation of polytheism is
the belief that there are different gods and goddesses
that typically have physical bodies, and have human
characteristics.
• Such deities are representations of forces of nature, and
are accorded with their own supernatural capacities.
• Some of the common characteristics of monotheistic
religions include:
• God is omnipotent (all-powerful) and omniscient (all-
knowing).
• God is a creator who sustain and maintain order in
the world.
• God is incomparable to any image or representation.
The Supreme God and the Management of
Civilizations
• When ancient civilizations arose, the idea of one god became the dominant
belief in many cultures. At first, it became necessary for ancient civilizations
to have a temple of the gods where one powerful god was worshipped.
• The reason for this is simple: if there are many gods with equal power, then
the believers will be prone to compete one god over the other and would
result in endless wars on whose community worships the strongest god. I
• f this is the case, the society will never be united under one ruler. If there is
a highest god towering all over the others, then there is no competition as
the king will always invoke the support of the highest god. Thus Jupiter is
the highest god of the Romans and Zeus is the highest god of the Greeks.
•An institutionalized or organized
religion is called a church. Unlike
religious traditions, organized religions
have beliefs and rituals which are
formally established and systematically
arranged.
The 5 Cs of Institutionalized Religion
• 1. Cult is the set of rituals and sacred places, items, and objects, religious
practices that believers do and adhere to. It usually refers to some
supernatural, superhuman, or transcendental power or promise that
attracts followers. The beginning of religion usually starts with the cult.
• 2. Creed. As the cult expands and develops, the members are questioned
and challenged from the outside. They also need to assure the next
generations that their message will be transmitted in its original form. Thus
members of an organized religion are compelled to come up with a written
set of beliefs that would unite all members. This is their profession of their
faith.
• 3. Code. As the organization of the community of believers’ progress through
time, it cannot be prevented that some organizational issues and processes need
to be systematized. They need to come up with a set of standard processes,
organizational procedures and laws that would govern the whole membership.
Questions pertaining to the organizational structure of the church, what
constitutes the church hierarchy, what constitutes the laity and other things
need be answered in legal form. This is the code of the church.
• 4. Community of Believers. All individuals who adhere to the set of beliefs of a
certain religion are members of that religion’s community of believers.
• 5. Community Services are the things that the church does for its members and
for the outside world. These include such activities as having regular services for
the believers, putting up schools and hospitals, and doing humanitarian services,
among other things.
MOST OF THE WORLD SUBSCRIBES TO ONE OF
THE FOLLOWING RELIGIONS:
• Christianity- the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of
Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices.
• Islam- the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed
through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
• Judaism-monotheistic religion developed among the ancient Hebrews. Judaism
is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to
Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance
with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions.
• Hinduism- the dominant religion of India that emphasizes dharma with its
resulting ritual and social observances and often mystical contemplation and
ascetic practices
• Buddhism¬- a widespread Asian religion or philosophy, founded by Siddartha
Gautama in northeastern India in the 5th century BC.

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RELIGION AND BELIEF SYSTEMS.pptx

  • 1. RELIGION AND BELIEF SYSTEMS in the WORLD Prof. Michael M. Isidoro
  • 2. •• Explain what is religion •• Discuss the different belief systems in our society •Explain the impact ofglobalization to RELIGION.
  • 3. BELIEF SYSTEM • A belief system is a set of beliefs regarding what is true and false, what is good or bad, what is beautiful and ugly, what is acceptable by society and what is considered as unacceptable. A belief system usually possesses the foundational principles on which a religion, a science, a culture, or a philosophy is based but may not necessarily be the religion, the science, the culture, or the philosophy itself.
  • 4. RELIGION • Meanwhile religion is a belief system that relates humanity to the transcendental, and just like culture, it has its own set of rules, norms, values, and rituals, which are generally accepted by its group of believers. To better understand the concept, we must first trace the origin of the term. The word religion comes from the latin word religionem which means “respect for what is sacred, reverence for the gods”.
  • 5. • It also comes from the latin word re which means again and ligare which means to connect. Put together, re–ligare therefore means “to reconnect”, in this sense, to the to the divine, the sacred, the supernatural, and the spiritual. According to Emile Durkheim, “Religion answers all the unanswered questions of human existence.” Most of the things that human reason cannot comprehend as of the moment can find answers in transcendental ideas such as religion.
  • 6. SPIRITUALITY •Spirituality is a broad concept with room for many perspectives. In general, it includes a sense of connection to something bigger than ourselves, and it typically involves a search for meaning in life. As such, it is a universal human experience—something that touches us all.
  • 7.
  • 8. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION •Philosophy of Religion is rational thought about religious issues and concerns without a presumption of the existence of a deity or reliance on acts of faith. Philosophers examine the nature of religion and religious beliefs.
  • 9.
  • 11. Kinds Description Monism there is no real distinction between god and the universe Polytheism the belief and worship of many gods Monotheism the doctrine or belief in one supreme god Atheism disbelief in or denial of the existence of a personal god Agnosticism god cannot be known
  • 12. Name of Social Background View on Religion Scientist Edward Burnett Taylor English anthropologist; founding figure of the belief in spiritual beings (1832-1917) the science of social anthropology James George Frazer Scottish social anthropologist; one a propitiation or conciliation of powers (1854-1941) of the founding figures of modern superior to man which are believed to anthropology control and direct the course of nature and of human life Bronislaw Kasper an eminent 20th-century Polish a body of self-contained acts being Malinowski anthropologist themselves the fulfilment of their purpose; (1884-1942) an affair of all, in which everyone takes an active and equivalent part David Ëmile Durkheim French sociologist; father of sociology a unified system of beliefs and practices (1858-1917) relative to sacred things
  • 13. What is Animism? •During the old days when science was not yet dominant, our ancestors could not understand many things in nature. When the lightning struck or when the volcanoes erupted, there were no reasonable or scientific explanation available to them.
  • 14. • Thus, our primitive ancestors were compelled to come up with mythical explanations to many things they saw in nature. Most, if not all, of ancient cultures are animistic, that is, the belief that all things found in nature are guided and inhabited by spirits and deities. Basic questions such as: how does the sun rise? Where do the rains come? How far is the sea? What is thunder? are all answered by spirits residing in those elements in nature.
  • 15. • Thus, primitive cultures attribute the rising of the sun to the sun god; that the lightning and thunder are ruled by deities and gods; that the trees and the land are all animated by spirits. In order for nature to be kind to them, our human ancestors performed sacrifices and rituals to ensure the good favor of the gods.
  • 16. Examples of Animism • The existence of souls or spirits which are viewed as the life-force of all things – from human beings, animals, plants, and even non-living things and phenomena; • The souls and spirits are found in nature. They may take the form of plants, animals, trees; • There exists a spirit world. There is a world where unattached spirits dwell. Such spirits may be evil and may bring chaos, hunger, death in the world of humans; • There are human beings in the community who have the capacity to access the spirit world in order to communicate and control the evil spirits; • The spirit of human beings survive physical death. Their spirits may go back to the world in the form of natural objects, or they can become one of the unattached spirits that bring evil to the world.
  • 17. Belief Systems in the World • Monotheism is the belief in one god while polytheism is the belief in many gods. The foundation of polytheism is the belief that there are different gods and goddesses that typically have physical bodies, and have human characteristics. Such deities are representations of forces of nature, and are accorded with their own supernatural capacities.
  • 18. The following are the characteristics of a polytheistic religion: • Gods of polytheistic religions are many, with each one having their own personalities, needs, and desires. • These gods intervene in the daily life of people as each one govern various aspects of human life. Gods of polytheistic religions are thought to have the qualities, vices, and defects of human beings, but their physical appearances are rarely human. • Though human in their personalities and characteristics, but they have their divine characteristics which belong to a different order of reality not attainable for man.
  • 19. • Gods are immortal, but they are neither omnipotent nor omniscient. • There is no single theory of belief because each god has the capacity to circumvent the other. • Polytheistic religions are closely related to the cultural, social, and political conditions of the society where it exists. Its forms, rituals and belief systems are typically representative of the culture where it can be found.
  • 20. • According to history, polytheism was the typical form of religion during the Bronze Age and it dominated until the Axial Age, a period of history which occurred during the 8th to the 3rd century BCE. This age was notable because this was when new ways of thinking appeared in many different countries in the world.
  • 21. • Monotheism is the belief in one god while polytheism is the belief in many gods. The foundation of polytheism is the belief that there are different gods and goddesses that typically have physical bodies, and have human characteristics. • Such deities are representations of forces of nature, and are accorded with their own supernatural capacities.
  • 22. • Some of the common characteristics of monotheistic religions include: • God is omnipotent (all-powerful) and omniscient (all- knowing). • God is a creator who sustain and maintain order in the world. • God is incomparable to any image or representation.
  • 23. The Supreme God and the Management of Civilizations • When ancient civilizations arose, the idea of one god became the dominant belief in many cultures. At first, it became necessary for ancient civilizations to have a temple of the gods where one powerful god was worshipped. • The reason for this is simple: if there are many gods with equal power, then the believers will be prone to compete one god over the other and would result in endless wars on whose community worships the strongest god. I • f this is the case, the society will never be united under one ruler. If there is a highest god towering all over the others, then there is no competition as the king will always invoke the support of the highest god. Thus Jupiter is the highest god of the Romans and Zeus is the highest god of the Greeks.
  • 24. •An institutionalized or organized religion is called a church. Unlike religious traditions, organized religions have beliefs and rituals which are formally established and systematically arranged.
  • 25. The 5 Cs of Institutionalized Religion • 1. Cult is the set of rituals and sacred places, items, and objects, religious practices that believers do and adhere to. It usually refers to some supernatural, superhuman, or transcendental power or promise that attracts followers. The beginning of religion usually starts with the cult. • 2. Creed. As the cult expands and develops, the members are questioned and challenged from the outside. They also need to assure the next generations that their message will be transmitted in its original form. Thus members of an organized religion are compelled to come up with a written set of beliefs that would unite all members. This is their profession of their faith.
  • 26. • 3. Code. As the organization of the community of believers’ progress through time, it cannot be prevented that some organizational issues and processes need to be systematized. They need to come up with a set of standard processes, organizational procedures and laws that would govern the whole membership. Questions pertaining to the organizational structure of the church, what constitutes the church hierarchy, what constitutes the laity and other things need be answered in legal form. This is the code of the church. • 4. Community of Believers. All individuals who adhere to the set of beliefs of a certain religion are members of that religion’s community of believers. • 5. Community Services are the things that the church does for its members and for the outside world. These include such activities as having regular services for the believers, putting up schools and hospitals, and doing humanitarian services, among other things.
  • 27. MOST OF THE WORLD SUBSCRIBES TO ONE OF THE FOLLOWING RELIGIONS: • Christianity- the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices. • Islam- the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah. • Judaism-monotheistic religion developed among the ancient Hebrews. Judaism is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions. • Hinduism- the dominant religion of India that emphasizes dharma with its resulting ritual and social observances and often mystical contemplation and ascetic practices • Buddhism¬- a widespread Asian religion or philosophy, founded by Siddartha Gautama in northeastern India in the 5th century BC.