SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Reciprocating Engine Components By Pat McCarty
 
 
 
 
Opposed crankcase Sections are not as distinct as in the radial and the crankcase splits from front to rear instead of in radial sections
 
Crankshaft Changes reciprocating motion of pistons into rotating motion to drive propeller Constructed of chrome-nickel-molybdenum-steel May be one piece or as many as three separate pieces The propeller mounts to the front of the crankshaft using a spline, taper, or flange The crankshaft rotates within the crankcase and is supported by main bearing journals Crankshaft  throws  or crankpins are off center and account for the reciprocating motion of the pistons
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crankshaft Ends For Mounting Propellers
Dynamic Dampers  can be mounted to the crankshaft to reduce vibration (floating) Counterweights  are also used to reduce vibration but they are rigid and do not float Counterweights and dampers are used in piston engines because the power pulses and movement of the pistons create large amounts of vibration Vibration shortens airframe and engine life and can lead to premature component failure The engine is also mounted in rubber bushings to absorb vibration
 
2 Piece Crankshaft With Counterweights   (Single Throw, Single Cylinder)
 
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal, Pin, Arm
 
 
 
 
Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder Barrel Chrome-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum steel Used to guide and seal piston and to mount cylinder assembly to head Barrel threads into head to form cylinder assembly
Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder interior wall Cylinder Walls
Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Chrome cylinder walls use chromium plating to resist wear and provide a corrosion resistant surface. Cylinders may be chromed back to standard inside dimensions if they become worn Chrome is too smooth to hold oil without etching or channeling during the overhaul process
Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction The cylinder head is designed to transfer heat by  conduction  to the fins and then from the fins to the air by  convection The exhaust side of the head has the most fins as it runs the hottest The head also may incorporate a drain line fitting to allow excess oil to return to the crankcase (intercylinder drain lines on radials)
Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder Walls Inside surface of cylinder barrel is honed to a controlled amount of roughness Rough enough to hold oil film but smooth enough to minimize friction and wear Plain steel  cylinder walls are not treated to prevent wear or corrosion Nitrided  cylinder walls are hardened to reduce wear but still rust as easily as plain steel walls. Nitriding is exposing the cylinder wall to ammonia at high temperatures and it hardens the wall to a thickness of approximately .005”
Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder wall “CHOKE” The cylinder wall is tapered inward towards the top so that as the engine warms up, the hotter top of the wall expands more than the bottom, creating a round barrel at operating temperature.
Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder heads Constructed of cast aluminum Provides combustion chamber, and mounting areas for spark plugs and valve parts
Cylinder Valve Mechanism
 
Valve and Guide Head Tulip Mushroom Semi Tulip Flat Heat
 
Valve and Guide Stem Hardened Steel Metallic Sodium filled  is a  chemical element  which has the symbol  Na  (Latin: natrium), atomic number 11, atomic mass 22.9898 g/mol, common  oxidation number  +1. Sodium is a soft,  silvery  white, highly reactive element and is a member of the  alkali metals  within "group 1" (formerly known as ‘group IA’). It has only one stable  isotope ,
Valve and Guide Face Stellite  alloy is a range of  cobalt - chromium   alloys  designed for  wear  resistance. It may also contain  tungsten  and a small but important amount of  carbon . It is a  trademarked   name  of the  Deloro   Stellite  Company  and was invented by  Elwood Haynes   [1]  in the early 1900s as a substitute for  flatware  that stained (or that had to be constantly cleaned).
Valve  Tip Stellite Split Key Safety Circlet Spring Rotator
Valve Springs Inner and outer springs are used to prevent bounce, provide redundancy, and increase valve closing pressure Held in place by retainer washers on the top and bottom of the spring Split key or “keeper” holds the retainers and springs in place on the valve stem
Cylinder Valve Mechanism
Cylinder Valve Mechanism
Valves and the Valve System Valves control the flow of gases inside the engine Poppet  valves are the most common and get their name from the popping open and closed during operation Intake valves are chrome steel and are cooled by the incoming air and fuel mixture Exhaust valves are also alloy steel but are often filled with metallic sodium for cooling.  Valve faces may  be coated with Stellite to reduce wear and corrosion Valve faces are ground to 30 degrees for intake (airflow) and 45 degrees (cooling) for exhaust
1290 degrees F (typical)
 
Cylinder Valve Removal
Cylinder Valve Mechanism
Cylinder Valve Mechanism
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crankcase The crankcase holds all of the engine parts in alignment and supports the cylinders and crankshaft It provides a place to mount the engine to the aircraft Constructed of aluminum alloy Divided into sections (radial)
Nose section  - Houses prop shaft and bearings Power section  - mount for cylinders Fuel induction section  - intake tubes, blower, manifolds (supercharger) Accessory section  - mounts for magnetos, pumps, generators (magnesium)
Pistons Constructed of aluminum alloy ALCOA132 Parts include top, ring grooves, ring lands, skirt, and piston pin boss Cooling fins on the bottom help the  oil  carry heat away from the piston top
 
Cam ground  pistons diameter of the piston is greater perpendicular to the piston pin boss This compensates for uneven expansion during operation (becomes round at operating temperature)
 
Piston head designs
Piston rings (general) Provide seal between cylinder wall and piston Rings ride on a thin film of oil Conduct heat from the piston out to the cylinder and the fins Material is cast iron or chrome steel Piston rings (type) Compression rings  are located at the top of the piston and seal the combustion chamber Types include rectangular, tapered,wedge
Compression rings
Oil control rings On bottom of piston below compression rings  Regulates oil film thickness on cylinder wall Holes in ring and piston allow excess oil to drain back to crankcase Too much oil film and the engine will use excessive oil and too little oil causes heat and insufficient lubrication Oil scraper rings Directs the oil away from or towards the oil control rings depending upon the requirements of the engine
Piston ring  end gap The gap at the end of the rings allows for expansion and contraction and unevenness in the cylinder wall Butt, step and angle types  Always stagger the end gaps during ring installation to prevent losing compression
Piston Pins (wrist pins) Connects the piston to the end of the connecting rod Constructed of hardened steel The pin is retained in the piston with clips or plugs to prevent cylinder wall scoring Typical Lycoming and Continental pins are free-floating, meaning the pin is not secured to the piston or the rod.
 
Connecting Rod Assembly The link between the crankshaft and the piston Normally steel but some low powered engines use aluminum to save weight Cross section is an “H” or “I” Types include :  Plain Rod Fork and blade rod Master and articulated
Plain Type Rods Used on inline and opposed engines Small bushing at piston pin end is pressed in place and reamed to final dimensions Large end of rod includes a cap, bolts, nuts, and plain bearing inserts Rods are numbered as to cylinder and for cap-to-rod alignment
Fork and Blade Connecting Rod Used on “V” type engines One rod inside another allows cylinders to be aligned and to share a common location on the crankshaft
Master and Articulating Rod Used on radial engines Uses “knuckle pins” to retain articulated rods to master Master Rod Articulating Rod
Master/Articulating Rod in Action
Valve Train Cam Shaft
 
Valve Train Cam Shaft
Valve Train Cam Shaft
Valve Train Cam Shaft
Valve Train Cam Shaft
Valve Train Cam Shaft
Valve Lifter or Tappet May be solid, roller, or hydraulic The lifter follows the cam lobes and pushes on the pushrod Solid and roller lifters require adjustable rocker arms Hydraulic type lifters fill with oil and lengthen to compensate for any clearances in the valve system
Continental lifter
 
Lifter Damage
Lifter Damage
Lifter Damage
Camshaft Turns at 1/2 the speed of the crankshaft Must be mechanically coupled to the crankshaft for timing purposes (gears, belts, chains) The camshaft consists of bearing journals and  lobes  spaced along the shaft Each lobe is positioned to open and close a valve at a specific time Lobe
Pushrod transmits push of lifter up to rocker arm Hollow to allow oil to flow to the top of the cylinder for valve part lubrication Length can be varied to adjust  valve clearance Valve clearance is the space between the top of the valve stem and the rocker arm.  This clearance is to prevent a valve from being held open with the resulting heat build-up and loss of compression valve clearance  increases  as the engine operates due to cylinder expansion (solid lifters) Hydraulic lifters have a “0” clearance in operation
Valve clearance adjustment Valve clearance measurement
Rocker Arm Adjustable in solid lifter engines and fixed in engines with hydraulic lifters One end rests on the valve stem and the other on the pushrod Rocking motion opens and closes the valves Roller rocker arms incorporate a roller that reduces friction and are used in some radials and experimental engines
Bearings Must be able to withstand forces inside an  engine with minimal friction and heat build- up.  Must accept  radial  and  thrust  loads Plain Bearings A steel insert with babbitt (lead alloy) bonded to the bearing surface Plain bearings are keyed to keep them in place  A lip or flange allows the plain bearing to accept thrust loads Commonly used as crankshaft and rod bearings in opposed engines
 
Normal Lycoming main bearing wear.  Symmetrical pattern  - side to side and end to end. Crankshaft is running true in bearing. I call such a pattern a "hour-glass" pattern.
Main bearing wear. Contact occurs only on upper half of bearing. Crankshaft is not running true in bearing. Either crankshaft is bent or crankcase journals are mis-aligned
Fatigue failed Lycoming 320 main bearing. Contact pressure from the crankshaft seems to be more concentrated and concentrated at the lower edge.
Damage or wiping at the center has to form before a hydrodynamic film is formed - an indicator of a dry start!
Breakdown of oil film Severe abnormal main bearing wear located at right side of bearing and the bottom edge. The pattern on the right is called "wiping"
early sign of bearing failure may be drop off of idle oil pressure or momentary loss of propeller control
Roller Bearings (antifriction) Hard steel rollers captured between an inner and outer “race” and held in alignment by a “cage” May be tapered to absorb radial and thrust loads or straight to absorb radial loads only
Parts of a Ball Bearing OUTER RACE INNER RACE CAGE BALL
Ball Bearings (antifriction) Used for both radial and thrust loads Deep grooves in races allow thrust loads
Bearing cleaning and safety Wash old grease and debris with solvent Blow dry with shop air but  do not  spin the bearing with the air blast Reapply grease or oil immediately to prevent corrosion Protect skin and eyes from solvent contact
Propeller Reduction Gearing Purpose is to reduce propeller rpm to its optimal speed and to increase engine rpm to its optimal speed Propeller always turns slower than the engine Gear Ratios: Expressed as 2:1, .64:1, 300:1 At what speed will the propeller be turning if the engine rpm is 2000 and the gear ratio is 2:1? 1000 rpm
Which reduction ratio will provide the fastest propeller speed 10:1 or 4:1? 4:1 (it is the closest to 1:1) Spur Gears Simple drive and driven gear system Number of teeth on gear and gear diameters determine reduction ratio Large gear would be mounted to propeller as it turns the slowest
Planetary Gears Ring gear, Planet gear, Sun gear Large gear reductions possible Compact and versatile Common in large radials and turbine engines

More Related Content

What's hot

Cl autopartsgaruda
Cl autopartsgarudaCl autopartsgaruda
Cl autopartsgaruda
Garuda Impex
 
Chapter5 Theory
Chapter5 TheoryChapter5 Theory
Chapter5 Theory
Bryant
 
Components of I C Engine By Er. Hema Gavit
  Components of I C Engine By Er. Hema Gavit  Components of I C Engine By Er. Hema Gavit
I C Engine by Er. Hema Gavit
I C Engine by Er. Hema GavitI C Engine by Er. Hema Gavit
Piston
PistonPiston
Piston
PistonPiston
Piston
jzamora3521
 
Brakes drum chapter_10
Brakes drum chapter_10Brakes drum chapter_10
Brakes drum chapter_10
motorteach
 
various parts of an i.c. engine pdf
various parts of an i.c. engine pdfvarious parts of an i.c. engine pdf
various parts of an i.c. engine pdf
Sujit Kumar Chaurasia
 
Basic Parts of the Drum Brake System in your Car
Basic Parts of the Drum Brake System in your CarBasic Parts of the Drum Brake System in your Car
Basic Parts of the Drum Brake System in your Car
Professional Automotive
 
Proceso de fabricación del monoblock de un motor
Proceso de fabricación del monoblock de un motorProceso de fabricación del monoblock de un motor
Proceso de fabricación del monoblock de un motor
Ivan Heli
 
Diesel engine
Diesel engineDiesel engine
Diesel engine
UMCadets
 
Wankel engine
Wankel engineWankel engine
Wankel engine
w1nds
 
Halderman ch033 lecture
Halderman ch033 lectureHalderman ch033 lecture
Halderman ch033 lecture
mcfalltj
 
Engines
EnginesEngines
Engines
Krishna Gali
 
Disc brakes
Disc brakesDisc brakes
Disc brakes
Saqlain Ahmed
 
Ic.engines
Ic.enginesIc.engines
DJA3032 CHAPTER 6
DJA3032   CHAPTER 6DJA3032   CHAPTER 6
DJA3032 CHAPTER 6
mechanical86
 
2 stroke engines
2 stroke engines2 stroke engines
2 stroke engines
Jaydeep Joshi
 
Lubrication system for an automobile
Lubrication system for an automobile Lubrication system for an automobile
Lubrication system for an automobile
sgrsoni45
 
Piston
PistonPiston

What's hot (20)

Cl autopartsgaruda
Cl autopartsgarudaCl autopartsgaruda
Cl autopartsgaruda
 
Chapter5 Theory
Chapter5 TheoryChapter5 Theory
Chapter5 Theory
 
Components of I C Engine By Er. Hema Gavit
  Components of I C Engine By Er. Hema Gavit  Components of I C Engine By Er. Hema Gavit
Components of I C Engine By Er. Hema Gavit
 
I C Engine by Er. Hema Gavit
I C Engine by Er. Hema GavitI C Engine by Er. Hema Gavit
I C Engine by Er. Hema Gavit
 
Piston
PistonPiston
Piston
 
Piston
PistonPiston
Piston
 
Brakes drum chapter_10
Brakes drum chapter_10Brakes drum chapter_10
Brakes drum chapter_10
 
various parts of an i.c. engine pdf
various parts of an i.c. engine pdfvarious parts of an i.c. engine pdf
various parts of an i.c. engine pdf
 
Basic Parts of the Drum Brake System in your Car
Basic Parts of the Drum Brake System in your CarBasic Parts of the Drum Brake System in your Car
Basic Parts of the Drum Brake System in your Car
 
Proceso de fabricación del monoblock de un motor
Proceso de fabricación del monoblock de un motorProceso de fabricación del monoblock de un motor
Proceso de fabricación del monoblock de un motor
 
Diesel engine
Diesel engineDiesel engine
Diesel engine
 
Wankel engine
Wankel engineWankel engine
Wankel engine
 
Halderman ch033 lecture
Halderman ch033 lectureHalderman ch033 lecture
Halderman ch033 lecture
 
Engines
EnginesEngines
Engines
 
Disc brakes
Disc brakesDisc brakes
Disc brakes
 
Ic.engines
Ic.enginesIc.engines
Ic.engines
 
DJA3032 CHAPTER 6
DJA3032   CHAPTER 6DJA3032   CHAPTER 6
DJA3032 CHAPTER 6
 
2 stroke engines
2 stroke engines2 stroke engines
2 stroke engines
 
Lubrication system for an automobile
Lubrication system for an automobile Lubrication system for an automobile
Lubrication system for an automobile
 
Piston
PistonPiston
Piston
 

Similar to Reciptengcomp3

Introduction of engine components
Introduction of engine componentsIntroduction of engine components
Introduction of engine components
PurviTiwari6
 
Basic parts of engine.pptx
Basic parts of engine.pptxBasic parts of engine.pptx
Basic parts of engine.pptx
NajmulMithun
 
Unit i
Unit iUnit i
Parts, bearings, gearing
Parts, bearings, gearingParts, bearings, gearing
Parts, bearings, gearing
Jawad Mubin
 
Parts, bearings, gearing
Parts, bearings, gearingParts, bearings, gearing
Parts, bearings, gearing
CADmantra Technologies
 
IC Engines
IC EnginesIC Engines
IC Engines
Dhruv Shah
 
Plugin nkr 4-jb1
Plugin nkr 4-jb1Plugin nkr 4-jb1
Plugin nkr 4-jb1
Nariaki Gakusha Arishima
 
P 1 COMPONENTS OF ENGINE.pptx
P 1 COMPONENTS OF ENGINE.pptxP 1 COMPONENTS OF ENGINE.pptx
P 1 COMPONENTS OF ENGINE.pptx
RinkuYadav100
 
Lesson6 diesel enginecomponents
Lesson6 diesel enginecomponentsLesson6 diesel enginecomponents
Lesson6 diesel enginecomponents
مصطفي الغنيمى
 
4 stroke cycle engine operations
4 stroke cycle engine operations4 stroke cycle engine operations
4 stroke cycle engine operations
reymartyvette_0611
 
Kubota b5200 tractor service repair manual
Kubota b5200 tractor service repair manualKubota b5200 tractor service repair manual
Kubota b5200 tractor service repair manual
fjjskdmnenemm
 
4 a fe-3s-gte_5s-fe_manual
4 a fe-3s-gte_5s-fe_manual4 a fe-3s-gte_5s-fe_manual
4 a fe-3s-gte_5s-fe_manual
gacr
 
Kubota b7200 hst tractor service repair manual
Kubota b7200 hst tractor service repair manualKubota b7200 hst tractor service repair manual
Kubota b7200 hst tractor service repair manual
fjkskekxsdcmdmme
 
Halderman ch031 lecture
Halderman ch031 lectureHalderman ch031 lecture
Halderman ch031 lecture
mcfalltj
 
Components of IC engines
Components of IC enginesComponents of IC engines
Components of IC engines
Syed Yaseen
 
Kubota b7200 tractor service repair manual
Kubota b7200 tractor service repair manualKubota b7200 tractor service repair manual
Kubota b7200 tractor service repair manual
fjkskekxsdcmdmme
 
4 stroke cycle engine operations
4 stroke cycle engine operations4 stroke cycle engine operations
4 stroke cycle engine operations
MariaElizabethTabeli
 
Practical 1 Engine components.pptx
Practical 1 Engine components.pptxPractical 1 Engine components.pptx
Practical 1 Engine components.pptx
Kalyanibele
 
ENERGY AND POWER PVK.ppt
ENERGY AND POWER PVK.pptENERGY AND POWER PVK.ppt
ENERGY AND POWER PVK.ppt
BhavyaRKrishnan
 
Halderman ch032 lecture
Halderman ch032 lectureHalderman ch032 lecture
Halderman ch032 lecture
mcfalltj
 

Similar to Reciptengcomp3 (20)

Introduction of engine components
Introduction of engine componentsIntroduction of engine components
Introduction of engine components
 
Basic parts of engine.pptx
Basic parts of engine.pptxBasic parts of engine.pptx
Basic parts of engine.pptx
 
Unit i
Unit iUnit i
Unit i
 
Parts, bearings, gearing
Parts, bearings, gearingParts, bearings, gearing
Parts, bearings, gearing
 
Parts, bearings, gearing
Parts, bearings, gearingParts, bearings, gearing
Parts, bearings, gearing
 
IC Engines
IC EnginesIC Engines
IC Engines
 
Plugin nkr 4-jb1
Plugin nkr 4-jb1Plugin nkr 4-jb1
Plugin nkr 4-jb1
 
P 1 COMPONENTS OF ENGINE.pptx
P 1 COMPONENTS OF ENGINE.pptxP 1 COMPONENTS OF ENGINE.pptx
P 1 COMPONENTS OF ENGINE.pptx
 
Lesson6 diesel enginecomponents
Lesson6 diesel enginecomponentsLesson6 diesel enginecomponents
Lesson6 diesel enginecomponents
 
4 stroke cycle engine operations
4 stroke cycle engine operations4 stroke cycle engine operations
4 stroke cycle engine operations
 
Kubota b5200 tractor service repair manual
Kubota b5200 tractor service repair manualKubota b5200 tractor service repair manual
Kubota b5200 tractor service repair manual
 
4 a fe-3s-gte_5s-fe_manual
4 a fe-3s-gte_5s-fe_manual4 a fe-3s-gte_5s-fe_manual
4 a fe-3s-gte_5s-fe_manual
 
Kubota b7200 hst tractor service repair manual
Kubota b7200 hst tractor service repair manualKubota b7200 hst tractor service repair manual
Kubota b7200 hst tractor service repair manual
 
Halderman ch031 lecture
Halderman ch031 lectureHalderman ch031 lecture
Halderman ch031 lecture
 
Components of IC engines
Components of IC enginesComponents of IC engines
Components of IC engines
 
Kubota b7200 tractor service repair manual
Kubota b7200 tractor service repair manualKubota b7200 tractor service repair manual
Kubota b7200 tractor service repair manual
 
4 stroke cycle engine operations
4 stroke cycle engine operations4 stroke cycle engine operations
4 stroke cycle engine operations
 
Practical 1 Engine components.pptx
Practical 1 Engine components.pptxPractical 1 Engine components.pptx
Practical 1 Engine components.pptx
 
ENERGY AND POWER PVK.ppt
ENERGY AND POWER PVK.pptENERGY AND POWER PVK.ppt
ENERGY AND POWER PVK.ppt
 
Halderman ch032 lecture
Halderman ch032 lectureHalderman ch032 lecture
Halderman ch032 lecture
 

More from lccmechanics

Rotary Engines
Rotary EnginesRotary Engines
Rotary Engines
lccmechanics
 
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication SystemReciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
lccmechanics
 
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   LargeBasic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
lccmechanics
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
lccmechanics
 
Flight Conditions
Flight ConditionsFlight Conditions
Flight Conditions
lccmechanics
 
Study Guide
Study GuideStudy Guide
Study Guide
lccmechanics
 
High Speed Aircraft
High Speed AircraftHigh Speed Aircraft
High Speed Aircraft
lccmechanics
 
Helicopters (11 30 09)
Helicopters (11 30 09)Helicopters (11 30 09)
Helicopters (11 30 09)
lccmechanics
 
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
lccmechanics
 
Stability
StabilityStability
Stability
lccmechanics
 
Lubrication study guide
Lubrication study guideLubrication study guide
Lubrication study guide
lccmechanics
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
lccmechanics
 
High Speed Aerodynamics
High Speed AerodynamicsHigh Speed Aerodynamics
High Speed Aerodynamics
lccmechanics
 
Basic Aerodynamics To Stability
Basic Aerodynamics To StabilityBasic Aerodynamics To Stability
Basic Aerodynamics To Stability
lccmechanics
 
Assy Rigging
Assy RiggingAssy Rigging
Assy Rigging
lccmechanics
 
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
lccmechanics
 

More from lccmechanics (18)

Powerplant2
Powerplant2Powerplant2
Powerplant2
 
Reciprocatingpi
ReciprocatingpiReciprocatingpi
Reciprocatingpi
 
Rotary Engines
Rotary EnginesRotary Engines
Rotary Engines
 
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication SystemReciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
 
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   LargeBasic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
 
Flight Conditions
Flight ConditionsFlight Conditions
Flight Conditions
 
Study Guide
Study GuideStudy Guide
Study Guide
 
High Speed Aircraft
High Speed AircraftHigh Speed Aircraft
High Speed Aircraft
 
Helicopters (11 30 09)
Helicopters (11 30 09)Helicopters (11 30 09)
Helicopters (11 30 09)
 
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
 
Stability
StabilityStability
Stability
 
Lubrication study guide
Lubrication study guideLubrication study guide
Lubrication study guide
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
 
High Speed Aerodynamics
High Speed AerodynamicsHigh Speed Aerodynamics
High Speed Aerodynamics
 
Basic Aerodynamics To Stability
Basic Aerodynamics To StabilityBasic Aerodynamics To Stability
Basic Aerodynamics To Stability
 
Assy Rigging
Assy RiggingAssy Rigging
Assy Rigging
 
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
 

Recently uploaded

Innovation Hub_ Spotlight on Toms River's Role as a Beacon for Entrepreneuria...
Innovation Hub_ Spotlight on Toms River's Role as a Beacon for Entrepreneuria...Innovation Hub_ Spotlight on Toms River's Role as a Beacon for Entrepreneuria...
Innovation Hub_ Spotlight on Toms River's Role as a Beacon for Entrepreneuria...
Philip M Caputo
 
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
Newman George Leech
 
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
Auxis Consulting & Outsourcing
 
Top five predictions today, .
Top five predictions today,            .Top five predictions today,            .
Top five predictions today, .
Rupasingh82
 
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 	  17th Edition Edward J. Vander...Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 	  17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
kevinkariuki227
 
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
margaretblush
 
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptxupGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
himanshubclubofgsv
 
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
dimplekumaridk322
 
California Carpet Stewardship Program Q1 2024
California Carpet Stewardship Program Q1 2024California Carpet Stewardship Program Q1 2024
California Carpet Stewardship Program Q1 2024
Carpet America Recovery Effort
 
84th Marketing Club (OTC Marketing) Dr.Mahmoud Hamed 23rd Cairo.pdf
84th Marketing Club (OTC Marketing) Dr.Mahmoud Hamed 23rd Cairo.pdf84th Marketing Club (OTC Marketing) Dr.Mahmoud Hamed 23rd Cairo.pdf
84th Marketing Club (OTC Marketing) Dr.Mahmoud Hamed 23rd Cairo.pdf
ahmed614380
 
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Divyanshu56740
 
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
emmanuelpulido003
 
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel HammametRestaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
rihabkorbi24
 
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological StyleZodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
my Pandit
 
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 ReportChief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Compliance Vision
 
Look at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on MiningLook at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on Mining
NZSG
 
Benefits of Hiring Gen X Compared to Gen Z and Millennials.pptx
Benefits of Hiring Gen X Compared to Gen Z and Millennials.pptxBenefits of Hiring Gen X Compared to Gen Z and Millennials.pptx
Benefits of Hiring Gen X Compared to Gen Z and Millennials.pptx
Brian Frerichs
 
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publicationsSTEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
mcynthus
 
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdfEN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
ivanparu86
 
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
Doug Hall
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Innovation Hub_ Spotlight on Toms River's Role as a Beacon for Entrepreneuria...
Innovation Hub_ Spotlight on Toms River's Role as a Beacon for Entrepreneuria...Innovation Hub_ Spotlight on Toms River's Role as a Beacon for Entrepreneuria...
Innovation Hub_ Spotlight on Toms River's Role as a Beacon for Entrepreneuria...
 
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
United Kingdom's Real Estate Mogul: Newman George Leech's Impact on the Swiss...
 
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
AI at Work​ The demystification of AI and real-world stories on how to apply ...
 
Top five predictions today, .
Top five predictions today,            .Top five predictions today,            .
Top five predictions today, .
 
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 	  17th Edition Edward J. Vander...Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 	  17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
Test Bank For Principles Of Cost Accounting, 17th Edition Edward J. Vander...
 
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Andheri West 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptxupGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
upGrad_Case_Study_by_Himanshu_Singh.pptx
 
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
High Profile Girls Call Bhubaneswar 🎈🔥000XX00000 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Gir...
 
California Carpet Stewardship Program Q1 2024
California Carpet Stewardship Program Q1 2024California Carpet Stewardship Program Q1 2024
California Carpet Stewardship Program Q1 2024
 
84th Marketing Club (OTC Marketing) Dr.Mahmoud Hamed 23rd Cairo.pdf
84th Marketing Club (OTC Marketing) Dr.Mahmoud Hamed 23rd Cairo.pdf84th Marketing Club (OTC Marketing) Dr.Mahmoud Hamed 23rd Cairo.pdf
84th Marketing Club (OTC Marketing) Dr.Mahmoud Hamed 23rd Cairo.pdf
 
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .Gym business MODEL .pdf                 .
Gym business MODEL .pdf .
 
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
21stcenturyskillsframeworkfinalpresentation2-240509214747-71edb7ee.pdf
 
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel HammametRestaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
Restaurant Chiraz Sindbad Hotel Hammamet
 
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological StyleZodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
Zodiac Signs and Fashion: Dressing to Suit Your Astrological Style
 
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 ReportChief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
Chief Compliance Officer Leadership Vision 2024 Report
 
Look at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on MiningLook at our July library display on Mining
Look at our July library display on Mining
 
Benefits of Hiring Gen X Compared to Gen Z and Millennials.pptx
Benefits of Hiring Gen X Compared to Gen Z and Millennials.pptxBenefits of Hiring Gen X Compared to Gen Z and Millennials.pptx
Benefits of Hiring Gen X Compared to Gen Z and Millennials.pptx
 
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publicationsSTEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
STEPIC Innovations 2026 futurism publications
 
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdfEN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
EN_Chinese-Automotive-in-SEA-Vero-White-Paper_2023.pdf
 
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
What's your strategy? Getting tactical about being strategic.
 

Reciptengcomp3

  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Opposed crankcase Sections are not as distinct as in the radial and the crankcase splits from front to rear instead of in radial sections
  • 7.  
  • 8. Crankshaft Changes reciprocating motion of pistons into rotating motion to drive propeller Constructed of chrome-nickel-molybdenum-steel May be one piece or as many as three separate pieces The propeller mounts to the front of the crankshaft using a spline, taper, or flange The crankshaft rotates within the crankcase and is supported by main bearing journals Crankshaft throws or crankpins are off center and account for the reciprocating motion of the pistons
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. Crankshaft Ends For Mounting Propellers
  • 16. Dynamic Dampers can be mounted to the crankshaft to reduce vibration (floating) Counterweights are also used to reduce vibration but they are rigid and do not float Counterweights and dampers are used in piston engines because the power pulses and movement of the pistons create large amounts of vibration Vibration shortens airframe and engine life and can lead to premature component failure The engine is also mounted in rubber bushings to absorb vibration
  • 17.  
  • 18. 2 Piece Crankshaft With Counterweights (Single Throw, Single Cylinder)
  • 19.  
  • 20. Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal, Pin, Arm
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder Barrel Chrome-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum steel Used to guide and seal piston and to mount cylinder assembly to head Barrel threads into head to form cylinder assembly
  • 26. Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder interior wall Cylinder Walls
  • 27. Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Chrome cylinder walls use chromium plating to resist wear and provide a corrosion resistant surface. Cylinders may be chromed back to standard inside dimensions if they become worn Chrome is too smooth to hold oil without etching or channeling during the overhaul process
  • 28. Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction The cylinder head is designed to transfer heat by conduction to the fins and then from the fins to the air by convection The exhaust side of the head has the most fins as it runs the hottest The head also may incorporate a drain line fitting to allow excess oil to return to the crankcase (intercylinder drain lines on radials)
  • 29. Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder Walls Inside surface of cylinder barrel is honed to a controlled amount of roughness Rough enough to hold oil film but smooth enough to minimize friction and wear Plain steel cylinder walls are not treated to prevent wear or corrosion Nitrided cylinder walls are hardened to reduce wear but still rust as easily as plain steel walls. Nitriding is exposing the cylinder wall to ammonia at high temperatures and it hardens the wall to a thickness of approximately .005”
  • 30. Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder wall “CHOKE” The cylinder wall is tapered inward towards the top so that as the engine warms up, the hotter top of the wall expands more than the bottom, creating a round barrel at operating temperature.
  • 31. Engine Parts, Description, Function, Construction Cylinder heads Constructed of cast aluminum Provides combustion chamber, and mounting areas for spark plugs and valve parts
  • 33.  
  • 34. Valve and Guide Head Tulip Mushroom Semi Tulip Flat Heat
  • 35.  
  • 36. Valve and Guide Stem Hardened Steel Metallic Sodium filled is a chemical element which has the symbol Na (Latin: natrium), atomic number 11, atomic mass 22.9898 g/mol, common oxidation number +1. Sodium is a soft, silvery white, highly reactive element and is a member of the alkali metals within "group 1" (formerly known as ‘group IA’). It has only one stable isotope ,
  • 37. Valve and Guide Face Stellite alloy is a range of cobalt - chromium alloys designed for wear resistance. It may also contain tungsten and a small but important amount of carbon . It is a trademarked name of the Deloro Stellite Company and was invented by Elwood Haynes [1] in the early 1900s as a substitute for flatware that stained (or that had to be constantly cleaned).
  • 38. Valve Tip Stellite Split Key Safety Circlet Spring Rotator
  • 39. Valve Springs Inner and outer springs are used to prevent bounce, provide redundancy, and increase valve closing pressure Held in place by retainer washers on the top and bottom of the spring Split key or “keeper” holds the retainers and springs in place on the valve stem
  • 42. Valves and the Valve System Valves control the flow of gases inside the engine Poppet valves are the most common and get their name from the popping open and closed during operation Intake valves are chrome steel and are cooled by the incoming air and fuel mixture Exhaust valves are also alloy steel but are often filled with metallic sodium for cooling. Valve faces may be coated with Stellite to reduce wear and corrosion Valve faces are ground to 30 degrees for intake (airflow) and 45 degrees (cooling) for exhaust
  • 43. 1290 degrees F (typical)
  • 44.  
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56.  
  • 57.  
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61.  
  • 62.  
  • 63. Crankcase The crankcase holds all of the engine parts in alignment and supports the cylinders and crankshaft It provides a place to mount the engine to the aircraft Constructed of aluminum alloy Divided into sections (radial)
  • 64. Nose section - Houses prop shaft and bearings Power section - mount for cylinders Fuel induction section - intake tubes, blower, manifolds (supercharger) Accessory section - mounts for magnetos, pumps, generators (magnesium)
  • 65. Pistons Constructed of aluminum alloy ALCOA132 Parts include top, ring grooves, ring lands, skirt, and piston pin boss Cooling fins on the bottom help the oil carry heat away from the piston top
  • 66.  
  • 67. Cam ground pistons diameter of the piston is greater perpendicular to the piston pin boss This compensates for uneven expansion during operation (becomes round at operating temperature)
  • 68.  
  • 70. Piston rings (general) Provide seal between cylinder wall and piston Rings ride on a thin film of oil Conduct heat from the piston out to the cylinder and the fins Material is cast iron or chrome steel Piston rings (type) Compression rings are located at the top of the piston and seal the combustion chamber Types include rectangular, tapered,wedge
  • 72. Oil control rings On bottom of piston below compression rings Regulates oil film thickness on cylinder wall Holes in ring and piston allow excess oil to drain back to crankcase Too much oil film and the engine will use excessive oil and too little oil causes heat and insufficient lubrication Oil scraper rings Directs the oil away from or towards the oil control rings depending upon the requirements of the engine
  • 73. Piston ring end gap The gap at the end of the rings allows for expansion and contraction and unevenness in the cylinder wall Butt, step and angle types Always stagger the end gaps during ring installation to prevent losing compression
  • 74. Piston Pins (wrist pins) Connects the piston to the end of the connecting rod Constructed of hardened steel The pin is retained in the piston with clips or plugs to prevent cylinder wall scoring Typical Lycoming and Continental pins are free-floating, meaning the pin is not secured to the piston or the rod.
  • 75.  
  • 76. Connecting Rod Assembly The link between the crankshaft and the piston Normally steel but some low powered engines use aluminum to save weight Cross section is an “H” or “I” Types include : Plain Rod Fork and blade rod Master and articulated
  • 77. Plain Type Rods Used on inline and opposed engines Small bushing at piston pin end is pressed in place and reamed to final dimensions Large end of rod includes a cap, bolts, nuts, and plain bearing inserts Rods are numbered as to cylinder and for cap-to-rod alignment
  • 78. Fork and Blade Connecting Rod Used on “V” type engines One rod inside another allows cylinders to be aligned and to share a common location on the crankshaft
  • 79. Master and Articulating Rod Used on radial engines Uses “knuckle pins” to retain articulated rods to master Master Rod Articulating Rod
  • 82.  
  • 88. Valve Lifter or Tappet May be solid, roller, or hydraulic The lifter follows the cam lobes and pushes on the pushrod Solid and roller lifters require adjustable rocker arms Hydraulic type lifters fill with oil and lengthen to compensate for any clearances in the valve system
  • 90.  
  • 94. Camshaft Turns at 1/2 the speed of the crankshaft Must be mechanically coupled to the crankshaft for timing purposes (gears, belts, chains) The camshaft consists of bearing journals and lobes spaced along the shaft Each lobe is positioned to open and close a valve at a specific time Lobe
  • 95. Pushrod transmits push of lifter up to rocker arm Hollow to allow oil to flow to the top of the cylinder for valve part lubrication Length can be varied to adjust valve clearance Valve clearance is the space between the top of the valve stem and the rocker arm. This clearance is to prevent a valve from being held open with the resulting heat build-up and loss of compression valve clearance increases as the engine operates due to cylinder expansion (solid lifters) Hydraulic lifters have a “0” clearance in operation
  • 96. Valve clearance adjustment Valve clearance measurement
  • 97. Rocker Arm Adjustable in solid lifter engines and fixed in engines with hydraulic lifters One end rests on the valve stem and the other on the pushrod Rocking motion opens and closes the valves Roller rocker arms incorporate a roller that reduces friction and are used in some radials and experimental engines
  • 98. Bearings Must be able to withstand forces inside an engine with minimal friction and heat build- up. Must accept radial and thrust loads Plain Bearings A steel insert with babbitt (lead alloy) bonded to the bearing surface Plain bearings are keyed to keep them in place A lip or flange allows the plain bearing to accept thrust loads Commonly used as crankshaft and rod bearings in opposed engines
  • 99.  
  • 100. Normal Lycoming main bearing wear. Symmetrical pattern - side to side and end to end. Crankshaft is running true in bearing. I call such a pattern a "hour-glass" pattern.
  • 101. Main bearing wear. Contact occurs only on upper half of bearing. Crankshaft is not running true in bearing. Either crankshaft is bent or crankcase journals are mis-aligned
  • 102. Fatigue failed Lycoming 320 main bearing. Contact pressure from the crankshaft seems to be more concentrated and concentrated at the lower edge.
  • 103. Damage or wiping at the center has to form before a hydrodynamic film is formed - an indicator of a dry start!
  • 104. Breakdown of oil film Severe abnormal main bearing wear located at right side of bearing and the bottom edge. The pattern on the right is called "wiping"
  • 105. early sign of bearing failure may be drop off of idle oil pressure or momentary loss of propeller control
  • 106. Roller Bearings (antifriction) Hard steel rollers captured between an inner and outer “race” and held in alignment by a “cage” May be tapered to absorb radial and thrust loads or straight to absorb radial loads only
  • 107. Parts of a Ball Bearing OUTER RACE INNER RACE CAGE BALL
  • 108. Ball Bearings (antifriction) Used for both radial and thrust loads Deep grooves in races allow thrust loads
  • 109. Bearing cleaning and safety Wash old grease and debris with solvent Blow dry with shop air but do not spin the bearing with the air blast Reapply grease or oil immediately to prevent corrosion Protect skin and eyes from solvent contact
  • 110. Propeller Reduction Gearing Purpose is to reduce propeller rpm to its optimal speed and to increase engine rpm to its optimal speed Propeller always turns slower than the engine Gear Ratios: Expressed as 2:1, .64:1, 300:1 At what speed will the propeller be turning if the engine rpm is 2000 and the gear ratio is 2:1? 1000 rpm
  • 111. Which reduction ratio will provide the fastest propeller speed 10:1 or 4:1? 4:1 (it is the closest to 1:1) Spur Gears Simple drive and driven gear system Number of teeth on gear and gear diameters determine reduction ratio Large gear would be mounted to propeller as it turns the slowest
  • 112. Planetary Gears Ring gear, Planet gear, Sun gear Large gear reductions possible Compact and versatile Common in large radials and turbine engines