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Flight ConditionsTranslational Lift 16-24 knots forward speed.
At low forward speed, air is re-circulated.
Wingtip vortices are created at forward edge.
Starts to climb on its own.Transverse Flow EffectLow power conditions
Felt most at hover
Air is being accelerated in a more downward angle, epically towards the rear of the rotor system.

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Flight Conditions

  • 1. Flight ConditionsTranslational Lift 16-24 knots forward speed.
  • 2. At low forward speed, air is re-circulated.
  • 3. Wingtip vortices are created at forward edge.
  • 4. Starts to climb on its own.Transverse Flow EffectLow power conditions
  • 6. Air is being accelerated in a more downward angle, epically towards the rear of the rotor system.
  • 7. Angle of attack decreases in rear (reaction is 90 degrees to the right) causes helicopter to pull to the right.Auto-rotations: Emergency capability in case of engine failureIn normal flight, air is pulled down through rotors
  • 9. Push collective all the way down
  • 10. Establish a certain forward airspeed (varies among aircraft)
  • 11. As aircraft falls, air is pushed UP through rotors
  • 12. Maintains rotor rpm at full rpm
  • 13. At about 50 ft. of altitude, pull the nose up
  • 14. Slows airspeed, and increases volume of air blowing through rotors eg: more energy available.
  • 15. Add full right peddle (to keep fuselage from spinning)
  • 16. Around 10 ft. pull up on the collective to slow as much as possible before touchdown. (uses up built up airspeed in rotor system)Altitude is important in autorotation” Dead mans curve”Retreating Blade Stall: Extreme dissymmetry of lift, at very high forward air speeds.Excessive angle of attack on retreating blade side.
  • 17. Feel a slight vibration
  • 18. Either slow down or lower the collectiveVortex Ring State (Settling with power): During steep approaches. Slow your decent. Coming down fast, you get into your downwash. Increase in power will increase the effect eg: speed your decent more.If descending at 300 fpm or more
  • 19. + less than 10 mph forward airspeed
  • 20. + 20 to 100% power applied
  • 21. = can descend inside rotor downwashGround ResonanceControlsAxes of FlightLateral Axis = Pitch,
  • 23. Longitudinal Axis = RollThree basic controls: Cyclic (stick between your legs), Collective, PedalsTo go forward, you need rotor to drop in front and raise rotors in rear. To raise rotors in rear, you need force on left.CyclicPitch
  • 24. RollThe cyclic controls the swash plate.This swash plate is setup for a two blade helicopter (note there is only 2 pitch links)Collective: Changes amount of pitch to main rotor system (all blades affected the same)Pull up on collective, more lift. As you pull up on collective, more throttle is requred.The end of the collective is the engine throttle.Starter button is commonly on the end of the collective.Pedals: Yaw left and right.On takeoff when adding more collective, need to add left peddle to fight drift.Tail Rotors: Most of the noise you hear from a helicoptor is the tail rotor.Types:Semi-Rigid
  • 25. Most common until recently
  • 27. Has same Dissymmetry of Lift problems as M/R so will teeter usually (some let blades flap)
  • 28. Most use Offset Hinges so pitch is physically changed as rotor teeters = minimal actual teetering action
  • 33. NOTAR
  • 35. Uses fan inside tail boom with exhaust out side of boom through variable vent connected to pedals
  • 36. Also uses Coanda Effect from rotor downwash
  • 37. Air flowing over the curved surface “sticks” to that surface and creates lift sideways
  • 38. “A variable pitch fan is enclosed in the aft fuselage section immediately forward of the tail boom and driven by the main rotor transmission. This fan forces low pressure air through two slots on the right side of the tail boom, causing the downwash from the main rotor to hug the tail boom, producing lift, and thus a measure of directional control. This is augmented by a direct jet thruster and vertical stabilizers.” –WikipediaStabilizer Surfaces Fixed HorizontalCreates download on tail to keep fuselage more level during high speed flightSynchronized ElevatorConnected to CyclicChanges pitch to change tail down load for various flight speedsFixed VerticalFor directional stabilityHydraulicsFor larger or heavier M/R systemsMostly use Irreversible type systems to overcome flight loads and dampen vibrations in sticksStabilizer ControlsAre inherently unstableAs rotor lift/thrust vector tilts away from vertical = creates vector to pull away from center= negative stabilityCompensationsBell Stabilizer BarBar below M/R @ 90o to blade spanActs like gyroscope and uses Rigidity in Space characteristic to try and keep rotor and aircraft in one attitudeWorked too well so needs hydraulic damper to limit it’s effectiveness and allow reasonable maneuverability Offset Flapping HingeOn fully-articulated rotor heads and on some tail rotorsHinge moved a distance from rotor’s rotation axis = acts like lever to provide restoring forceStabilization Augmentation System (SAS)Like simple autopilotOne- or two-axisOnly to aid stability, not true autopilot