SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns V.  High Speed Aerodynamics High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating
V.  High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating
High Speed Aerodynamics As WWII progressed, aircraft flew faster and faster.  By mid-war, P51s, Spitfires, and other types were reaching speeds close to that of sound, especially in dives.  Pilots began to report control difficulties and unexpected problems which experts determined were due to flying too close to the speed of sound. Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
High Speed Aerodynamics In 1940, NACA commissioned the Bell Aircraft Company to build a special research aircraft for the purpose of exploring the speed range near and beyond the speed of sound.  It was considered better to do the research using an actual aircraft because the USA had no wind tunnels capable of operating at supersonic speed.  Of course, the Germans did.  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
High Speed Aerodynamics The research aircraft Bell built was designated the X1.  Two operational aircraft were finally built, although they did not fly until the war was over.  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
High Speed Aerodynamics By the time the war was over, the German research data had been captured and several of the questions the X1 was intended to answer were already known.  Nevertheless, the X1 became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in October 1947 when Chuck Yeager flew it to Mach 1.1 . Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction X1 movie
High Speed Aerodynamics At subsonic speed (less than Mach 1) air acts as if it’s an incompressible fluid Can change it’s velocity and pressure but not density As long as it can still move, the space between molecules will effectively not change = density remains constant Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects Bernoulli’s Principle: Subsonic: In CONVERGING portion of venturi (Inlet) Air must travel faster to get to other side at same time as bypass air Velocity goes up Pressure goes down
High Speed Aerodynamics Bernoulli’s Principle: Subsonic: In DIVERGING portion of venturi (Exit) Pressure and Velocity return to original Based on Total Energy being constant throughout Pressure = Potential Energy Velocity = Kinetic Energy Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects
High Speed Aerodynamics At supersonic speed (more than Mach 1) air can be compressed and it’s density increased Space between molecules can and is reduced Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects Link to venturi simulation
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects Link to venturi simulation Bernoulli’s Principle: Opposite effects as compared to subsonic Converging: Pressure goes up and Velocity goes down Diverging:  Pressure down, Velocity up
High Speed Aerodynamics Sound is pressure disturbances radiating in all directions from the source Travels @ 661.7 knots (1,116.9 fps, 761.5 mph) under Standard Conditions Speed is directly proportional to temperature (goes down as temp. goes down) Can be calculated (C S  = Local Speed of Sound): C S  in kts = 29.04     o R C S  in fps = 49.022     o R C S  in mph = 33.42     o R Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Importance of the Speed of Sound Note:  o R =  o F + 460
High Speed Aerodynamics Note that at 36,089 feet the temperature stabilizes at –69.7 and the Speed of Sound also stabilizes at 573.8 kts Also note that above 80,000 feet the temp starts to rise and the Speed of Sound also rises Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Importance of the Speed of Sound
High Speed Aerodynamics In subsonic flight Sound waves radiate from all points of airframe Can go in all directions as are faster than aircraft Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Importance of the Speed of Sound
High Speed Aerodynamics In supersonic flight Airplane faster so sound waves “pile up” at nose of airfoil Creates Shock Wave(s) = changes in pressure and velocity of airflow Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Importance of the Speed of Sound Pressure Waves Link (Hide Shockwaves)
High Speed Aerodynamics Mach # = ratio of True Airspeed of an aircraft to the Speed of Sound at that temperature Subsonic: .75 Mach or less All airflow over aircraft is < Mach 1 Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight
High Speed Aerodynamics Transonic: .75  to 1.2 Mach Mixture of sonic airflow speeds Some < Mach 1, some >= Mach 1 Aerodynamic center of lift moves to about 50% of chord Shock waves form and move around = large changes in trim & stability (control buffeting) Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight
High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic: 1.2  to 5.0 Mach All airflow is > Mach 1 Smooth & efficient flight Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight Hypersonic: > 5.0 Mach
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight Hypersonic: > 5.0 Mach Leads to Aerodynamic Heating & other flight problems
High Speed Aerodynamics Shock waves form when the aircraft (or parts of it) are exceeding Mach 1 in speed Sound waves slower than aircraft speed Air “piles up” in Compression Wave = large changes in pressure, velocity, and density of airflow Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves)
High Speed Aerodynamics Shock waves form when the aircraft (or parts of it) are exceeding Mach 1 in speed Sound waves slower than aircraft speed Air “piles up” in Compression Wave = large changes in pressure, velocity, and density of airflow Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves)
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) F18 flyby movie F14 flyby movie
High Speed Aerodynamics 3 kinds of Shock Waves: Oblique Normal Expansion Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) Pressure Waves Link Show Shockwaves
High Speed Aerodynamics Oblique  Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) Forms on sharp edges with surface changing into the direction of the airflow  commonly on Leading and Trailing Edges of airfoil Shock wave forms Oblique Angle with surface and “points” downstream in airflow Angle gets less as speed goes up “ flattens out”
High Speed Aerodynamics Oblique Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) @ wave: Flow direction is deflected along surface Velocity decreases but STAYS ABOVE MACH 1 Pressure increases Temperature increases Density increases Total energy goes down Energy loss comes from loss of temperature (Heat of Compression) to atmosphere
High Speed Aerodynamics Normal  Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) Forms in front of or on blunt object or one with large included angle
High Speed Aerodynamics Normal  Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) In front: Molecules pile up and create wave detached and in front of the object = “Bow Wave”
High Speed Aerodynamics Normal  Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) On: Attaches to curved portion where airflow speed is just above Mach 1 In Transonic range = form on upper airfoil surface first (at about .75 Mach) then lower surface (at about .85 Mach) NOTE:  the indicated Mach numbers vary depending on the airfoil
High Speed Aerodynamics Normal Shock Waves Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) @ wave: Flow direction doesn’t change Velocity decreases TO BELOW MACH 1 Subsonic speed inversely proportional to Mach # entering wave (higher C S  going in = lower subsonic speed coming out) Large Pressure, Density, and Temperature increase Large Total Energy decrease (from temp. radiation into air)
High Speed Aerodynamics Expansion  Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) Form where surface turns away from airflow direction Middle of airfoil Velocity increases Pressure and Density both decrease Temperature remains relatively constant = little or no Total Energy change (is not a compression wave)
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils   Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Below about .75 Mach = all flow is subsonic
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: At some airspeed ( = Critical Mach Number or M CR ) some airflow will reach or exceed Mach 1
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils   Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: Normal shock wave forms on upper surface where max airfoil thickness is ( = greatest velocity) Causes large increase in drag
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: Pressure rise through shock wave reduces strength of low pressure area on wing Low pressure usually “sucks” air against airfoil for smooth flow Loss of low pressure = air isn’t sucked down smoothly and SHOCK INDUCED SEPARATION occurs on upper surface = loss of lift and reduced control effectiveness from turbulence
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: As speed increases closer to Mach 1: Normal wave forms on lower surface and upper wave moves further back towards trailing edge = shock induced separation on bottom, too
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: At Mach 1: Top and bottom normal waves have moved to trailing edge and form oblique waves there Entire surfaces have supersonic flow = smooth flow Leading edge now has normal wave forming in front of it Known as BOW WAVE Like wave at bow of boat
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: At Mach 1: Area behind bow wave is relatively slow and called STAGNATION AREA Large energy loss through normal wave creates significant drag Shockwave Link Normal and Oblique Shockwaves
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: Above Mach 1: Stagnation area gets smaller but energy loss increases Greater change in velocity and pressure through normal wave = greater drag (proportional to speed)
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number To increase Critical Mach Number (or delay Shock Induced Separation occurrence): Can use Vortex Generators or Swept Wings
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Vortex Generators Small, low Aspect Ratio airfoils mounted in pairs at 90 o  on wing surfaces Produces strong vortex around end = pulls air back onto wing surface = delays airflow separation  Pair mounting = pairs work together for greater effectiveness
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Swept Wings Swept wings change the THICKNESS RATIO of the wing (also known as Fineness Ratio) Ratio of max. thickness of airfoil to chord Lower Thickness Ratio = thinner wing = less velocity change across wing = higher M CR
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Swept Wings Unfortunately, this also causes more flow of air in a spanwise direction = stronger wingtip vortices = increased drag overall Also, aft swept wings generally cause the tip to stall first (= potentially loose aileron control)
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Swept Wings Forward swept wings (I.e. Grumman X-29) have same M CR  advantages as aft swept + roots stall first = can do more extreme high angle of attack maneuvers without losing control But needs computer to control as is inherently very unstable
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Swept Wings Also, at higher speeds the wing will twist due to aerodynamic loading and will tend to wash in  Increase angle of incidence = increased lift and drag = increased loads to failure Composite materials make wings light and stiff enough to withstand these forces
High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Movable Hor. Stab. Horizontal Stablizer will also tend to loose effectiveness at Critical Mach Number Can keep it effective by making it’s Angle of Incidence adjustable F86 used this to allow supersonic speeds while maintaining control Was first one to do so
High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic  Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number To eliminate Shock Induced Separation in Transonic range = airfoils with max. thickness @ 50% of chord Double Wedge or Biconvex
High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic  Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Thin airfoil = no normal shock forms Sharp edges form obliques with tiny bow wave and expansion wave in middle
High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic  Airfoils  Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number All lead to practically zero subsonic airflow (= zero turbulence and drag from energy change) Problem:  not good subsonic characteristics
High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic  Aircraft Configuration Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Wing Planform Low Aspect Ratio & tapered Good strength and weight Sweptback  For transonic and low supersonic Straight For high supersonic (Mach 2 +)
High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic   Aircraft Configuration Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Airfoil Low Thickness (Fineness) Ratio Gradual change in thickness (airfoil shape) Max. thickness @ 50% of chord Sharp leading and trailing edges
High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic   Aircraft Configuration Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Fuselage & Nacelles Long Slender Fuselage “Wasp Waisted” Decreases overall Form and Interference Drags from interaction of shock waves on various structure areas
High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic   Aircraft Configuration Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Tail Surfaces Planform and airfoil similar to wings Generally all movable horizontal surfaces Powered irreversible systems
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Aerodynamic Heating As speeds increase above Mach 1, the Stagnation Area sees great temperature rises Faster = greater temp rise Less affect at higher altitudes
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Aerodynamic Heating Increased temps = decreased metal strengths As we near Hypersonic speeds the temps are so high that normal materials will melt Research today is in this area with ceramics and composite materials
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Future? Lockheed is working on this design slated to fly by 2010 Supposed to disperse the shock waves to allow supersonic flight over populated areas
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Future? Also, right now “Quiet Spike”
High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Future? Flew at Mach 9.6 Last year X43 Overview X43 flights
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Airfoil
AirfoilAirfoil
Airfoil
guest31cc9b
 
Supersonic Aircrafts
Supersonic AircraftsSupersonic Aircrafts
Supersonic Aircrafts
Parham_niceguy
 
Aircraft Design
Aircraft DesignAircraft Design
Aircraft Design
ahmad bassiouny
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
lccmechanics
 
Unit I WING AND AEROFOIL SECTION
Unit I  WING AND AEROFOIL SECTIONUnit I  WING AND AEROFOIL SECTION
Unit I WING AND AEROFOIL SECTION
Pradeep Kumar
 
Helicopter aerodynamics
Helicopter aerodynamicsHelicopter aerodynamics
Helicopter aerodynamics
Bazil M H
 
Basics of Aerodynamics
Basics of AerodynamicsBasics of Aerodynamics
Basics of Aerodynamics
Zubayer Al Billal Khan
 
FM-Basics Topics Wise Solutions | Q & A | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
FM-Basics Topics Wise Solutions | Q & A | Flight Mechanics | GATE AerospaceFM-Basics Topics Wise Solutions | Q & A | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
FM-Basics Topics Wise Solutions | Q & A | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
Age of Aerospace
 
new trends in aerodynamics
new trends in aerodynamicsnew trends in aerodynamics
new trends in aerodynamics
Surinder Tiwari
 
Piston engine powerplant
Piston engine powerplantPiston engine powerplant
Piston engine powerplant
Johan Andhira
 
Angle of Attack | Q & A | Question Analysis | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
Angle of Attack | Q & A | Question Analysis | Flight Mechanics | GATE AerospaceAngle of Attack | Q & A | Question Analysis | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
Angle of Attack | Q & A | Question Analysis | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
Age of Aerospace
 
Aircraft Design Project 1
Aircraft Design Project 1Aircraft Design Project 1
Aircraft Design Project 1
chiraggoyal59
 
Flight Controls - Chapter 5
Flight Controls - Chapter 5Flight Controls - Chapter 5
Flight Controls - Chapter 5
junio_oliveira
 
Aircraft mechanical cable control system
Aircraft mechanical cable control systemAircraft mechanical cable control system
Aircraft mechanical cable control system
raj_sevak
 
Aircraft Fuel System
Aircraft Fuel System Aircraft Fuel System
Aircraft Fuel System
PriyankaKg4
 
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
lccmechanics
 
Aircraft Wing
Aircraft Wing Aircraft Wing
Aircraft Wing
Vishal Vyas
 
Aircraft ctrl systems
Aircraft ctrl systemsAircraft ctrl systems
Aircraft ctrl systems
KUMARESAN ARUNAGIRI
 
CFD analysis of aerofoil
CFD analysis of aerofoilCFD analysis of aerofoil
CFD analysis of aerofoil
Neel Thakkar
 
helicopter-aerodynamics
 helicopter-aerodynamics helicopter-aerodynamics
helicopter-aerodynamics
ravi malla thakuri
 

What's hot (20)

Airfoil
AirfoilAirfoil
Airfoil
 
Supersonic Aircrafts
Supersonic AircraftsSupersonic Aircrafts
Supersonic Aircrafts
 
Aircraft Design
Aircraft DesignAircraft Design
Aircraft Design
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
 
Unit I WING AND AEROFOIL SECTION
Unit I  WING AND AEROFOIL SECTIONUnit I  WING AND AEROFOIL SECTION
Unit I WING AND AEROFOIL SECTION
 
Helicopter aerodynamics
Helicopter aerodynamicsHelicopter aerodynamics
Helicopter aerodynamics
 
Basics of Aerodynamics
Basics of AerodynamicsBasics of Aerodynamics
Basics of Aerodynamics
 
FM-Basics Topics Wise Solutions | Q & A | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
FM-Basics Topics Wise Solutions | Q & A | Flight Mechanics | GATE AerospaceFM-Basics Topics Wise Solutions | Q & A | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
FM-Basics Topics Wise Solutions | Q & A | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
 
new trends in aerodynamics
new trends in aerodynamicsnew trends in aerodynamics
new trends in aerodynamics
 
Piston engine powerplant
Piston engine powerplantPiston engine powerplant
Piston engine powerplant
 
Angle of Attack | Q & A | Question Analysis | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
Angle of Attack | Q & A | Question Analysis | Flight Mechanics | GATE AerospaceAngle of Attack | Q & A | Question Analysis | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
Angle of Attack | Q & A | Question Analysis | Flight Mechanics | GATE Aerospace
 
Aircraft Design Project 1
Aircraft Design Project 1Aircraft Design Project 1
Aircraft Design Project 1
 
Flight Controls - Chapter 5
Flight Controls - Chapter 5Flight Controls - Chapter 5
Flight Controls - Chapter 5
 
Aircraft mechanical cable control system
Aircraft mechanical cable control systemAircraft mechanical cable control system
Aircraft mechanical cable control system
 
Aircraft Fuel System
Aircraft Fuel System Aircraft Fuel System
Aircraft Fuel System
 
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
1 Evolution And Type Of Structures
 
Aircraft Wing
Aircraft Wing Aircraft Wing
Aircraft Wing
 
Aircraft ctrl systems
Aircraft ctrl systemsAircraft ctrl systems
Aircraft ctrl systems
 
CFD analysis of aerofoil
CFD analysis of aerofoilCFD analysis of aerofoil
CFD analysis of aerofoil
 
helicopter-aerodynamics
 helicopter-aerodynamics helicopter-aerodynamics
helicopter-aerodynamics
 

Similar to High Speed Aerodynamics

AERODYNAMICS FORCES AND MOMENTS.ppt
AERODYNAMICS FORCES AND MOMENTS.pptAERODYNAMICS FORCES AND MOMENTS.ppt
AERODYNAMICS FORCES AND MOMENTS.ppt
tauraimamire
 
Sonics sir aamir
Sonics sir aamirSonics sir aamir
Sonics sir aamir
HaleemullahMShafiq
 
Po f lo5 p1
Po f lo5 p1Po f lo5 p1
Po f lo5 p1
sin2s
 
Aerodynamicsaeronauticsandflightmechanics 131107210632-phpapp01
Aerodynamicsaeronauticsandflightmechanics 131107210632-phpapp01Aerodynamicsaeronauticsandflightmechanics 131107210632-phpapp01
Aerodynamicsaeronauticsandflightmechanics 131107210632-phpapp01
Mariutxy
 
Air Flow Across Cavities (Aircraft Industry) - Gan Chun Chet
Air Flow Across Cavities (Aircraft Industry) - Gan Chun ChetAir Flow Across Cavities (Aircraft Industry) - Gan Chun Chet
Air Flow Across Cavities (Aircraft Industry) - Gan Chun Chet
Gan Chun Chet
 
The complex and dynamic theory of flight
The complex and dynamic theory of flightThe complex and dynamic theory of flight
The complex and dynamic theory of flight
Maria Lydon
 
Principles of flight
Principles of flightPrinciples of flight
Principles of flight
MikeSantos Lousath
 
webinar_37_acoustic_fatigue_NESC Academy.pptx
webinar_37_acoustic_fatigue_NESC Academy.pptxwebinar_37_acoustic_fatigue_NESC Academy.pptx
webinar_37_acoustic_fatigue_NESC Academy.pptx
davidlokito1
 
Mod2_Basic principles of flight.pdf
Mod2_Basic principles of flight.pdfMod2_Basic principles of flight.pdf
Mod2_Basic principles of flight.pdf
ParameshwarBanakar1
 
Aerodynamics aeronautics and flight mechanics
Aerodynamics aeronautics and flight mechanicsAerodynamics aeronautics and flight mechanics
Aerodynamics aeronautics and flight mechanics
Aghilesh V
 
Subsonic Airplane Design
Subsonic Airplane DesignSubsonic Airplane Design
Subsonic Airplane Design
ahmad bassiouny
 
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamicsLesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Heather Howley
 
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT DIVERGENT NOZZLE USING CFD
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT DIVERGENT NOZZLE USING CFDDESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT DIVERGENT NOZZLE USING CFD
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT DIVERGENT NOZZLE USING CFD
Netha Jashuva
 
Aerodynamics for Engineering Students ( PDFDrive ).pdf
Aerodynamics for Engineering Students ( PDFDrive ).pdfAerodynamics for Engineering Students ( PDFDrive ).pdf
Aerodynamics for Engineering Students ( PDFDrive ).pdf
OmarVarela20
 
9 fighter aircraft avionics-part ii
9 fighter aircraft avionics-part ii9 fighter aircraft avionics-part ii
9 fighter aircraft avionics-part ii
Solo Hermelin
 
Aviation Quiz-Game: TakeWING Safety Meeting
Aviation Quiz-Game: TakeWING Safety Meeting Aviation Quiz-Game: TakeWING Safety Meeting
Aviation Quiz-Game: TakeWING Safety Meeting
TakeWING
 
Pg tp-class17-air pressure wind
Pg tp-class17-air pressure windPg tp-class17-air pressure wind
Pg tp-class17-air pressure wind
SUNY Ulster
 
Aerodynamics Of The Airplane
Aerodynamics Of The AirplaneAerodynamics Of The Airplane
Aerodynamics Of The Airplane
Carrie Romero
 
Noise Reduction Modelling Study for Aircraft Cavity - Chun C Gan
Noise Reduction Modelling Study for Aircraft Cavity  - Chun C GanNoise Reduction Modelling Study for Aircraft Cavity  - Chun C Gan
Noise Reduction Modelling Study for Aircraft Cavity - Chun C Gan
Gan Chun Chet
 
Weather Theory Part I (Group C)
Weather Theory Part I (Group C)Weather Theory Part I (Group C)
Weather Theory Part I (Group C)
Logan Nielsen
 

Similar to High Speed Aerodynamics (20)

AERODYNAMICS FORCES AND MOMENTS.ppt
AERODYNAMICS FORCES AND MOMENTS.pptAERODYNAMICS FORCES AND MOMENTS.ppt
AERODYNAMICS FORCES AND MOMENTS.ppt
 
Sonics sir aamir
Sonics sir aamirSonics sir aamir
Sonics sir aamir
 
Po f lo5 p1
Po f lo5 p1Po f lo5 p1
Po f lo5 p1
 
Aerodynamicsaeronauticsandflightmechanics 131107210632-phpapp01
Aerodynamicsaeronauticsandflightmechanics 131107210632-phpapp01Aerodynamicsaeronauticsandflightmechanics 131107210632-phpapp01
Aerodynamicsaeronauticsandflightmechanics 131107210632-phpapp01
 
Air Flow Across Cavities (Aircraft Industry) - Gan Chun Chet
Air Flow Across Cavities (Aircraft Industry) - Gan Chun ChetAir Flow Across Cavities (Aircraft Industry) - Gan Chun Chet
Air Flow Across Cavities (Aircraft Industry) - Gan Chun Chet
 
The complex and dynamic theory of flight
The complex and dynamic theory of flightThe complex and dynamic theory of flight
The complex and dynamic theory of flight
 
Principles of flight
Principles of flightPrinciples of flight
Principles of flight
 
webinar_37_acoustic_fatigue_NESC Academy.pptx
webinar_37_acoustic_fatigue_NESC Academy.pptxwebinar_37_acoustic_fatigue_NESC Academy.pptx
webinar_37_acoustic_fatigue_NESC Academy.pptx
 
Mod2_Basic principles of flight.pdf
Mod2_Basic principles of flight.pdfMod2_Basic principles of flight.pdf
Mod2_Basic principles of flight.pdf
 
Aerodynamics aeronautics and flight mechanics
Aerodynamics aeronautics and flight mechanicsAerodynamics aeronautics and flight mechanics
Aerodynamics aeronautics and flight mechanics
 
Subsonic Airplane Design
Subsonic Airplane DesignSubsonic Airplane Design
Subsonic Airplane Design
 
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamicsLesson 2 basic aerodynamics
Lesson 2 basic aerodynamics
 
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT DIVERGENT NOZZLE USING CFD
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT DIVERGENT NOZZLE USING CFDDESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT DIVERGENT NOZZLE USING CFD
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENT DIVERGENT NOZZLE USING CFD
 
Aerodynamics for Engineering Students ( PDFDrive ).pdf
Aerodynamics for Engineering Students ( PDFDrive ).pdfAerodynamics for Engineering Students ( PDFDrive ).pdf
Aerodynamics for Engineering Students ( PDFDrive ).pdf
 
9 fighter aircraft avionics-part ii
9 fighter aircraft avionics-part ii9 fighter aircraft avionics-part ii
9 fighter aircraft avionics-part ii
 
Aviation Quiz-Game: TakeWING Safety Meeting
Aviation Quiz-Game: TakeWING Safety Meeting Aviation Quiz-Game: TakeWING Safety Meeting
Aviation Quiz-Game: TakeWING Safety Meeting
 
Pg tp-class17-air pressure wind
Pg tp-class17-air pressure windPg tp-class17-air pressure wind
Pg tp-class17-air pressure wind
 
Aerodynamics Of The Airplane
Aerodynamics Of The AirplaneAerodynamics Of The Airplane
Aerodynamics Of The Airplane
 
Noise Reduction Modelling Study for Aircraft Cavity - Chun C Gan
Noise Reduction Modelling Study for Aircraft Cavity  - Chun C GanNoise Reduction Modelling Study for Aircraft Cavity  - Chun C Gan
Noise Reduction Modelling Study for Aircraft Cavity - Chun C Gan
 
Weather Theory Part I (Group C)
Weather Theory Part I (Group C)Weather Theory Part I (Group C)
Weather Theory Part I (Group C)
 

More from lccmechanics

Reciptengcomp3
Reciptengcomp3Reciptengcomp3
Reciptengcomp3
lccmechanics
 
Rotary Engines
Rotary EnginesRotary Engines
Rotary Engines
lccmechanics
 
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication SystemReciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
lccmechanics
 
Recipteng3
Recipteng3Recipteng3
Recipteng3
lccmechanics
 
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   LargeBasic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
lccmechanics
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
lccmechanics
 
Flight Conditions
Flight ConditionsFlight Conditions
Flight Conditions
lccmechanics
 
Study Guide
Study GuideStudy Guide
Study Guide
lccmechanics
 
High Speed Aircraft
High Speed AircraftHigh Speed Aircraft
High Speed Aircraft
lccmechanics
 
Helicopters (11 30 09)
Helicopters (11 30 09)Helicopters (11 30 09)
Helicopters (11 30 09)
lccmechanics
 
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
lccmechanics
 
Stability
StabilityStability
Stability
lccmechanics
 
Lubrication study guide
Lubrication study guideLubrication study guide
Lubrication study guide
lccmechanics
 
Basic Aerodynamics To Stability
Basic Aerodynamics To StabilityBasic Aerodynamics To Stability
Basic Aerodynamics To Stability
lccmechanics
 
Assy Rigging
Assy RiggingAssy Rigging
Assy Rigging
lccmechanics
 

More from lccmechanics (17)

Reciptengcomp3
Reciptengcomp3Reciptengcomp3
Reciptengcomp3
 
Powerplant2
Powerplant2Powerplant2
Powerplant2
 
Reciprocatingpi
ReciprocatingpiReciprocatingpi
Reciprocatingpi
 
Rotary Engines
Rotary EnginesRotary Engines
Rotary Engines
 
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication SystemReciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
Reciprocating Piston Engine Lubrication System
 
Recipteng3
Recipteng3Recipteng3
Recipteng3
 
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   LargeBasic Aerodynamics Ii Stability   Large
Basic Aerodynamics Ii Stability Large
 
Helicopters
HelicoptersHelicopters
Helicopters
 
Flight Conditions
Flight ConditionsFlight Conditions
Flight Conditions
 
Study Guide
Study GuideStudy Guide
Study Guide
 
High Speed Aircraft
High Speed AircraftHigh Speed Aircraft
High Speed Aircraft
 
Helicopters (11 30 09)
Helicopters (11 30 09)Helicopters (11 30 09)
Helicopters (11 30 09)
 
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
Rotorcraft (11 16 09)
 
Stability
StabilityStability
Stability
 
Lubrication study guide
Lubrication study guideLubrication study guide
Lubrication study guide
 
Basic Aerodynamics To Stability
Basic Aerodynamics To StabilityBasic Aerodynamics To Stability
Basic Aerodynamics To Stability
 
Assy Rigging
Assy RiggingAssy Rigging
Assy Rigging
 

Recently uploaded

Observability For You and Me with OpenTelemetry
Observability For You and Me with OpenTelemetryObservability For You and Me with OpenTelemetry
Observability For You and Me with OpenTelemetry
Eric D. Schabell
 
Scaling Connections in PostgreSQL Postgres Bangalore(PGBLR) Meetup-2 - Mydbops
Scaling Connections in PostgreSQL Postgres Bangalore(PGBLR) Meetup-2 - MydbopsScaling Connections in PostgreSQL Postgres Bangalore(PGBLR) Meetup-2 - Mydbops
Scaling Connections in PostgreSQL Postgres Bangalore(PGBLR) Meetup-2 - Mydbops
Mydbops
 
Applying Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to Combat Hallucinations in GenAI
Applying Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to Combat Hallucinations in GenAIApplying Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to Combat Hallucinations in GenAI
Applying Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to Combat Hallucinations in GenAI
ssuserd4e0d2
 
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptxDublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Kunal Gupta
 
Calgary MuleSoft Meetup APM and IDP .pptx
Calgary MuleSoft Meetup APM and IDP .pptxCalgary MuleSoft Meetup APM and IDP .pptx
Calgary MuleSoft Meetup APM and IDP .pptx
ishalveerrandhawa1
 
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot WorkshopSalesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
CEPTES Software Inc
 
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyActive Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
RaminGhanbari2
 
IPLOOK Remote-Sensing Satellite Solution
IPLOOK Remote-Sensing Satellite SolutionIPLOOK Remote-Sensing Satellite Solution
IPLOOK Remote-Sensing Satellite Solution
IPLOOK Networks
 
Comparison Table of DiskWarrior Alternatives.pdf
Comparison Table of DiskWarrior Alternatives.pdfComparison Table of DiskWarrior Alternatives.pdf
Comparison Table of DiskWarrior Alternatives.pdf
Andrey Yasko
 
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending PlantPigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
LINUS PROJECTS (INDIA)
 
Password Rotation in 2024 is still Relevant
Password Rotation in 2024 is still RelevantPassword Rotation in 2024 is still Relevant
Password Rotation in 2024 is still Relevant
Bert Blevins
 
WhatsApp Image 2024-03-27 at 08.19.52_bfd93109.pdf
WhatsApp Image 2024-03-27 at 08.19.52_bfd93109.pdfWhatsApp Image 2024-03-27 at 08.19.52_bfd93109.pdf
WhatsApp Image 2024-03-27 at 08.19.52_bfd93109.pdf
ArgaBisma
 
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdfBT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
Neo4j
 
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-InTrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc
 
How RPA Help in the Transportation and Logistics Industry.pptx
How RPA Help in the Transportation and Logistics Industry.pptxHow RPA Help in the Transportation and Logistics Industry.pptx
How RPA Help in the Transportation and Logistics Industry.pptx
SynapseIndia
 
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF GuideThe Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
Shiv Technolabs
 
DealBook of Ukraine: 2024 edition
DealBook of Ukraine: 2024 editionDealBook of Ukraine: 2024 edition
DealBook of Ukraine: 2024 edition
Yevgen Sysoyev
 
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and MilvusUsing LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Zilliz
 
The Evolution of Remote Server Management
The Evolution of Remote Server ManagementThe Evolution of Remote Server Management
The Evolution of Remote Server Management
Bert Blevins
 
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
maigasapphire
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Observability For You and Me with OpenTelemetry
Observability For You and Me with OpenTelemetryObservability For You and Me with OpenTelemetry
Observability For You and Me with OpenTelemetry
 
Scaling Connections in PostgreSQL Postgres Bangalore(PGBLR) Meetup-2 - Mydbops
Scaling Connections in PostgreSQL Postgres Bangalore(PGBLR) Meetup-2 - MydbopsScaling Connections in PostgreSQL Postgres Bangalore(PGBLR) Meetup-2 - Mydbops
Scaling Connections in PostgreSQL Postgres Bangalore(PGBLR) Meetup-2 - Mydbops
 
Applying Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to Combat Hallucinations in GenAI
Applying Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to Combat Hallucinations in GenAIApplying Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to Combat Hallucinations in GenAI
Applying Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) to Combat Hallucinations in GenAI
 
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptxDublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
 
Calgary MuleSoft Meetup APM and IDP .pptx
Calgary MuleSoft Meetup APM and IDP .pptxCalgary MuleSoft Meetup APM and IDP .pptx
Calgary MuleSoft Meetup APM and IDP .pptx
 
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot WorkshopSalesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
 
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyActive Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Active Inference is a veryyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy
 
IPLOOK Remote-Sensing Satellite Solution
IPLOOK Remote-Sensing Satellite SolutionIPLOOK Remote-Sensing Satellite Solution
IPLOOK Remote-Sensing Satellite Solution
 
Comparison Table of DiskWarrior Alternatives.pdf
Comparison Table of DiskWarrior Alternatives.pdfComparison Table of DiskWarrior Alternatives.pdf
Comparison Table of DiskWarrior Alternatives.pdf
 
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending PlantPigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
Pigging Unit Lubricant Oil Blending Plant
 
Password Rotation in 2024 is still Relevant
Password Rotation in 2024 is still RelevantPassword Rotation in 2024 is still Relevant
Password Rotation in 2024 is still Relevant
 
WhatsApp Image 2024-03-27 at 08.19.52_bfd93109.pdf
WhatsApp Image 2024-03-27 at 08.19.52_bfd93109.pdfWhatsApp Image 2024-03-27 at 08.19.52_bfd93109.pdf
WhatsApp Image 2024-03-27 at 08.19.52_bfd93109.pdf
 
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdfBT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
 
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-InTrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
 
How RPA Help in the Transportation and Logistics Industry.pptx
How RPA Help in the Transportation and Logistics Industry.pptxHow RPA Help in the Transportation and Logistics Industry.pptx
How RPA Help in the Transportation and Logistics Industry.pptx
 
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF GuideThe Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
 
DealBook of Ukraine: 2024 edition
DealBook of Ukraine: 2024 editionDealBook of Ukraine: 2024 edition
DealBook of Ukraine: 2024 edition
 
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and MilvusUsing LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
Using LLM Agents with Llama 3, LangGraph and Milvus
 
The Evolution of Remote Server Management
The Evolution of Remote Server ManagementThe Evolution of Remote Server Management
The Evolution of Remote Server Management
 
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
Girls Call Churchgate 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in...
 

High Speed Aerodynamics

  • 1. Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns V. High Speed Aerodynamics High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating
  • 2. V. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating
  • 3. High Speed Aerodynamics As WWII progressed, aircraft flew faster and faster. By mid-war, P51s, Spitfires, and other types were reaching speeds close to that of sound, especially in dives. Pilots began to report control difficulties and unexpected problems which experts determined were due to flying too close to the speed of sound. Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
  • 4. High Speed Aerodynamics In 1940, NACA commissioned the Bell Aircraft Company to build a special research aircraft for the purpose of exploring the speed range near and beyond the speed of sound. It was considered better to do the research using an actual aircraft because the USA had no wind tunnels capable of operating at supersonic speed. Of course, the Germans did. Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
  • 5. High Speed Aerodynamics The research aircraft Bell built was designated the X1. Two operational aircraft were finally built, although they did not fly until the war was over. Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
  • 6. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
  • 7. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
  • 8. High Speed Aerodynamics By the time the war was over, the German research data had been captured and several of the questions the X1 was intended to answer were already known. Nevertheless, the X1 became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in October 1947 when Chuck Yeager flew it to Mach 1.1 . Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction
  • 9. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating History and Introduction X1 movie
  • 10. High Speed Aerodynamics At subsonic speed (less than Mach 1) air acts as if it’s an incompressible fluid Can change it’s velocity and pressure but not density As long as it can still move, the space between molecules will effectively not change = density remains constant Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects
  • 11. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects Bernoulli’s Principle: Subsonic: In CONVERGING portion of venturi (Inlet) Air must travel faster to get to other side at same time as bypass air Velocity goes up Pressure goes down
  • 12. High Speed Aerodynamics Bernoulli’s Principle: Subsonic: In DIVERGING portion of venturi (Exit) Pressure and Velocity return to original Based on Total Energy being constant throughout Pressure = Potential Energy Velocity = Kinetic Energy Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects
  • 13. High Speed Aerodynamics At supersonic speed (more than Mach 1) air can be compressed and it’s density increased Space between molecules can and is reduced Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects Link to venturi simulation
  • 14. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Compressibility Effects Link to venturi simulation Bernoulli’s Principle: Opposite effects as compared to subsonic Converging: Pressure goes up and Velocity goes down Diverging: Pressure down, Velocity up
  • 15. High Speed Aerodynamics Sound is pressure disturbances radiating in all directions from the source Travels @ 661.7 knots (1,116.9 fps, 761.5 mph) under Standard Conditions Speed is directly proportional to temperature (goes down as temp. goes down) Can be calculated (C S = Local Speed of Sound): C S in kts = 29.04  o R C S in fps = 49.022  o R C S in mph = 33.42  o R Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Importance of the Speed of Sound Note: o R = o F + 460
  • 16. High Speed Aerodynamics Note that at 36,089 feet the temperature stabilizes at –69.7 and the Speed of Sound also stabilizes at 573.8 kts Also note that above 80,000 feet the temp starts to rise and the Speed of Sound also rises Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Importance of the Speed of Sound
  • 17. High Speed Aerodynamics In subsonic flight Sound waves radiate from all points of airframe Can go in all directions as are faster than aircraft Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Importance of the Speed of Sound
  • 18. High Speed Aerodynamics In supersonic flight Airplane faster so sound waves “pile up” at nose of airfoil Creates Shock Wave(s) = changes in pressure and velocity of airflow Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Importance of the Speed of Sound Pressure Waves Link (Hide Shockwaves)
  • 19. High Speed Aerodynamics Mach # = ratio of True Airspeed of an aircraft to the Speed of Sound at that temperature Subsonic: .75 Mach or less All airflow over aircraft is < Mach 1 Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight
  • 20. High Speed Aerodynamics Transonic: .75 to 1.2 Mach Mixture of sonic airflow speeds Some < Mach 1, some >= Mach 1 Aerodynamic center of lift moves to about 50% of chord Shock waves form and move around = large changes in trim & stability (control buffeting) Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight
  • 21. High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic: 1.2 to 5.0 Mach All airflow is > Mach 1 Smooth & efficient flight Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight
  • 22. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight Hypersonic: > 5.0 Mach
  • 23. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Realms of Flight Hypersonic: > 5.0 Mach Leads to Aerodynamic Heating & other flight problems
  • 24. High Speed Aerodynamics Shock waves form when the aircraft (or parts of it) are exceeding Mach 1 in speed Sound waves slower than aircraft speed Air “piles up” in Compression Wave = large changes in pressure, velocity, and density of airflow Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves)
  • 25. High Speed Aerodynamics Shock waves form when the aircraft (or parts of it) are exceeding Mach 1 in speed Sound waves slower than aircraft speed Air “piles up” in Compression Wave = large changes in pressure, velocity, and density of airflow Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves)
  • 26. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) F18 flyby movie F14 flyby movie
  • 27. High Speed Aerodynamics 3 kinds of Shock Waves: Oblique Normal Expansion Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) Pressure Waves Link Show Shockwaves
  • 28. High Speed Aerodynamics Oblique Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) Forms on sharp edges with surface changing into the direction of the airflow commonly on Leading and Trailing Edges of airfoil Shock wave forms Oblique Angle with surface and “points” downstream in airflow Angle gets less as speed goes up “ flattens out”
  • 29. High Speed Aerodynamics Oblique Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) @ wave: Flow direction is deflected along surface Velocity decreases but STAYS ABOVE MACH 1 Pressure increases Temperature increases Density increases Total energy goes down Energy loss comes from loss of temperature (Heat of Compression) to atmosphere
  • 30. High Speed Aerodynamics Normal Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) Forms in front of or on blunt object or one with large included angle
  • 31. High Speed Aerodynamics Normal Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) In front: Molecules pile up and create wave detached and in front of the object = “Bow Wave”
  • 32. High Speed Aerodynamics Normal Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) On: Attaches to curved portion where airflow speed is just above Mach 1 In Transonic range = form on upper airfoil surface first (at about .75 Mach) then lower surface (at about .85 Mach) NOTE: the indicated Mach numbers vary depending on the airfoil
  • 33. High Speed Aerodynamics Normal Shock Waves Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) @ wave: Flow direction doesn’t change Velocity decreases TO BELOW MACH 1 Subsonic speed inversely proportional to Mach # entering wave (higher C S going in = lower subsonic speed coming out) Large Pressure, Density, and Temperature increase Large Total Energy decrease (from temp. radiation into air)
  • 34. High Speed Aerodynamics Expansion Shock Waves Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Supersonic Flow Patterns (Shock Waves) Form where surface turns away from airflow direction Middle of airfoil Velocity increases Pressure and Density both decrease Temperature remains relatively constant = little or no Total Energy change (is not a compression wave)
  • 35. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Below about .75 Mach = all flow is subsonic
  • 36. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: At some airspeed ( = Critical Mach Number or M CR ) some airflow will reach or exceed Mach 1
  • 37. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: Normal shock wave forms on upper surface where max airfoil thickness is ( = greatest velocity) Causes large increase in drag
  • 38. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: Pressure rise through shock wave reduces strength of low pressure area on wing Low pressure usually “sucks” air against airfoil for smooth flow Loss of low pressure = air isn’t sucked down smoothly and SHOCK INDUCED SEPARATION occurs on upper surface = loss of lift and reduced control effectiveness from turbulence
  • 39. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: As speed increases closer to Mach 1: Normal wave forms on lower surface and upper wave moves further back towards trailing edge = shock induced separation on bottom, too
  • 40. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: At Mach 1: Top and bottom normal waves have moved to trailing edge and form oblique waves there Entire surfaces have supersonic flow = smooth flow Leading edge now has normal wave forming in front of it Known as BOW WAVE Like wave at bow of boat
  • 41. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: At Mach 1: Area behind bow wave is relatively slow and called STAGNATION AREA Large energy loss through normal wave creates significant drag Shockwave Link Normal and Oblique Shockwaves
  • 42. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number In Transonic speed range: Above Mach 1: Stagnation area gets smaller but energy loss increases Greater change in velocity and pressure through normal wave = greater drag (proportional to speed)
  • 43. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number To increase Critical Mach Number (or delay Shock Induced Separation occurrence): Can use Vortex Generators or Swept Wings
  • 44. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Vortex Generators Small, low Aspect Ratio airfoils mounted in pairs at 90 o on wing surfaces Produces strong vortex around end = pulls air back onto wing surface = delays airflow separation Pair mounting = pairs work together for greater effectiveness
  • 45. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Swept Wings Swept wings change the THICKNESS RATIO of the wing (also known as Fineness Ratio) Ratio of max. thickness of airfoil to chord Lower Thickness Ratio = thinner wing = less velocity change across wing = higher M CR
  • 46. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Swept Wings Unfortunately, this also causes more flow of air in a spanwise direction = stronger wingtip vortices = increased drag overall Also, aft swept wings generally cause the tip to stall first (= potentially loose aileron control)
  • 47. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Swept Wings Forward swept wings (I.e. Grumman X-29) have same M CR advantages as aft swept + roots stall first = can do more extreme high angle of attack maneuvers without losing control But needs computer to control as is inherently very unstable
  • 48. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Swept Wings Also, at higher speeds the wing will twist due to aerodynamic loading and will tend to wash in Increase angle of incidence = increased lift and drag = increased loads to failure Composite materials make wings light and stiff enough to withstand these forces
  • 49. High Speed Aerodynamics Subsonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Movable Hor. Stab. Horizontal Stablizer will also tend to loose effectiveness at Critical Mach Number Can keep it effective by making it’s Angle of Incidence adjustable F86 used this to allow supersonic speeds while maintaining control Was first one to do so
  • 50. High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number To eliminate Shock Induced Separation in Transonic range = airfoils with max. thickness @ 50% of chord Double Wedge or Biconvex
  • 51. High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Thin airfoil = no normal shock forms Sharp edges form obliques with tiny bow wave and expansion wave in middle
  • 52. High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic Airfoils Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number All lead to practically zero subsonic airflow (= zero turbulence and drag from energy change) Problem: not good subsonic characteristics
  • 53. High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic Aircraft Configuration Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Wing Planform Low Aspect Ratio & tapered Good strength and weight Sweptback For transonic and low supersonic Straight For high supersonic (Mach 2 +)
  • 54. High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic Aircraft Configuration Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Airfoil Low Thickness (Fineness) Ratio Gradual change in thickness (airfoil shape) Max. thickness @ 50% of chord Sharp leading and trailing edges
  • 55. High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic Aircraft Configuration Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Fuselage & Nacelles Long Slender Fuselage “Wasp Waisted” Decreases overall Form and Interference Drags from interaction of shock waves on various structure areas
  • 56. High Speed Aerodynamics Supersonic Aircraft Configuration Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating High Speed Airfoils and Critical Mach Number Tail Surfaces Planform and airfoil similar to wings Generally all movable horizontal surfaces Powered irreversible systems
  • 57. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Aerodynamic Heating As speeds increase above Mach 1, the Stagnation Area sees great temperature rises Faster = greater temp rise Less affect at higher altitudes
  • 58. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Aerodynamic Heating Increased temps = decreased metal strengths As we near Hypersonic speeds the temps are so high that normal materials will melt Research today is in this area with ceramics and composite materials
  • 59. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Future? Lockheed is working on this design slated to fly by 2010 Supposed to disperse the shock waves to allow supersonic flight over populated areas
  • 60. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Future? Also, right now “Quiet Spike”
  • 61. High Speed Aerodynamics Compressibility Effects Importance of the Speed of Sound Realms of Flight Supersonic Flow Patterns High Speed Airfoils Critical Mach Number Aerodynamic Heating Future? Flew at Mach 9.6 Last year X43 Overview X43 flights
  • 62.