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EXPRESSIONISM ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Neo-expressionism ,[object Object]
MICHAEL GRAVES  (b. July 9, 1934)  American . Graves has achieved his greatest fame with his designs for domestic household items. He directs the firm Michael Graves & Associates. Graves and his firm have earned acclaim for a wide variety of commercial and residential buildings and interior design.  In 1999 Graves was awarded the National Medal of Arts and in 2001 the Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects. In 2003, an infection of unknown origin (possible bacterial meningitis) left Graves paralyzed from the waist down. He is still active in his practice, which is currently involved in a number of projects; including an addition to the Detroit Institute of Arts, and a large Integrated Resort in Singapore
MICHAELGRAVESANDASSOCIATES
PORTLAND BUILDING 15-story municipal office building located at 1120 SW 5th Avenue in downtown Portland, Oregon.  Opened in 1982. Distinctive block-like design and square windows, an icon of postmodern architecture.  In 1985, the building was adorned by addition of the hammered-copper statue Portlandia above the front entrance. The building remains controversial among Portlanders as well as the entire architecture field for its revolutionary design which was a rejection of the Modernist principles established in the early 20th century. The design was selected as the winning design in a large scale design competition with Philip Johnson as one of the three members of the selection committee. Many structural flaws, said to be due to a lack of funds, came to light shortly after the building's completion. The building's failings are the subject of much humor and contempt by the civil servants who work there.
PHILIP JOHNSON ( July 8, 1906– January 25, 2005)  American .  1928 Johnson met the Bauhaus architect  Ludwig Mies van der Rohe  The pupil had finally found the master.   Johnson continued to work as a proponent of modern architecture, using the Museum of Modern Art. His early influence - use of glass; his masterpiece was a "Glass House" - his own residence.   Joined Mies in the design of the 39 story Seagram Building (1956), the remarkable bronze and glass tower on Park Avenue . Coordinated the master plan of Lincoln Center and designing the New York State Theater of that complex. Meanwhile, Johnson began to grow impatient with the orthodoxies of the International Style he had championed.  The glass and steel tower had by the 1960's become commonplace the world over. He eventually rejected the metallic appearance of earlier International Style buildings, and began designing spectacular, crystalline structures uniformly sheathed in glass.  Johnson's architectural work is a balancing act between the more "serious" movement of Minimalism, and the more populist movement of Pop art. His best work has aspects of both movements. His work was seen by purists of either side as always too contaminated or influenced by the other.
Philip Johnson ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
MoMA EXHIBITION Philip Johnson , with his friends  Alfred H. Barr, Jr . and  Henry-Russell Hitchcock   examined recent trends in architecture, and the three assembled their discoveries as the landmark show "The International Style: Architecture Since 1922" at the Museum of Modern Art, in 1932.  The show was the introduction of modern architecture to the American public, very important in shaping American architecture in the century.  It introduced such pivotal architects as Le Corbusier, Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe. The exhibition was also notable for a controversy: architect Frank Lloyd Wright withdrew his entries in pique that he was not more prominently featured. In the book accompanying the show, coauthored with Hitchcock, Johnson argued that the new modern style maintained three formal principles:  1. An emphasis on architectural volume over mass (planes rather than solidity)  2. A rejection of symmetry and  3. Rejection of applied decoration.  The definition of the movement as a "style" with distinct formal characteristics has been seen by some critics as downplaying the social and political bent that many of the European practitioners shared.
SONY BUILDING ,[object Object],[object Object]
The New Eclecticism (1970s–) ,[object Object]
Brutalism ,[object Object]
Postmodernism ,[object Object]
Deconstructivism ,[object Object],[object Object]
Contextualism ,[object Object]
Pluralism ,[object Object]
Green Buildings
High Tech Architecture ,[object Object],[object Object]
These categories are porous. Some architects work exclusively in one while others combine two or more in a single building or in their work as a whole, borrowing freely from each other all the while, benefiting as well from an "anything goes" professional climate. Nor are the categories as mutually exclusive or as historically correct as in the eclecticisms of taste and style. Nevertheless, "selecting aspects of diverse [but no longer exclusively] historical styles in order to form new and acceptable compositions" is the norm. In the absence of stylistic consensus, compositional possibility in the twenty-first century is virtually unlimited.
CHARLES MOORE   (October 31, 1925– December 16, 1993)  American    Architect, educator, writer, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
PIAZZA D ITALIA
RICARDO BOFILL ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],In 1963 he gathered a group of architects, engineers, planners, sociologist, writers, movie makers and philosophers: The Taller de Arquitectura was founded, an international team which for more than 40 years, has gathered great experience in urban planning, architecture, landscaping, interior, furniture and product design.  Today, hundreds of projects around the world validate our capacity to design in harmony with specific, different local cultures.  www.bofill.com
Robert Arthur Morton Stern ,  usually credited as  Robert A. M. Stern , (born May 23, 1939) is an American architect and Dean of the Yale University School of Architecture. Before taking that post, he was professor of architecture at Columbia and director of Columbia's Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture. He received a bachelor's degree from Columbia in 1960 and a master's degree in architecture from Yale in 1965. After graduating from Yale, Stern worked as a designer in the office of Richard Meier in 1966, prior to forming the firm of Stern & Hagmann with a fellow student from his days at Yale, John S. Hagmann, in 1969. In 1977 he founded the successor firm, Robert A. M. Stern Architects. His work is generally classified as postmodern, though a more useful classification would be a particular emphasis on context and the continuity of traditions. He may have been the first architect to use the term "postmodernism“, but more recently he has used the phrase "modern traditionalist" to describe his work.
RICHARD MEIR ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
JAMES STIRLING ,[object Object]
STATE GALLERY STUTTGART
Peter Eisenman  (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey)  one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. Eisenman's fragmented forms are identified with an eclectic group of architects that have been, at times unwillingly, labelled deconstructivists. Although Eisenman shuns the label, he has had a history of controversy aimed at keeping him in the public (academic) eye. His theories on architecture pursue the emancipation and autonomy of the discipline and his work represents a continued attempt to liberate form from  all  meaning, a struggle that most find difficult to understand. He always had strong cultural relationships with European intellectuals like his English mentor Colin Rowe and the Italian historian Manfredo Tafuri. The work of philosopher Jacques Derrida is a key influence in Eisenman's architecture. He is often seen in a bowtie and a black sweater with a small hole.
Seattle Public Library- Rem Koolhas ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Science Center in the Volkswagen city of Wolfsburg  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cornell and Bank of Hong Kong- I.M.Pei
BANK OF SPAIN ,[object Object],[object Object]
Toyo Ito's work for Tod's , Sejima & Nishizawa's for Dior and Aoki's for Louis Vuitton  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Paul Klee Center-Three waves of steel in the outskirts of Bern that bring together the work of Paul Klee – an artist  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cottbus -a university library in an East German town close to the Polish border- Herzog & de Meuron  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Albion- London’s New Town hall by Sir Norman Foster ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Carlo Scapa’s Brion Vega cemetery

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Postmodernism3

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  • 3. MICHAEL GRAVES (b. July 9, 1934) American . Graves has achieved his greatest fame with his designs for domestic household items. He directs the firm Michael Graves & Associates. Graves and his firm have earned acclaim for a wide variety of commercial and residential buildings and interior design. In 1999 Graves was awarded the National Medal of Arts and in 2001 the Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects. In 2003, an infection of unknown origin (possible bacterial meningitis) left Graves paralyzed from the waist down. He is still active in his practice, which is currently involved in a number of projects; including an addition to the Detroit Institute of Arts, and a large Integrated Resort in Singapore
  • 5. PORTLAND BUILDING 15-story municipal office building located at 1120 SW 5th Avenue in downtown Portland, Oregon. Opened in 1982. Distinctive block-like design and square windows, an icon of postmodern architecture. In 1985, the building was adorned by addition of the hammered-copper statue Portlandia above the front entrance. The building remains controversial among Portlanders as well as the entire architecture field for its revolutionary design which was a rejection of the Modernist principles established in the early 20th century. The design was selected as the winning design in a large scale design competition with Philip Johnson as one of the three members of the selection committee. Many structural flaws, said to be due to a lack of funds, came to light shortly after the building's completion. The building's failings are the subject of much humor and contempt by the civil servants who work there.
  • 6. PHILIP JOHNSON ( July 8, 1906– January 25, 2005) American . 1928 Johnson met the Bauhaus architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe The pupil had finally found the master. Johnson continued to work as a proponent of modern architecture, using the Museum of Modern Art. His early influence - use of glass; his masterpiece was a "Glass House" - his own residence. Joined Mies in the design of the 39 story Seagram Building (1956), the remarkable bronze and glass tower on Park Avenue . Coordinated the master plan of Lincoln Center and designing the New York State Theater of that complex. Meanwhile, Johnson began to grow impatient with the orthodoxies of the International Style he had championed. The glass and steel tower had by the 1960's become commonplace the world over. He eventually rejected the metallic appearance of earlier International Style buildings, and began designing spectacular, crystalline structures uniformly sheathed in glass. Johnson's architectural work is a balancing act between the more "serious" movement of Minimalism, and the more populist movement of Pop art. His best work has aspects of both movements. His work was seen by purists of either side as always too contaminated or influenced by the other.
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  • 8. MoMA EXHIBITION Philip Johnson , with his friends Alfred H. Barr, Jr . and Henry-Russell Hitchcock examined recent trends in architecture, and the three assembled their discoveries as the landmark show "The International Style: Architecture Since 1922" at the Museum of Modern Art, in 1932. The show was the introduction of modern architecture to the American public, very important in shaping American architecture in the century. It introduced such pivotal architects as Le Corbusier, Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe. The exhibition was also notable for a controversy: architect Frank Lloyd Wright withdrew his entries in pique that he was not more prominently featured. In the book accompanying the show, coauthored with Hitchcock, Johnson argued that the new modern style maintained three formal principles: 1. An emphasis on architectural volume over mass (planes rather than solidity) 2. A rejection of symmetry and 3. Rejection of applied decoration. The definition of the movement as a "style" with distinct formal characteristics has been seen by some critics as downplaying the social and political bent that many of the European practitioners shared.
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  • 18. These categories are porous. Some architects work exclusively in one while others combine two or more in a single building or in their work as a whole, borrowing freely from each other all the while, benefiting as well from an "anything goes" professional climate. Nor are the categories as mutually exclusive or as historically correct as in the eclecticisms of taste and style. Nevertheless, "selecting aspects of diverse [but no longer exclusively] historical styles in order to form new and acceptable compositions" is the norm. In the absence of stylistic consensus, compositional possibility in the twenty-first century is virtually unlimited.
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  • 22. Robert Arthur Morton Stern , usually credited as Robert A. M. Stern , (born May 23, 1939) is an American architect and Dean of the Yale University School of Architecture. Before taking that post, he was professor of architecture at Columbia and director of Columbia's Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture. He received a bachelor's degree from Columbia in 1960 and a master's degree in architecture from Yale in 1965. After graduating from Yale, Stern worked as a designer in the office of Richard Meier in 1966, prior to forming the firm of Stern & Hagmann with a fellow student from his days at Yale, John S. Hagmann, in 1969. In 1977 he founded the successor firm, Robert A. M. Stern Architects. His work is generally classified as postmodern, though a more useful classification would be a particular emphasis on context and the continuity of traditions. He may have been the first architect to use the term "postmodernism“, but more recently he has used the phrase "modern traditionalist" to describe his work.
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  • 26. Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. Eisenman's fragmented forms are identified with an eclectic group of architects that have been, at times unwillingly, labelled deconstructivists. Although Eisenman shuns the label, he has had a history of controversy aimed at keeping him in the public (academic) eye. His theories on architecture pursue the emancipation and autonomy of the discipline and his work represents a continued attempt to liberate form from all meaning, a struggle that most find difficult to understand. He always had strong cultural relationships with European intellectuals like his English mentor Colin Rowe and the Italian historian Manfredo Tafuri. The work of philosopher Jacques Derrida is a key influence in Eisenman's architecture. He is often seen in a bowtie and a black sweater with a small hole.
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  • 29. Cornell and Bank of Hong Kong- I.M.Pei
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  • 35. Carlo Scapa’s Brion Vega cemetery