UMM TIZI- OUZOUDépartment of Architecture2020thth centry trends incentry trends in ArchitectureArchitecture2020thth centry trends incentry trends in ArchitectureArchitectureRepresented by:miss MEDDAHI KahinaGived to:Miss DAROUICHE2020thth century trends incentury trends in ArchitectureArchitecture2020thth century trends incentury trends in ArchitectureArchitectureUniversity year: 2008/2009
Work PlanIntroduction8-Organic Architecture5-International style7-Minimalism6-Brutalism3-Functionalism4-BauhausChapter II: Post-Modernism2-Formalism1-StructuralismChapter III: Ecologic ArchitectureChapter I: Modernism1-Déconstructivism 2-High- tech3-Expressionism and Neo-expressionism1-Ecologic Architecture 2-Sustainable development.ConclusionReferences
IntroductionDuring the beginning of XX th century, manytowers in the world, were destroyed after a heatwar. This stressed situation leads to appearanceof Modernist movement as a trend to remedytowns in chaos.This movement advocate a decomposition ofurban functions under the concept of zoning bydivision of surfaces of ground and organizationof transport.Tower witch was a structured organism becamean addition of fragments relied by transport.Consequently towers lost their system andidentity. As an alternative, the movement post-modernist was emerged to remedy, in his turn,modern towens.Town during war
Chapter I: Modernism*Présentation of Modernism:Modernism is an architectural movement appeared at the beginning ofXX th century. It was a trend to remedy the crise of architecture andurbanism, after the first word war. This movement advocate aconstruction which is deprived of ornament; deny history; standard andrationalized. Le Corbusier advocate the concept of living machine. Hesaid that every human in the world requirements to living, to working, tocirculating and to recreating his body and his mind.Appeared in his project Villa Savoye, Le Corbusier established pillars ofModern Architecture witch are:-Piloti as the base of the building.-Terraces-Free facade-Modulor : measurement system witch is proportional with humanmeasurement--Beam and lintels as a dominate system of construction.--Horizontal raw of windows--Armed concrete as a principal material of construction-Emphasis on functionLe Corbusier presented hismodern project Villa Savoye.*Modern architectes:-Le Corbusier-Frank Lloyd Wright-Mies Van der Rohe
Chapter I: Modernism1-Structuralism:Structuralism is based on the idea that all things are built from a system ofsigns and these signs are made up of opposites: male/female, hot/cold,old/young, etc. For Structuralists, design is a process of searching for therelationship between elements. Structuralists are also interested in the socialstructures and mental processes that contributed to the design.Structuralist architecture will have a great deal of complexity within a highlystructured framework. For example, a Structuralist design may consist of cell-like honeycomb shapes,intersecting planes, cubed grids, or densely clustered spaces with courtyards.The Berlin HolocaustMemorial is a Structuralistwork by Peter EisenmannThe Bank of China Tower, 1990,by Pritzker Prize-winning architectIeoh Ming PeiAs the name suggests, Formalism emphasizes form. The architect isinterested in visual relationships between the building parts and the work as awhole. Shape, often on a monumental scale, is the focus of attention. Linesand rigid geometric shapes predominate in Formalist architecture.You will find Formalism in many Modernist buildings, especially in Bauhausand International Style architecture. Architect I.M. Pei has often been praisedfor the "elegant formalism" of his works.2-Formalism:
Chapter I: Modernism3-Functionalism:The Functionalist Yale Center for British Art inNew Haven designed by the architect Louis I.KahnLouis Sullivan who coined the phrase "form follows function,"and other architects were striving for "honest" approaches tobuilding design that focused on functional efficiency.Functionalist architects believed that the ways buildings areused and the types of materials available should determine thedesign.Of course, Louis Sullivan lavished his buildings withornamental details that did not serve any functional purpose.The philosophy of functionalism was followed more closely byBauhaus and International Style architects.Toward the end of the 20th century, the term Functionalismwas used to describe any practical structure that was quicklyconstructed for purely practical purposes without an eye forartistry. However, for Bauhaus and other early Functionalists,the concept was a liberating philosophy that freed architecturefrom frilly excesses of the past.
Chapter I: ModernismBauhaus is a German expression meaning house for building. In1919, the economy in Germany was collapsing after a crushingwar. Architect Walter Gropius was appointed to head a newinstitution that would help rebuild the country and form a newsocial order. Called the Bauhaus, the Institution called for a new"rational" social housing for the workers. Bauhaus architectsrejected "bourgeois" details such as cornices, eaves, anddecorative details. They wanted to use principles of Classicalarchitecture in their most pure form: without ornamentation ofany kind.Bauhaus buildings have flat roofs, smooth facades, and cubicshapes. Colors are white, gray, beige, or black. Floor plans areopen and furniture is functional.The Bauhaus school disbanded when the Nazis rose to power.Walter Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and other Bauhausleaders migrated to the United States. The term InternationalStyle was applied to the American form of Bauhaus architecture.4-Bauhaus:The Bauhaus Gropius Housein Lincoln, Massachusetts
Chapter I: Modernism5-International style:Le Corbusiers United Nations Secretariat building over-looks the New York City skyline along the East River.International Style is a term often used to describeBauhaus architecture in the United States. The namecame from the book The International Style by historianand critic Henry-Russell Hitchcock and architect PhilipJohnson. The book was published in 1932 inconjunction with an exhibition at the Museum of ModernArt in New York. The term is again used in a later book,International Architecture, by Walter Gropius.While German Bauhaus architecture had beenconcerned with the social aspects of design, AmericasInternational Style became a symbolism of Capitalism:The International Style is the favored architecture foroffice buildings, and is also found in upscale homesbuilt for the rich.One of the most famous examples of the InternationalStyle is the United Nations Secretariat building,designed by the Bauhaus architect Le Corbusier. Thesmooth glass-sided slab dominates New Yorks skylinealong the East River. The United Nations Secretariatbuilding was completed in 1952
Chapter I: Modernism6-Brutalism:The Paulo Mendes da Rocha Residence in São Paulo,Brazil by Paulo Mendes da Rocha, 2006 PritzkerArchitecture Prize LaureateThe term Brutalism was first used in the early 1950s todescribe the simple concrete buildings designed by LeCorbusier. Stark and angular, Brutalism grew out of theInternational Style, but the designs may strike you asless refined. Brutalist buildings can be constructedquickly and economically.Brutalist architecture has these features:-Precast concrete slabs-Rough, unfinished surfaces-Exposed steel beams-Massive, sculptural shapesThe Prizker Prize-winning architect Paulo Mendes daRocha is often called a "Brazilian Brutalist" because hisbuildings are constructed of prefabricated and mass-produced concrete components. Shown here is hishome in São Paulo, Brazil.
Chapter I: Modernism7-Minimalism:The Minimalist Luis Barragan House, or Casa deLuis Barragán, was the home and studio ofMexican architect Luis Barragán. This building isa classic example of the Pritzker Prize Laureatesuse of texture, bright colors, and diffused light.One important trend in Modernist architecture is the movementminimalist or reductivist design. Marks of Minimalism are:-Buildings are stripped of all but the most essential elements-Emphasis is placed on the outline, or frame, of the structureInterior walls are eliminated-Floor plans are open-Lighting is used to dramatize lines and planes-The negative spaces around the structure are part of theoverall design.Modernist architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe paved the wayfor Minimalism when he said, "Less is more." Minimalistarchitects drew much of their inspiration from the elegantsimplicity of traditional Japanese architecture. Minimalists werealso inspired by a movement of early twentieth century Dutchartists known as De Stijl. Valuing simplicity and abstraction, DeStijl artists used only straight lines and rectangular shapes.Architects known for Minimalist designs include:-Tadao Ando-Luis Barragan-Yoshio Taniguchi-Richard Gluckman-Luis Barragán
Chapter I: ModernismAn example of Organic architecture: The SydneyOpera House, designed by Jørn Utzon, winner ofthe Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2003Frank Lloyd Wright said that all architecture is organic, and the Art Nouveau architects of the early twentieth centuryincorporated curving, plant-like shapes into their designs. But in the later half of the twentieth century, Modernistarchitects took the concept of organic architecture to new heights. By using new forms of concrete and cantilevertrusses, architects could create swooping arches without visible beams or pillars.Organic buildings are never linear or rigidly geometric. Instead, wavy lines and curved shapes suggest naturalforms.*Exemples of Organic Modernism:8-Organic Architecture:Frank Lloyd Wright used shell-like spiral formswhen he designed the Solomon R.Guggenheim Museum in New York City
Chapter II: Post- modernismPhilip Johnsons At&T Headquartersis often cited as an example ofpostmodernism. Many like however, isan oversized "Chippendale" pediment.Postmodern architecture evolved from the modernist movement,yet contradicts many of the modernist ideas. Combining new ideaswith traditional forms, postmodernist buildings may startle, surprise,and even.Familiar shapes and details are used in unexpected ways.Buildings may incorporate symbols to make aor simply to delight the viewer.The key ideas of Postmodernism are set forth in two importantbooks by Robert Venturi: Complexity and Contradiction inArchitecture and Learning from Las Vegas.*Postmodern Architects:*Présentation of Post- modernism:Robert Venturi Michel Graves Jean Nouvel
Chapter II: Post-modernism1-Déconstructivism:The basic elements of architecture deconstructivist are dismantles.Deconstructivist buildings may seem to have no visual logic. Theymay appear to be made up of unrelated, disharmonious abstractforms. Deconstructive ideas are borrowed from the Frenchphilosopher Jacques Derrida.Rem Koolhaas, Zaha Hadid, Frank Gery are architects of Thismovement. The new main central branch of theSeattle Public Library designed by RemKoolhaas2-High- tech:High-tech buildings are often called machine-like. Steel, aluminum,and glass combine with brightly colored braces, girders, andbeams. Many of the building parts are prefabricated in a factoryand assembled later. The support beams, duct work, and otherfunctional elements are placed on the exterior of the building,where they become the focus of attention. The interior spaces areopen and adaptable for many uses. The High-tech CentrePompidou in Paris appears to be turned inside out, revealing itsinner workings on the exterior façade.Centre Pompidou in France by RichardRogers, Renzo Piano, and GianfrancoFranchini.
Chapter II: Post- modernism3-Expressionism and Neo-expressionismThe Einstein Tower, ErichMendelsohn.Expressionism evolved from the work of avant gardeartists and designers in Germany and other Europeancountries during the first decades of the twentieth century.Characteristics of Expressionism are:distorted shapes, fragmented lines, organic or biomorphicforms, massive sculpted shapes, extensive use ofconcrete and brick, lack of symmetry, red on paper butnever built.Neo-expressionism built upon expressionist ideas.Architects in the 1950s and 1960s designed buildings thatexpressed their feelings about the surrounding landscape.Sculptural forms suggested rocks and mountains. Organicand Brutalist architecture can often be described as Neo-expressionist.*Expressionist and Neo-expressionist Architects:Gunther DomenigHans ScharounRudolf SteinerBruno TautErich Mendelsohn
Chapter III: Ecologic ArchitectureAt our days, we speak more about an ecologic Architecture and HQE building wich include in the movement ofsustainble development. HQE buildings achieve thermical comfort without be harmful agains environement byminimizing energic consumption..2-Sustainable development.It is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment. so that theseneeds can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations. The term was used by the BrundtlanCommission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development asdevelopment that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meettheir own needs."Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the socialchallenges facing humanity. As early as the 1970s "sustainability" was employed to describe an economy"in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems." Ecologists have pointed to the “limits of growth” andpresented the alternative of a “steady state economy” in order to address environmental concerns.Sustainable development is included in many domains: economie, sociologie, architecture, urbanism,…It concerne, too, every gesture of our daily life.1-Ecologic Architecture:
ConclusionReferencesEvery human idea contains in its essence causes of its faillure.New ideas born after decadence of ancients. In this way, architecture was developed step by step, day by day,during history.www. Google. frEncarte 2008Dicos EncartaPost- ModernismModernism Ecologic Architecture