MANIFESTATIONS OF IN BUILT FORMISTANBUL, TURKEY
STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION• BRIEF HISTORY AND LOCATION• METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYSING POWER IN BUILT FORM• ANALYSIS
• EARLY SETTLERS- NOMADS • GREEK COLONY- EARLY BYZANTIUM • EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE (146 BC-395 AD) • CONSTANTINE (306-337 AD) • LATE BYZANTINE (EASTERN) (395-1453) • OTTOMAN-ISLAMIC (1453-1922) • MODERN ISTANBUL- WESTERNIZATION(1900-’50) • ISTANBUL NOW (1950- ) In the course of thecenturies, Empires were built, abandoned, demolished, and rebuilt.
KIM DOVEY WAY OF ANALYSIS• DIRECT- OVERT FORCE• COERCION- – DOMINATION/INTIMIDATION – MANIPULATION – SEDUCTION• AUTHORITY• SYMBOLISING NATIONALISM-IDENTITY• POWER OVER BY TRANSFORMATION• POWER OVER BY NEGLECT• POWER DISPLAY BY DESTRUCTION
• EARLY SETTLERS- NOMADS• GREEK COLONY- EARLY BYZANTIUM• EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE (146 BC-395 AD)• CONSTANTINE (306-337 AD)• LATE BYZANTINE (EASTERN) (395-1453)• OTTOMAN-ISLAMIC (1453-1922)• MODERN ISTANBUL-WESTERNIZATION(1900-’50)• ISTANBUL NOW (1950- )
• Architect Sinan: Chief Ottoman architect• His most famous work is the Suleiman Mosque .• Sinan was also one of the first earthquake engineers in the world.• In his autobiography he says that his masterpiece is the Suleymaniye Mosque in Edirne. While it was being built, the Christian architects saying "You can never build a dome larger than the dome of Hagia Sophia and specially as Muslims" was his main motivation while building that mosque.• While when it was completed, Sinan claimed that it had the largest dome in the world leaving Hagia Sophia behind, the reality was that the dome height from the ground level was lower and the diameter almost identical to the millenium-older Hagia Sophia.
OSTENTATION (BOASTFUL SHOWINESS)-THE EXPRESSION OF POWER- ALWAYS PRESENT IN ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE• However, it is a more symmetrical, rationalized and light-filled interpretation of earlier Ottoman precedents, as well as the Hagia Sophia.• The design of the Süleymaniye also plays on Suleymans self- conscious representation of himself as a second Solomon. It references the Dome of the Rock, which was built on the site of the Temple of Solomon, as well as Justinians boast upon the completion of the Hagia Sophia: "Solomon, I have surpassed thee!" The Süleymaniye, similar in magnificence to the preceding structures, asserts Suleymans historical importance.
SEDUCTION:KAPALI CARSI With sixty-six streets and alleys, over four thousand shops, numerous store-houses, moneychangers and banks, a mosque, post office, police station, private security guards and its own health center,Istanbul’s Kapali Carsi is said to be the largest covered bazaar in the world.
SEDUCTION-PEOPLE ALLOWED TO SEE ROYAL LIFEAs the influence of empire declined, the Sultan wantedto show the splendor and ofthe Ottoman empire and celebrated many festivals thatlasted for months.
ISTANBUL 1900-1950• YOUNG TURK REVOLUTION• WORLD WAR I• EUROPEAN FORCES TAKING OVER• OTTOMAN EMPIRE COLLAPSED• REVOLT AGAINST EUROPEANS• REPUBLIC OF TURKEY DECLARED IN 1923• MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK• RAPID MODERNISATION/WESTERNIZATION• KEMALISM• NEW ARCHITECTURE
ATATURK MONUMENT- MONUMENT F REPUBLIC TURKEY DOMINATION, INTIMIDATION, SYMBOLISM • challenge to Ottoman taboo that restricted the depiction of the human form • The 11 m (36 ft) high monument portrays the founders of the Turkish Republic esp Kemal Atatürk • The monument has two sides, the side facing northward depicts Atatürk at an earlier period and the other one facing Istiklal Caddesi has Atatürk and his comrades dressed in modern, western- European clothing, symbolizing him in both his roles, as military commander- in-chief and as statesman.
POWER OVER BY CHANGING BUILDING FUNCTION/CHARACTER SECULAR MUSEUM
NEGLECT—DESTRUCTURING POWER SHIFT OF CAPITAL---EMPIRE TO NATION STATE
HENRY PROST SCHEMEThe grand avenues that crossed the historiccity and multiple secondary roads transformedthe introvert neighborhoods of the old Ottomancity into an open structure."One of the biggest mistakes I made in mylife was the letter I wrote to Atatürk. If Ihad not written this letter, I would havebeen working on the plan of Istanbul inplace of my rival Prost. In this letter Iadvised the greatest reformer of a nationto conserve the city of Istanbul with itscenturies old dust. I realized the error Ihad committed afterwords". (Le Corbusier quoted by S. Demiren, 1948)
HENRY PROST SCHEME The priority was given to the construction ofadministrative buildings symbolizing the power ofthe new regime, and to the educational, financial,social and cultural buildings, which were intendedto support the institutional modernization as well asa modern social life.Preservation of the Byzantine fortifications thatsurround the historical city. Labelled them asmonuments, a zone of non-aedificanti covering anarea of 500 m. outside and 50 m. inside theterrestrial walls, to conserve thewalls in their integrity, and also to emphasize theirmonumental total effect.
A plaza crowned with a grandiose monument dedicated to the Republic. Hence, three eras of Istanbul -the Byzantine, Ottoman and Republican periods- symbolized at one place. HIPPODROME- DURING CONSTANTINEEMPIRE-OTTOMANEMPIRE-REPUBLIC TURKEY
POWER OVER BY DESTRUCTIONMONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE GATHERS,FOCUSES, STORES AND TRANSFERS SOCIALRESOURCES AT A CONCEPTUAL ORIDEOLOGICAL LEVEL. A MONUMENTALBUILDING, THUS, IS A PHYSICAL STRUCTURECAPABLE OF STRUCTURING NONPHYSICAL ASPECTS OF A GIVENCULTURE. THEREFORE, THE DESTRUCTIONOF IT HAS A PROFOUND EFFECT NOT ONLY ONTHE PHYSICAL, BUT ON NON MATERIALASPECT OF CULTURE. IT ALTERS BEHAVIORALPATTERN AND ITS UNDERLYING SOCIALGRAMMAR. MONUMENTS ARE DESTROYEDNOT FOR WHAT THEY COTAIN, BUT FOR WHATTHEY REPRESENT.
Many Historic buildings from the late Ottoman period were demolished in order to open the perspective from the plaza onto the Marmara Sea, and to make this grandiose monument, located on top of the colossal retaining walls of the Byzantine hippodrome, visible far from the sea. GREAT REPUBLIC SQUARE-USED FOR OFFICIALFUNCTIONS AND MILITARY PARADES- AUTHORITY
ALSO TO OPEN UP SPACES- FORPARKS, POOLS AND RECREATIONAL PUBLIC SPACES-SEDUCTION