Modern Architectures (Umer Tariq)


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Modern Architectures
Father of Modern Architectures
Schools of Modernity
Material revolutionized Modern Architectures

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Modern Architectures (Umer Tariq)

  1. 1. The defining feature of modern architecture is the modern aesthetic which may be summarized as “plain geometric forms”
  2. 2. Common themes of modern architecture include:  The notion that "Form follows function", expressed by Frank Lloyd Wright's, meaning “The result of design should derive directly from its purpose”  Simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessary detail"  Materials at 90 degrees to each other  Visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of structural elements)
  3. 3.  The related concept of "Truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural appearance of a material be seen rather than concealed represent something else.  Use of industrially-produced materials; adoption of the machine aesthetic.
  4. 4. Modern Architectures mainly surrounds by three factors:  Material  Steel, Glass, Reinforced concrete  Schools of modernity  The Chicago school  The Werkbund  The Bauhaus  Big three architects  Louis Sullivan  Walter Gropius  Ludwig Mies van der rohe
  5. 5. Materials played a vital role in expanding Modern Architectures The two principal materials for the new forms and high massive buildings:  Steel (pioneered in Britain and brought into general use in America)  Reinforced concrete (developed in France)
  6. 6. Steel:  The fundamental technical prerequisite to large-scale modern architecture was the development of metal framing.
  7. 7. Glass and iron frame: Crystal Palace, Joseph Paxton, 1851 Eiffel Tower, Gustav Eiffel, 1887
  8. 8. Reinforced Concrete: Francoise Hennebique in 1892, perfected a system for the best location of steel reinforcement in concrete; the combination of the compressive strength of concrete with the tensile strength of concrete in a homogenous grid was one of the turning points in architectural history.
  9. 9. The First Structures Based on requirements of modern architectures:
  10. 10. Metal Frame building: The first definitive skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building, Chicago built in 1883-85 by William le Baron Jenney. Of fireproof construction, it has a metal frame clad in brick and masonry.
  11. 11. R.C. Structure : Church of St. Jean-de Montmartre , Anatole de Baudette, Paris, 1897. The first example of reinforced cement in church construction.
  12. 12. The ‘Schools’ of Modernity: The Chicago School The Werkbund The Bauhaus
  13. 13. The Chicago School :  Chicago's architecture is famous throughout the world and one style is referred to as the Chicago School. In the history of architecture, the Chicago School was a school of architects active in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century. The Chicago fire of 1871 destroyed most of the city and gave an opportunity for architects to design and build new structures.
  14. 14. Chicago’s school shares to Modern Architectures:  They were among the first to promote the new technologies of “steel-frame” construction in commercial buildings.  They developed a spatial aesthetic which co- evolved with, and then came to influence, parallel developments in European Modernism.  The use of steel-frame buildings with masonry cladding, allowing large plate-glass window areas and limiting the amount of exterior ornamentation.
  15. 15. A "Second Chicago School " later emerged in the 1940s and 1970s which pioneered new building technologies and structural systems such as the ”tube-frame” structure Willis Tower, completed in 1973, introduced the bundled tube structural system and was the world's tallest building until 1998
  16. 16. Some of the more famous Chicago School buildings include:  Auditorium Building  Sullivan Center  Reliance Building  Gage Group Buildings  Chicago Building  Brooks Building  Fisher Building  Heyworth Building  Leiter I Building  Leiter II Building  Marquette Building  Monadnock Building  Montauk Building  Rookery Building
  17. 17.  Auditorium Building Chicago June 30, 2012-92  The Sullivan Center was initially developed because of the Chicago Great Fire of 1871. In 1872, the partners hip of Leopold Schlesinger and David Mayer began after their immigration from Bavaria.
  18. 18. The ‘Monadnock’ was commissioned by Boston real estate developers Peter and Shepherd Brooks in the building boom following the Depression of 1873–79. The Marquette Building, completed in 1895, is a Chicago landmark that was built by the George A. Fuller Company and designed by architects Holabird & Roche.
  19. 19. The Brooks Building in Chicago was built in 1909–1910 in the Chicago School architectural Style. An early example steel-framed skyscraper. Gage Buildings - Chicago, Illinois. These are three buildings located at 18, 24 and 30 South Michigan Avenue, between Madison Street and Monroe Street, in Chicago, Illinois. They were built in 1899- 1890 by Holabird & Roche for the millinery firms of Keith, Gage and Asche
  20. 20. The Werkbund: The Deutscher Werkbund (German Workforce) was a German organization of artists, architects, and designers aiming to refine human craft. It was founded by Peter Behrens, Josef Hoffman, and Richard Riemerschmid in 1907. . Its initial purpose was to establish a partnership of product manufacturers with design professionals to improve the competitiveness of German companies in global markets
  21. 21. The organization originally included twelve architects and twelve business firms:  Peter Behrens  Theodor Fischecr (who served as its first president)  Josef Hoffmann  Bruno Paul  Richard Riemerschmid.  Heinrich Tessenow.  Henry van de Velde.  Van de Velde tan de Velde  Eliel Saarinen  Mies Van der Rohe, (who served as Architectural Director).
  22. 22. Key dates of the Deutscher Werkbund:  1907, Establishment of the Werkbund in Munich  1910, Salon d'Automne, Paris  1914, Cologne exhibition, Germany  1920, Lilly Reich becomes the first female Director  1924, Berlin exhibition  1927, Stuttgart exhibition (including the Weissenhof Estate)  1929, Breslau exhibition  1938, Werkbund closed by the Nazis  1949, Reestablishment
  23. 23. Weissenhoff states:  The estate was built for the Deutscher Werkbund exhibition of 1927, and included twenty- one buildings comprising sixty dwellings, designed by seventeen European architects, most of them German-speaking.  Le Corbusier, was awarded the two prime sites, facing the city, and by far the largest budge
  24. 24.  The twenty-one buildings vary slightly in form consisting of terraced and detached houses and apartment buildings, and display a strong consistency of design. What they have in common are their simplified facades, flat roofs used as terraces, window bands, open plan interiors, and the high level of prefabrication which permitted their erection in just five months. All but two of the entries were white. Bruno Taut had his entry, the smallest, painted a bright red
  25. 25. The Bauhaus School 1919- 1933:  The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence.  The concept of the school at the beginning was influenced by medieval construction of churches wherein craftsmen and artists collaborated in the completion and details of the building.
  26. 26.  The Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.  The term Bauhaus is German for "House of Building" or "Building School".  The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.
  27. 27. Bauhaus :  The school provided workshops in:  Metalwork  Weaving  Ceramics  Furniture  Typography  Theatre.
  28. 28. Bauhaus was considered to be the first design school in the modernist style. It influenced the art and architectural trends in the whole world. The school existed in three German cities (Weimar ,Dessau and Berlin), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer and Ludwig Mie's van der Rohe until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime.
  29. 29. The Big Three:  Louis Sullivan  Walter Gropius  Ludwig Mies van der rohe
  30. 30. Louis Sullivan: Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism”. Prior to the late 19th century, the weight of a multistory building had to be supported principally by the strength of its walls. The taller the building, the more strain this placed on the lower sections of the building; since there were clear engineering limits to the weight such "load- bearing" walls could sustain, large designs meant massively thick walls on the ground floors, and definite limits on the building's height
  31. 31. In 1896, Louis Sullivan wrote in a poem: It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, Of all things physical and metaphysical, Of all things human, and all things super-human, Of all true manifestations of the head, Of the heart, of the soul, That the life is recognizable in its expression, That form ever follows function. This is the law. "Form follows function" would become one of the prevailing tenets of modern architects
  32. 32. Louis Sullivan : The Martin Ryerson Tomb is an Egyptian Revival style mausoleum designed by Louis Sullivan and completed in 1889. The Wainwright Building (also known as the Wainwright State Office Building) is a 10-story red brick office building at 709 Chestnut Street in downtown St. Louis, Missouri.
  33. 33. Walter Gropius: Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture. Walter Gropius was the founder of Bauhaus School. “"Architecture begins where the engineering ends" - Walter Gropius
  34. 34.  Educator: Founded the Bauhaus School of Design (1919- 1928) Founded The Architect’s Collaborative (1945)  Key moment Fled Nazi Germany under the pretext of a temporary visit to Britain with the help of architect Maxwell Fry (1934)  Key buildings The Fagus-Werk Factory, Berlin (1911) The Gropius House, Lincoln, Mass (1938) The Pan Am Building, New York (1958)
  35. 35. The Fagus Factory (German: Fagus Fabrik or Fagus Werk), a shoe last factory in Alfeld on the Leine. For the first time a complete facade is conceived in glass.The corners are left without any support, yielding an unprecedented sense of openness and continuity between inside and out.
  36. 36. The Gropius House was the family residence of noted architect Walter Gropius at 68 Baker Bridge Road, Lincoln, Massachusetts. Gropius used his new home as a showcase for his Harvard students as well as an example of modernist landscape architecture in America
  37. 37. Walter Gropius: “As to my practice, when I built my first house in the U.S.A. —which was my own— I made it a point to absorb into my own conception those features of the New England architectural tradition that I found still alive and adequate. This fusion of the regional spirit with a contemporary approach to design produced a house that I would never have built in Europe with its entirely different climatic, technical and psychological background”. —Walter Gropius, Scope of Total Architecture (1956) —
  38. 38. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect. He strove toward an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of free-flowing open space. He called his buildings "skin and bones" architecture. He is often associated with his quotation of the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details".
  39. 39. American work: Mies worked from his studio in downtown Chicago for his entire 31-year period in America. His significant projects in the U.S. include in Chicago and the area: the residential towers of 860–880 Lake Shore Dr, the Chicago Federal Center complex, the Farnsworth House, Crown Hall and other structures at IIT; and the Seagram Building in New York. These iconic works became the prototypes for his other projects. He also built homes for wealthy clients
  40. 40. Farnsworth House The highly-crafted pristine white structural frame and all-glass walls define a simple rectilinear interior space, allowing nature and light to envelop the interior space. 860–880 Lake Shore Drive Mies designed a series of four middle- income high-rise apartment buildings for developer Herb Greenwald: the 860– 880 (which was built between 1949 and 1951) .These towers, with façades of steel and glass emerges.
  41. 41. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston Mies designed two buildings for the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH) as additions to the Caroline Weiss Law Building. In 1953, the MFAH commissioned Mies van der Rohe to create a master plan for the institution. National Gallery, Berlin Mies's last work was the Neue Nationalgalerie art museum, the New National Gallery for the Berlin National Gallery. Considered one of the most perfect statements of his architectural approach, the upper pavilion is a precise composition of monumental steel columns and a cantilevered (overhanging) roof plane with a glass enclosure.
  42. 42. S. R. Crown Hall S. R. Crown Hall, designed by the German-born Modernist architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is the home of the College of Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois.