SlideShare a Scribd company logo
pharmacognosy
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
M.D. 1st Year
SAIMS Indore
09/01/2014
Pharmacognosy
• Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines
derived from natural sources.
• The American Society of Pharmacognosy
defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the
physical, chemical, biochemical and biological
properties of drugs, drug substances or
potential drugs or drug substances of natural
origin as well as the search for new drugs from
natural sources”
Pharmacognosy
• Although pharmacognosy is principally concerned with
plant materials, there are a small number of animal
products which are traditionally encompassed within the
subject;
• Examples:
– Produced from wild (whale, musk, deer)
– Fish (cod and halibut)
– domesticated animals (hog, sheep, cattle) –lanolin and milk
products, hormones, endocrine prods, and some enzymes
– Wild insects (cantharides)
– Cultivated (beeswax)
• Marine organisms, both plant and animal, with potent
pharmacological actions are receiving increasing attention
in the search for new drugs.
Pharmacognosy
• Materials having no pharmacological action
which are of interest to pharmacognosists are
natural fibres, flavouring and suspending
agents, colourants, disintegrants, stabilizers
and filtering and support media.
• Other areas that have natural associations
with the subject are poisonous and
hallucinogenic plants, allergens, herbicides,
insecticides and molluscicides.”
Pharmacognosy
• Recently it includes:
– Modern isolation techniques
– Pharmacological testing procedures to prepare
purified substances
– Cultivation and propagation by tissue culture
The history of natural products in
medicine
• A great proportion of the natural products are used as
drugs
• The study of drugs used by traditional healers is an
important object of pharmacognostical research
Ayurveda (Charak) 2500-600 BC - India
Egyptians (Ebers papyrus, 1550 BC)
Sumerians and Akkadians (300 BC)
Authors of antiquity
Hippocrates (460-377 BC)
“The Father of Medicine”
Dioscorides (40-80 AD)
“De Materia Medica” (600 medicinal plants)
The Islamic era
Ibn Al tabari (770850)
” ‫فردوس‬‫الحكمه‬ “
Ibn Sina (980-1037)
” ‫القانون‬‫في‬‫الطب‬ “
Ibn Al bitar (1148-1197)
” ‫الجامع‬‫لمفردات‬‫األدوية‬‫واألغذية‬ “
The era of European exploration overseas
(16th and 17th century)
History
• The word ‘Pharmacognosy’ is derived from:
– pharmakon ‘a drug’ (Greek)
– gignosco ‘ to acquire knowledge of’ (Greek)
– or cognosco ‘to know about’ (Latin)
• The term "pharmacognosy" was used for the first
time by the Austrian physician Schmidt in his
Lehrbuch der materia medica in 1811 and in 1815
by Crr. Anotheus Seydler in a work titled Analecta
Pharmacognostica.
History
• It is a recognised fact that in the historical development of
any subject the role of certain individuals is of considerable
importance.
• The first British pharmacognosist was Jonathan Pereira
(1804–1853), who as the first teacher of the subject gave it
its pharmaceutical basis. He may be considered as the
founder of British pharmacognosy.
• Daniel Hanbury (1825–1875) was the most outstanding
applied pharmacognosist while the contribution made by
E. M. Holmes (1843–1930) as an applied pharmacognosist
stands out both in quality and quantity.
• Dr. Chandrakant Kotate, Father of Indian Pharmacognosy
The era of pure compounds
• Isolation of morphine from opium (1806)
• Strychnine (1817)
• Quinine and caffeine (1820)
• Nicotine (1828)
• Atropine (1833)
• Cocaine (1855)
• 19th century: the chemical structures of many
of the isolated compounds were determined
• 20th century: the discovery of important
drugs from the animal kingdom, particularly
hormones and vitamins
• microorganisms have become a very
important source of drugs
Pharmacognosy: Fields
• Medical ethnobotany: the study of the traditional
use of plants for medicinal purposes;
• Ethnopharmacology: the study of the
pharmacological qualities of traditional medicinal
substances;
• Study of phytotherapy (the medicinal use of plant
extracts);
• Phytochemistry, the study of chemicals derived
from plants (including the identification of new
drug candidates derived from plant sources).
Pharmacognosy: Fields
• Zoopharmacognosy, the process by which
animals self-medicate, by selecting and using
plants, soils, and insects to treat and prevent
disease
• Marine pharmacognosy, the study of
chemicals derived from marine organisms.
Phytochemicals
• All plants produce chemical compounds as
part of their normal metabolic activities.
These phytochemicals are divided into
• (1) Primary metabolites such as sugars and
fats, which are found in all plants;
• (2) Secondary metabolites—compounds
which are found in a smaller range of plants,
serving a more specific function
Phytochemicals
• some secondary metabolites are toxins used to
deter predators and others are pheromones used
to attract insects for pollination.
• It is these secondary metabolites and pigments
that can have therapeutic actions in humans and
which can be refined to produce drugs—
examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias,
quinine from the cinchona, morphine and
codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the
foxglove.
Phytochemicals
• Plants synthesize variety of phytochemicals
but most are derivatives of a few biochemical
motifs:
• Alkaloids
• Phenolics
• Glycosides
• Terpenes
Phytochemicals
• Alkaloids are a class of chemical compounds
containing a nitrogen ring.
• Glycosides is a molecule in which a sugar is
bound to a non-carbohydrate moiety, usually a
small organic molecule.
• Polyphenols (also known as phenolics) are
compounds contain phenol rings.
• Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary
constituents of resin, essential oils of many types
of plants and flowers.
Alkaloids
• Examples are
– the local anesthetic and stimulant cocaine;
– the psychedelic psilocin;
– the stimulant caffeine, nicotine;
– the analgesic morphine;
– the antibacterial berberine;
– the anticancer compound vincristine;
– the antihypertension agent reserpine;
– the cholinomimetic galantamine;
– the spasmolysis agent atropine;
– the vasodilator vincamine;
– the anti-arhythmia compound quinidine;
– the anti-asthma ephedrine;
– the antimalarial drug quinine.
Classification
• Vegetable drugs can be arranged for study
under the following headings:
– Alphabetical
– Morphological
– Taxonomical
– Pharmacological / Therapeutic
– Chemical
Alphabetical
• Either Latin or vernacular names may be used.
• This arrangement is employed for dictionaries,
pharmacopoeias, etc.
• Although suitable for quick reference it gives no
indication of inter-relationships between drugs.
Morphological
• Drugs are arranged according to their
morphological or external characters of the plant
parts or animal parts, i.e. which part of the plant
is used as a drug
– Organized drugs : obtained from the direct parts of
the plants and containing cellular tissues
– e.g. leaves (digitalis, senna, belladona), flowers (clove,
saffron), fruits (amla, cardamom, cumin), seeds
(ispaghula, linseed, physostigma), herbs (ergot, vinca),
barks (cinchona), rhizomes and roots (aconite,
ginseng, ipecac, rauwolfia), hair & fibres (flax)
Morphological
– Unorganized drugs: prepared from plants by some
intermediate physical processes such as incision, drying or
extraction with a solvent and not containing any cellular
plant tissues
– e.g. latex (opium), dried juice (aloe), extracts (agar,
catechu, pectin), waxes (beeswax), gums (acacia,
guargum), resins (benzoin, colophony, tolu balsam),
volatile oil (turpentine, cinnamon, peppermint, clove),
fixed oils & fat (arachis, castor, olive, cod liver),
• Advantage: More convenient for practical study
especially when the chemical nature of the drug is not
clearly understood
• Disadvantage: there is no correlation of chemical
constituents with the therapeutic actions
Taxonomic
• Drugs are arranged according to the plants from
which they are obtained, in kingdom,
subkingdom, division, class, order, family, genus
and species
– Advantage: It allows for a precise and ordered
arrangement and accommodates any drug without
ambiguity; helpful for studying evolutionary
developments
– Disadvantage: does not correlate in between the
chemical constituents and biological activity of the
drugs
Taxonomic
• Class
– Angiospermae (Angiosperms): plants that produce
flowers
– Gymnospermae (Gymnosperms): Plants which do not
produce flowers
• Subclass
– Dicotyledonae (Dicotyledons, Dicots): plants with two
seed leaves
– Monotyledonae (Monotyledons, Monocots): plants
with one seed leaf
Taxonomic
• Superorder: A group of related plant families,
classified in the order in which they are
thought to have developed their differences
from a common ancestor
• Each superorder is further divided into several
orders; the names of the orders end in -ales
Taxonomic
• Family
– Each order is divided into families
– These are plants with many botanical features in
common, and are the highest classification normally
used.
– The names of the families end in –aceae
• Subfamily
– The family may be further divided into a number of
subfamilies, which group together plants within the
family that have some significant botanical
differences.
– Subfamilies end in -oideae
Taxonomic
• Genus
– Part of the plant name that is most familiar; the
normal name that you give a plant
• Papaver (poppy)
• Arachis (peanut)
• Species
– Level that defines an individual plant
– The name describes some aspect of the plant – the
color of the flowers, size or shape of the leaves, or it
may be named after the place where it was found.
– Should be written after the genus name, in small
letters
Pharmacological/Therapeutic
• This classification involves the grouping of drugs
according to the pharmacological action of their
most important constituent or their therapeutic
use.
• Advantage: More relevant and mostly followed
method
• Disadvantage: Drugs having different action on
the body get classified separately in more than
one group that causes ambiguity and confusion
Pharmacological/Therapeutic
Drugs acting on G.I.T.
• Carminative - Fennel, Cardamom, Mentha
• Emetic - Ipecac
• Antiamoebic - Kurchi, Ipecac
• Laxative - Agar, Isabgol, Banana
• Purgative - Senna, Castor oil
• Cathartic - Senna
Pharmacological/Therapeutic
Drugs acting on Respiratory System
• Antitussive - Opium (codeine)
• Bronchodilators - Ephedra, Tea
• Expectorant - Vasaka, Liquorice, Ipecac
Pharmacological/Therapeutic
Drugs acting on Autonomic Nervous System
• Adrenergic - Ephedra
• Cholinergic - Physostigma, Pilocarpus
• Anticholinergic - Datura, Belladonna
Pharmacological/Therapeutic
Drugs acting on Cardiovascular System
• Cardiotonic - Digitalis, Strophantus, Squill
• Cardiac depressant - Cinchona, Veratrum
• Vasoconstrictor - Ergot
• Antihypertensive - Rauwolfia
Pharmacological/Therapeutic
Drugs acting on Central Nervous System
• Central analgesic - Opium (morphine)
• CNS depressant - Belladonna, Opium,
Hyoscyamus
• CNS stimulant - Tea, Coffee
• Analeptic - Nux vomica, Camphor, Lobelia
Pharmacological/Therapeutic
• Antispasmodic - Datura, Hyoscyamus, Opium, Curare
• Anticancer - Vinca, Podophyllum, Taxus
• Antirrheumatic - Aconite, Colchicum, Guggal
• Anthelminthic - Quassia, Vidang
• Astringent - Catechu, Myrobalans
• Antimalarial - Cinchona, Artemesia
• Immunomodulatory - Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Tulsi
• Immunizing agent - Vaccines, Sera, Antitoxin
• Drugs acting Skin Membrane - Beeswax, Wool fat, Balsam
of Tolu, Balsam of Peru
• Chemotherapeutic - Antibiotics
• Local anesthetic - Coca
Chemical
• Crude drugs are classified depending upon the
active constituents
• Irrespective of the morphological or taxonomical
characters, the drugs with similar chemical
constituents are grouped together
• Advantage: it is a popular approach for
phytochemical studies
• Disadvantage: ambiguities arise when particular
drugs possess a number of compounds belonging
to different groups of compounds.
Chemical
Chemical Constituent Group
• Alkaloids - Cinchona, Datura, Vinca, Ipecac, Nux vomica
• Glycosides - Senna, Aloe, ginseng, Digitalis
• Carbohydrates & its derivatives - Acacia, Starch, Isabgol
• Volatile oil - Clove, Coriander, Fennel, Cinnamon,
Cumin
• Resin and Resin Combination - Benzoin, Tolu Balsam,
Balsam of Peru
• Tannins - Catechu, Tea
• Enzymes - Papain, Casein, Trypsin
• Lipids - Beeswax, Kokum butter, Lanolin
Production of natural drug products
1. Collection (wild)
2. Cultivation (commercial), collection, harvesting, drying,
garbling, packaging, storage and preservation e.g.
ginseng, ginkgo, peppermint
3. Fermentation (Recombinant DNA technology or
Genetically engineered drugs)
4. Cell-culture techniques
5. Microbial transformation
6. Biologics (prepared from the blood of animals)
The role of natural products in drug discovery
1. Combinatorial chemistry
2. High-throughput screening of natural products
3. Combinatorial biosynthesis
4. Ethnopharmacology
Scope of Pharmacognosy
• 1. ISOLATION OR ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL :
• Eg ; Strong acting substances such as glycosides from digitalis
leaves,
• Alkaloids from the plants of Belladonna, Hyocyamus,
Rauwlofia
• Morphine and other alkaloids from the plant opium were
isolated and clinical uses studied
2. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP :
Eg : Tubocurarine and Toxiferine from curare plant
have muscle relaxant properties because of
quaternary ammonium groups.
The hypotensive and tranquillizing actions of
reserpine are due to the trimethoxy benzoic
acid
3. DRUGS OBTAINED BY PARTIAL SYNTHESIS OF NATURAL
PRODUCTS:
Eg : Preparation of Steroid hormones from diosgenin by
acetolysis and oxidation and further preparation of
cortisone by microbial reactions.
4. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS MODELS FOR SYNTHESIS OF NEW
DRUGS :
Eg: Morphine is the model of a large group of potent drugs .
Cocaine for local anaesthetics
Atropine for certain spasmolytics
5. DRUGS OF DIRECT THERAPEUTIC USES :
• Among the natural constituents which even now cannot be
replaced are important group of antibiotics, steroids, ergot
alkaloids, vincristine etc
6.CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS :
• clove, cinchona , cinnamon, senna, opium, etc
7. PREPARATION OF HERBAL FORMULATIONS :
• churnas, asvas, aristas, leha, etc
8. DEVELOPMENT OF TISSUE CULTURED PLANTS
Biological method of evaluation
SIGNIFICANCE:
1.The method is generally used when standardization is not
done satisfactorily by chemical or physical methods
2.When the quantity of the drug /sample are very less, then the
drugs are evaluated by biological methods
These methods are performed on living animals, isolating
living organ and tissue, animal preparation, and
microorganism
( Bioassay)
Following method is used as
1.Anti inflammatory activity
2.Analgesic activity
3.Antipyretic activity
4.Anti ulcer activity
5.Antidiabetic activity
6.Anthelmintic activity on earth worms
7.Cardiac activity- on frog and pigeon
8.Microbiological methods- living bacteria, yeast, molds are used
for the assaying vitamins and to determine the activity of
antibiotic drugs
Why do we need plants?
1. Source of drug molecules
– They provide a number of extremely useful drugs
that are difficult, if not impossible, to produce
commercially by synthetic means
• Most drugs can be synthesised
• Still more economical to use the plant
Papaver opium -> morphine, codeine (strong analgesic)
Ergot fungus –> ergotamine (migraine), ergometrine (direct action
on uterine muscle)
Why do we need plants?
2. Source of complex molecules that can be modified to
medicinal compounds
• Example:
Soya: saponins -> steroids
– Some natural products contain compounds that
demonstrate little or no activity themselves but which can
be modified by chemical or biological methods to produce
potent drugs not easily obtained by other methods
• Baccatin III -> Taxol
– Supply basic compounds that may be modified slightly to
render them more effective or less toxic
3. Their utility as prototypes or models for synthetic
drugs possessing physiologic activities similar to the
originals
COOH
HO
COOH
OH3C
O
H3C COOH
CH3
CH3
Salicylic Acid Aspirin
Ibuprofen
Morphine:
No better painkiller. Once structure worked out wanted
to improve it. What is required?
Diacetylmorphine (heroin):
OH group -> O-O-diacetyl. Still addictive?
Codeine:
Methylate hydroxyl phenolic; O-Me. 1/5 analgesic
capacity of morphine, useful to suppress cough reflex
Dihydromorphinone:
Reduced =, oxidised 2y alc. Potential analgesic.
Source of compounds to use as templates
for designing new drugs
Dihydrocodeine:
Me-ether of previous. More powerful than codeine,
less than morphine.
Dextromethorphan:
Good against cough reflex
Is lower ring necessary?
Pentazocin
Phenazocine
Is middle ring needed?
Pethidine
Methadone
Why do we need plants?
4. Source of toxic molecules
• To study the way the body responds to their
pharmacological use
• Investigating pharmacological mechanisms
picrotoxin – nerve conduction
Why do we need plants?
• 5. Source of novel structures
• these might never be thought of
Catharanthus periwinkle -> vincristine (alkaloid dimer)
Why do we need plants?
• 6. Source of plant drugs
• As a powder or extract
• The pure compound is often not isolated because:
» Active ingredient is unknown
» Active ingredient is unstable
» Isolation process is too costly
Future
• About 500,000 species of higher plants on earth
• <10% investigated and only for one activity
• Huge potential in plant kingdom
Pharmacognosy
Pharmacognosy

More Related Content

What's hot

Adulteration of crude drugs
Adulteration of crude drugsAdulteration of crude drugs
Volatile Oils
Volatile OilsVolatile Oils
Volatile Oils
Nouman Ahmad
 
Amla
AmlaAmla
Classification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugs Classification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugs
Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore
 
Introduction and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Introduction  and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...Introduction  and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Introduction and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore
 
Evaluation of drugs
Evaluation of drugsEvaluation of drugs
Evaluation of drugs
Dr Choudhry Abdul Sami
 
Adulteration of drugs
Adulteration of drugsAdulteration of drugs
Herbs as raw materials
Herbs as raw materialsHerbs as raw materials
Herbs as raw materials
Professor
 
Pharmacognosy def.his.scope.develpmnt
Pharmacognosy def.his.scope.develpmntPharmacognosy def.his.scope.develpmnt
Pharmacognosy def.his.scope.develpmnt
Zuli Shingala
 
Introduction_to_Pharmacognosy
Introduction_to_PharmacognosyIntroduction_to_Pharmacognosy
Introduction_to_Pharmacognosy
Dr. Siddhi Upadhyay
 
Pharmacognosy
PharmacognosyPharmacognosy
Pharmacognosy
BikashAdhikari26
 
Clove
CloveClove
Herbal formulations
Herbal formulationsHerbal formulations
Herbal formulations
Dr Priyanka Goswami
 
Cultivation,collection, processing,Preservation and Storage of Important Medi...
Cultivation,collection, processing,Preservation and Storage of Important Medi...Cultivation,collection, processing,Preservation and Storage of Important Medi...
Cultivation,collection, processing,Preservation and Storage of Important Medi...
Ujjwal Mandal
 
Drug adulteration pharmacognosy
Drug adulteration   pharmacognosyDrug adulteration   pharmacognosy
Drug adulteration pharmacognosy
SIVASWAROOP YARASI
 
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicineRoll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Megha Shah
 
Cultivation, collection,storage of crude drugs
Cultivation, collection,storage of crude drugsCultivation, collection,storage of crude drugs
Cultivation, collection,storage of crude drugs
Dr K SUDHEER KUMAR KANDIBANDA
 
Adulteration of drugs_ Dr.U.Srinivasa, Proffessor and Head, Srinivas College ...
Adulteration of drugs_ Dr.U.Srinivasa, Proffessor and Head, Srinivas College ...Adulteration of drugs_ Dr.U.Srinivasa, Proffessor and Head, Srinivas College ...
Adulteration of drugs_ Dr.U.Srinivasa, Proffessor and Head, Srinivas College ...
Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore
 
Adulteration of Crude Drug and Evaluation Methods
Adulteration of Crude Drug and Evaluation Methods Adulteration of Crude Drug and Evaluation Methods
Adulteration of Crude Drug and Evaluation Methods
Vandana Janghel
 
Role of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine
Role of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicineRole of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine
Role of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine
Ramaiah Maddi
 

What's hot (20)

Adulteration of crude drugs
Adulteration of crude drugsAdulteration of crude drugs
Adulteration of crude drugs
 
Volatile Oils
Volatile OilsVolatile Oils
Volatile Oils
 
Amla
AmlaAmla
Amla
 
Classification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugs Classification of crude drugs
Classification of crude drugs
 
Introduction and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Introduction  and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...Introduction  and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
Introduction and scope of pharmacognosy by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor, Sriniv...
 
Evaluation of drugs
Evaluation of drugsEvaluation of drugs
Evaluation of drugs
 
Adulteration of drugs
Adulteration of drugsAdulteration of drugs
Adulteration of drugs
 
Herbs as raw materials
Herbs as raw materialsHerbs as raw materials
Herbs as raw materials
 
Pharmacognosy def.his.scope.develpmnt
Pharmacognosy def.his.scope.develpmntPharmacognosy def.his.scope.develpmnt
Pharmacognosy def.his.scope.develpmnt
 
Introduction_to_Pharmacognosy
Introduction_to_PharmacognosyIntroduction_to_Pharmacognosy
Introduction_to_Pharmacognosy
 
Pharmacognosy
PharmacognosyPharmacognosy
Pharmacognosy
 
Clove
CloveClove
Clove
 
Herbal formulations
Herbal formulationsHerbal formulations
Herbal formulations
 
Cultivation,collection, processing,Preservation and Storage of Important Medi...
Cultivation,collection, processing,Preservation and Storage of Important Medi...Cultivation,collection, processing,Preservation and Storage of Important Medi...
Cultivation,collection, processing,Preservation and Storage of Important Medi...
 
Drug adulteration pharmacognosy
Drug adulteration   pharmacognosyDrug adulteration   pharmacognosy
Drug adulteration pharmacognosy
 
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicineRoll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
Roll of pharmacognosy in traditional system of medicine
 
Cultivation, collection,storage of crude drugs
Cultivation, collection,storage of crude drugsCultivation, collection,storage of crude drugs
Cultivation, collection,storage of crude drugs
 
Adulteration of drugs_ Dr.U.Srinivasa, Proffessor and Head, Srinivas College ...
Adulteration of drugs_ Dr.U.Srinivasa, Proffessor and Head, Srinivas College ...Adulteration of drugs_ Dr.U.Srinivasa, Proffessor and Head, Srinivas College ...
Adulteration of drugs_ Dr.U.Srinivasa, Proffessor and Head, Srinivas College ...
 
Adulteration of Crude Drug and Evaluation Methods
Adulteration of Crude Drug and Evaluation Methods Adulteration of Crude Drug and Evaluation Methods
Adulteration of Crude Drug and Evaluation Methods
 
Role of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine
Role of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicineRole of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine
Role of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine
 

Viewers also liked

Alkaloids by pooja sem-6 pharmacy
Alkaloids by pooja sem-6 pharmacyAlkaloids by pooja sem-6 pharmacy
Alkaloids by pooja sem-6 pharmacy
POOJA KHANPARA
 
Powder Characters_Pharmacognosy
Powder Characters_PharmacognosyPowder Characters_Pharmacognosy
Powder Characters_Pharmacognosy
Dr Priyanka Goswami
 
Soxhlet extraction
Soxhlet extractionSoxhlet extraction
Soxhlet extraction
princeelackad
 
Soxhlet apparatus
Soxhlet apparatusSoxhlet apparatus
Soxhlet apparatus
Abarna Abi
 
Pharmacognosy Simplified
Pharmacognosy SimplifiedPharmacognosy Simplified
Pharmacognosy Simplified
Dr Priyanka Goswami
 
Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Secondary Metabolites from Plants Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Ahmed Fathy
 
Extraction processes
Extraction processes Extraction processes
Extraction processes
Niraj Bartaula
 
Solvent Extraction
Solvent ExtractionSolvent Extraction
Solvent Extraction
Suman Roy
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Alkaloids by pooja sem-6 pharmacy
Alkaloids by pooja sem-6 pharmacyAlkaloids by pooja sem-6 pharmacy
Alkaloids by pooja sem-6 pharmacy
 
Powder Characters_Pharmacognosy
Powder Characters_PharmacognosyPowder Characters_Pharmacognosy
Powder Characters_Pharmacognosy
 
Soxhlet extraction
Soxhlet extractionSoxhlet extraction
Soxhlet extraction
 
Soxhlet apparatus
Soxhlet apparatusSoxhlet apparatus
Soxhlet apparatus
 
Pharmacognosy Simplified
Pharmacognosy SimplifiedPharmacognosy Simplified
Pharmacognosy Simplified
 
Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Secondary Metabolites from Plants Secondary Metabolites from Plants
Secondary Metabolites from Plants
 
Extraction processes
Extraction processes Extraction processes
Extraction processes
 
Solvent Extraction
Solvent ExtractionSolvent Extraction
Solvent Extraction
 

Similar to Pharmacognosy

UNIT_I_INTRODUCTION_TO_PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
UNIT_I_INTRODUCTION_TO_PHARMACOGNOSY.pptxUNIT_I_INTRODUCTION_TO_PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
UNIT_I_INTRODUCTION_TO_PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
Divya Kanojiya
 
Introduction To Pharmacognosy
Introduction To PharmacognosyIntroduction To Pharmacognosy
Introduction To Pharmacognosy
smita nhawkar
 
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptxPharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
PHARMACY - A General View
PHARMACY - A General ViewPHARMACY - A General View
PHARMACY - A General View
RamJyothis
 
Introduction to pharmacognosy
Introduction to pharmacognosyIntroduction to pharmacognosy
PharmaCognsy Ppt1.pptx
PharmaCognsy Ppt1.pptxPharmaCognsy Ppt1.pptx
PharmaCognsy Ppt1.pptx
MuazAmin3
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.ppt
Introduction to Pharmacognosy AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.pptIntroduction to Pharmacognosy AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.ppt
Introduction to Pharmacognosy AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.ppt
Government Pharmacy College Sajong, Government of Sikkim
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy.pdf
Introduction to Pharmacognosy.pdfIntroduction to Pharmacognosy.pdf
Introduction to Pharmacognosy.pdf
SmitaMankar5
 
Pharmacology basic concept
Pharmacology basic conceptPharmacology basic concept
Pharmacology basic concept
Dr Vinay Gupta
 
PHG 251 (1) INTROUCTION FINAL.ppt
PHG 251 (1) INTROUCTION FINAL.pptPHG 251 (1) INTROUCTION FINAL.ppt
PHG 251 (1) INTROUCTION FINAL.ppt
Manisha297529
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I.pdf
Introduction to Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I.pdfIntroduction to Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I.pdf
Introduction to Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I.pdf
Akshay Daswad
 
Introduction to pharmacognosy,classification of drugs,quality control of drug...
Introduction to pharmacognosy,classification of drugs,quality control of drug...Introduction to pharmacognosy,classification of drugs,quality control of drug...
Introduction to pharmacognosy,classification of drugs,quality control of drug...
Sri Lakshmi
 
Bpharm 2 y_4s_405t_pharmacognosy &amp; phytochemistry-i
Bpharm 2 y_4s_405t_pharmacognosy &amp; phytochemistry-iBpharm 2 y_4s_405t_pharmacognosy &amp; phytochemistry-i
Bpharm 2 y_4s_405t_pharmacognosy &amp; phytochemistry-i
Nop Pirom
 
Introduction-Scope-of-Pharmacology.pdf
Introduction-Scope-of-Pharmacology.pdfIntroduction-Scope-of-Pharmacology.pdf
Introduction-Scope-of-Pharmacology.pdf
Paramita Saha
 
An Introduction to pharmacognosy
An Introduction to pharmacognosyAn Introduction to pharmacognosy
An Introduction to pharmacognosy
Marwa A.A. Fayed
 
S1 l1 pharmacognosy introduction
S1 l1 pharmacognosy introductionS1 l1 pharmacognosy introduction
S1 l1 pharmacognosy introduction
Md. abul barkat
 
MODULE 01.pdf
MODULE 01.pdfMODULE 01.pdf
MODULE 01.pdf
Jane756411
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy, History, Scope in Pharmacy.ppt
Introduction to Pharmacognosy, History, Scope in Pharmacy.pptIntroduction to Pharmacognosy, History, Scope in Pharmacy.ppt
Introduction to Pharmacognosy, History, Scope in Pharmacy.ppt
Gulam Muheyuddeen
 
Intr.to pharmacognosy 1
Intr.to pharmacognosy 1Intr.to pharmacognosy 1
Intr.to pharmacognosy 1
Marwa A.A. Fayed
 
Intro by pooja khanpara
Intro by pooja khanparaIntro by pooja khanpara
Intro by pooja khanpara
POOJA KHANPARA
 

Similar to Pharmacognosy (20)

UNIT_I_INTRODUCTION_TO_PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
UNIT_I_INTRODUCTION_TO_PHARMACOGNOSY.pptxUNIT_I_INTRODUCTION_TO_PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
UNIT_I_INTRODUCTION_TO_PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
 
Introduction To Pharmacognosy
Introduction To PharmacognosyIntroduction To Pharmacognosy
Introduction To Pharmacognosy
 
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptxPharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
 
PHARMACY - A General View
PHARMACY - A General ViewPHARMACY - A General View
PHARMACY - A General View
 
Introduction to pharmacognosy
Introduction to pharmacognosyIntroduction to pharmacognosy
Introduction to pharmacognosy
 
PharmaCognsy Ppt1.pptx
PharmaCognsy Ppt1.pptxPharmaCognsy Ppt1.pptx
PharmaCognsy Ppt1.pptx
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.ppt
Introduction to Pharmacognosy AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.pptIntroduction to Pharmacognosy AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.ppt
Introduction to Pharmacognosy AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE.ppt
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy.pdf
Introduction to Pharmacognosy.pdfIntroduction to Pharmacognosy.pdf
Introduction to Pharmacognosy.pdf
 
Pharmacology basic concept
Pharmacology basic conceptPharmacology basic concept
Pharmacology basic concept
 
PHG 251 (1) INTROUCTION FINAL.ppt
PHG 251 (1) INTROUCTION FINAL.pptPHG 251 (1) INTROUCTION FINAL.ppt
PHG 251 (1) INTROUCTION FINAL.ppt
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I.pdf
Introduction to Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I.pdfIntroduction to Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I.pdf
Introduction to Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I.pdf
 
Introduction to pharmacognosy,classification of drugs,quality control of drug...
Introduction to pharmacognosy,classification of drugs,quality control of drug...Introduction to pharmacognosy,classification of drugs,quality control of drug...
Introduction to pharmacognosy,classification of drugs,quality control of drug...
 
Bpharm 2 y_4s_405t_pharmacognosy &amp; phytochemistry-i
Bpharm 2 y_4s_405t_pharmacognosy &amp; phytochemistry-iBpharm 2 y_4s_405t_pharmacognosy &amp; phytochemistry-i
Bpharm 2 y_4s_405t_pharmacognosy &amp; phytochemistry-i
 
Introduction-Scope-of-Pharmacology.pdf
Introduction-Scope-of-Pharmacology.pdfIntroduction-Scope-of-Pharmacology.pdf
Introduction-Scope-of-Pharmacology.pdf
 
An Introduction to pharmacognosy
An Introduction to pharmacognosyAn Introduction to pharmacognosy
An Introduction to pharmacognosy
 
S1 l1 pharmacognosy introduction
S1 l1 pharmacognosy introductionS1 l1 pharmacognosy introduction
S1 l1 pharmacognosy introduction
 
MODULE 01.pdf
MODULE 01.pdfMODULE 01.pdf
MODULE 01.pdf
 
Introduction to Pharmacognosy, History, Scope in Pharmacy.ppt
Introduction to Pharmacognosy, History, Scope in Pharmacy.pptIntroduction to Pharmacognosy, History, Scope in Pharmacy.ppt
Introduction to Pharmacognosy, History, Scope in Pharmacy.ppt
 
Intr.to pharmacognosy 1
Intr.to pharmacognosy 1Intr.to pharmacognosy 1
Intr.to pharmacognosy 1
 
Intro by pooja khanpara
Intro by pooja khanparaIntro by pooja khanpara
Intro by pooja khanpara
 

More from Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari

Recent advances in Pain treatment
Recent advances in Pain treatmentRecent advances in Pain treatment
Recent advances in Pain treatment
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Mood Stabilisers (Antimanic drugs)
Mood Stabilisers (Antimanic drugs)Mood Stabilisers (Antimanic drugs)
Mood Stabilisers (Antimanic drugs)
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Sedative Hypnotic
Sedative HypnoticSedative Hypnotic
Sedative Hypnotic
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Nanomedicine
NanomedicineNanomedicine
Nanomedicine
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Clinical Trial Phases
Clinical Trial PhasesClinical Trial Phases
Clinical Trial Phases
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Pharmacotherapy of Heart Failure
Pharmacotherapy of Heart FailurePharmacotherapy of Heart Failure
Pharmacotherapy of Heart Failure
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Microdosing (Phase 0) studies
Microdosing (Phase 0) studiesMicrodosing (Phase 0) studies
Microdosing (Phase 0) studies
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Therapeutic drug monitoringTherapeutic drug monitoring
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Newer drug delivery systems
Newer drug delivery systemsNewer drug delivery systems
Newer drug delivery systems
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Stem cell therapy
Stem cell therapyStem cell therapy
Stem cell therapy
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Reverse Pharmacology
Reverse PharmacologyReverse Pharmacology
Reverse Pharmacology
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Monoclonal antibody
Monoclonal antibodyMonoclonal antibody
Monoclonal antibody
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 
Chronopharmacology
ChronopharmacologyChronopharmacology
Chronopharmacology
Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari
 

More from Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari (13)

Recent advances in Pain treatment
Recent advances in Pain treatmentRecent advances in Pain treatment
Recent advances in Pain treatment
 
Mood Stabilisers (Antimanic drugs)
Mood Stabilisers (Antimanic drugs)Mood Stabilisers (Antimanic drugs)
Mood Stabilisers (Antimanic drugs)
 
Sedative Hypnotic
Sedative HypnoticSedative Hypnotic
Sedative Hypnotic
 
Nanomedicine
NanomedicineNanomedicine
Nanomedicine
 
Clinical Trial Phases
Clinical Trial PhasesClinical Trial Phases
Clinical Trial Phases
 
Pharmacotherapy of Heart Failure
Pharmacotherapy of Heart FailurePharmacotherapy of Heart Failure
Pharmacotherapy of Heart Failure
 
Microdosing (Phase 0) studies
Microdosing (Phase 0) studiesMicrodosing (Phase 0) studies
Microdosing (Phase 0) studies
 
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Therapeutic drug monitoringTherapeutic drug monitoring
Therapeutic drug monitoring
 
Newer drug delivery systems
Newer drug delivery systemsNewer drug delivery systems
Newer drug delivery systems
 
Stem cell therapy
Stem cell therapyStem cell therapy
Stem cell therapy
 
Reverse Pharmacology
Reverse PharmacologyReverse Pharmacology
Reverse Pharmacology
 
Monoclonal antibody
Monoclonal antibodyMonoclonal antibody
Monoclonal antibody
 
Chronopharmacology
ChronopharmacologyChronopharmacology
Chronopharmacology
 

Recently uploaded

CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
rishi2789
 
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public HealthAgeing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
phuakl
 
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptxPost-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
FFragrant
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
rishi2789
 
vonoprazan A novel drug for GERD presentation
vonoprazan A novel drug for GERD presentationvonoprazan A novel drug for GERD presentation
vonoprazan A novel drug for GERD presentation
Dr.pavithra Anandan
 
Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory project
Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory projectNano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory project
Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory project
SIVAVINAYAKPK
 
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdfCBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
suvadeepdas911
 
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptxHistololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
AyeshaZaid1
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
HongBiThi1
 
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
Gokuldas Hospital
 
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdfTest bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
rightmanforbloodline
 
Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
 Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer. Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
Gokuldas Hospital
 
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Gokuldas Hospital
 
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
KULDEEP VYAS
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
rishi2789
 
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotesPromoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
PsychoTech Services
 
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principlesDECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
anaghabharat01
 
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptxRecent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
DrGirishJHoogar
 
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
Holistified Wellness
 
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune DiseaseCell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Health Advances
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
 
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public HealthAgeing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
 
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptxPost-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
 
vonoprazan A novel drug for GERD presentation
vonoprazan A novel drug for GERD presentationvonoprazan A novel drug for GERD presentation
vonoprazan A novel drug for GERD presentation
 
Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory project
Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory projectNano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory project
Nano-gold for Cancer Therapy chemistry investigatory project
 
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdfCBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
 
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptxHistololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
 
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
How to choose the best dermatologists in Indore.
 
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdfTest bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
Test bank for karp s cell and molecular biology 9th edition by gerald karp.pdf
 
Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
 Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer. Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
 
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
Know the difference between Endodontics and Orthodontics.
 
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
 
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotesPromoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
 
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principlesDECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
DECLARATION OF HELSINKI - History and principles
 
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptxRecent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
Recent advances on Cervical cancer .pptx
 
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
 
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune DiseaseCell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
Cell Therapy Expansion and Challenges in Autoimmune Disease
 

Pharmacognosy

  • 1.
  • 2. pharmacognosy Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari M.D. 1st Year SAIMS Indore 09/01/2014
  • 3. Pharmacognosy • Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural sources. • The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources”
  • 4. Pharmacognosy • Although pharmacognosy is principally concerned with plant materials, there are a small number of animal products which are traditionally encompassed within the subject; • Examples: – Produced from wild (whale, musk, deer) – Fish (cod and halibut) – domesticated animals (hog, sheep, cattle) –lanolin and milk products, hormones, endocrine prods, and some enzymes – Wild insects (cantharides) – Cultivated (beeswax) • Marine organisms, both plant and animal, with potent pharmacological actions are receiving increasing attention in the search for new drugs.
  • 5. Pharmacognosy • Materials having no pharmacological action which are of interest to pharmacognosists are natural fibres, flavouring and suspending agents, colourants, disintegrants, stabilizers and filtering and support media. • Other areas that have natural associations with the subject are poisonous and hallucinogenic plants, allergens, herbicides, insecticides and molluscicides.”
  • 6. Pharmacognosy • Recently it includes: – Modern isolation techniques – Pharmacological testing procedures to prepare purified substances – Cultivation and propagation by tissue culture
  • 7. The history of natural products in medicine • A great proportion of the natural products are used as drugs • The study of drugs used by traditional healers is an important object of pharmacognostical research
  • 11. Authors of antiquity Hippocrates (460-377 BC) “The Father of Medicine”
  • 12. Dioscorides (40-80 AD) “De Materia Medica” (600 medicinal plants)
  • 13. The Islamic era Ibn Al tabari (770850) ” ‫فردوس‬‫الحكمه‬ “
  • 14. Ibn Sina (980-1037) ” ‫القانون‬‫في‬‫الطب‬ “
  • 15. Ibn Al bitar (1148-1197) ” ‫الجامع‬‫لمفردات‬‫األدوية‬‫واألغذية‬ “
  • 16. The era of European exploration overseas (16th and 17th century)
  • 17. History • The word ‘Pharmacognosy’ is derived from: – pharmakon ‘a drug’ (Greek) – gignosco ‘ to acquire knowledge of’ (Greek) – or cognosco ‘to know about’ (Latin) • The term "pharmacognosy" was used for the first time by the Austrian physician Schmidt in his Lehrbuch der materia medica in 1811 and in 1815 by Crr. Anotheus Seydler in a work titled Analecta Pharmacognostica.
  • 18. History • It is a recognised fact that in the historical development of any subject the role of certain individuals is of considerable importance. • The first British pharmacognosist was Jonathan Pereira (1804–1853), who as the first teacher of the subject gave it its pharmaceutical basis. He may be considered as the founder of British pharmacognosy. • Daniel Hanbury (1825–1875) was the most outstanding applied pharmacognosist while the contribution made by E. M. Holmes (1843–1930) as an applied pharmacognosist stands out both in quality and quantity. • Dr. Chandrakant Kotate, Father of Indian Pharmacognosy
  • 19. The era of pure compounds • Isolation of morphine from opium (1806) • Strychnine (1817) • Quinine and caffeine (1820) • Nicotine (1828) • Atropine (1833) • Cocaine (1855)
  • 20. • 19th century: the chemical structures of many of the isolated compounds were determined • 20th century: the discovery of important drugs from the animal kingdom, particularly hormones and vitamins • microorganisms have become a very important source of drugs
  • 21. Pharmacognosy: Fields • Medical ethnobotany: the study of the traditional use of plants for medicinal purposes; • Ethnopharmacology: the study of the pharmacological qualities of traditional medicinal substances; • Study of phytotherapy (the medicinal use of plant extracts); • Phytochemistry, the study of chemicals derived from plants (including the identification of new drug candidates derived from plant sources).
  • 22. Pharmacognosy: Fields • Zoopharmacognosy, the process by which animals self-medicate, by selecting and using plants, soils, and insects to treat and prevent disease • Marine pharmacognosy, the study of chemicals derived from marine organisms.
  • 23. Phytochemicals • All plants produce chemical compounds as part of their normal metabolic activities. These phytochemicals are divided into • (1) Primary metabolites such as sugars and fats, which are found in all plants; • (2) Secondary metabolites—compounds which are found in a smaller range of plants, serving a more specific function
  • 24. Phytochemicals • some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predators and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. • It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs— examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove.
  • 25. Phytochemicals • Plants synthesize variety of phytochemicals but most are derivatives of a few biochemical motifs: • Alkaloids • Phenolics • Glycosides • Terpenes
  • 26. Phytochemicals • Alkaloids are a class of chemical compounds containing a nitrogen ring. • Glycosides is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to a non-carbohydrate moiety, usually a small organic molecule. • Polyphenols (also known as phenolics) are compounds contain phenol rings. • Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of resin, essential oils of many types of plants and flowers.
  • 27. Alkaloids • Examples are – the local anesthetic and stimulant cocaine; – the psychedelic psilocin; – the stimulant caffeine, nicotine; – the analgesic morphine; – the antibacterial berberine; – the anticancer compound vincristine; – the antihypertension agent reserpine; – the cholinomimetic galantamine; – the spasmolysis agent atropine; – the vasodilator vincamine; – the anti-arhythmia compound quinidine; – the anti-asthma ephedrine; – the antimalarial drug quinine.
  • 28. Classification • Vegetable drugs can be arranged for study under the following headings: – Alphabetical – Morphological – Taxonomical – Pharmacological / Therapeutic – Chemical
  • 29. Alphabetical • Either Latin or vernacular names may be used. • This arrangement is employed for dictionaries, pharmacopoeias, etc. • Although suitable for quick reference it gives no indication of inter-relationships between drugs.
  • 30. Morphological • Drugs are arranged according to their morphological or external characters of the plant parts or animal parts, i.e. which part of the plant is used as a drug – Organized drugs : obtained from the direct parts of the plants and containing cellular tissues – e.g. leaves (digitalis, senna, belladona), flowers (clove, saffron), fruits (amla, cardamom, cumin), seeds (ispaghula, linseed, physostigma), herbs (ergot, vinca), barks (cinchona), rhizomes and roots (aconite, ginseng, ipecac, rauwolfia), hair & fibres (flax)
  • 31. Morphological – Unorganized drugs: prepared from plants by some intermediate physical processes such as incision, drying or extraction with a solvent and not containing any cellular plant tissues – e.g. latex (opium), dried juice (aloe), extracts (agar, catechu, pectin), waxes (beeswax), gums (acacia, guargum), resins (benzoin, colophony, tolu balsam), volatile oil (turpentine, cinnamon, peppermint, clove), fixed oils & fat (arachis, castor, olive, cod liver), • Advantage: More convenient for practical study especially when the chemical nature of the drug is not clearly understood • Disadvantage: there is no correlation of chemical constituents with the therapeutic actions
  • 32. Taxonomic • Drugs are arranged according to the plants from which they are obtained, in kingdom, subkingdom, division, class, order, family, genus and species – Advantage: It allows for a precise and ordered arrangement and accommodates any drug without ambiguity; helpful for studying evolutionary developments – Disadvantage: does not correlate in between the chemical constituents and biological activity of the drugs
  • 33. Taxonomic • Class – Angiospermae (Angiosperms): plants that produce flowers – Gymnospermae (Gymnosperms): Plants which do not produce flowers • Subclass – Dicotyledonae (Dicotyledons, Dicots): plants with two seed leaves – Monotyledonae (Monotyledons, Monocots): plants with one seed leaf
  • 34. Taxonomic • Superorder: A group of related plant families, classified in the order in which they are thought to have developed their differences from a common ancestor • Each superorder is further divided into several orders; the names of the orders end in -ales
  • 35. Taxonomic • Family – Each order is divided into families – These are plants with many botanical features in common, and are the highest classification normally used. – The names of the families end in –aceae • Subfamily – The family may be further divided into a number of subfamilies, which group together plants within the family that have some significant botanical differences. – Subfamilies end in -oideae
  • 36. Taxonomic • Genus – Part of the plant name that is most familiar; the normal name that you give a plant • Papaver (poppy) • Arachis (peanut) • Species – Level that defines an individual plant – The name describes some aspect of the plant – the color of the flowers, size or shape of the leaves, or it may be named after the place where it was found. – Should be written after the genus name, in small letters
  • 37. Pharmacological/Therapeutic • This classification involves the grouping of drugs according to the pharmacological action of their most important constituent or their therapeutic use. • Advantage: More relevant and mostly followed method • Disadvantage: Drugs having different action on the body get classified separately in more than one group that causes ambiguity and confusion
  • 38. Pharmacological/Therapeutic Drugs acting on G.I.T. • Carminative - Fennel, Cardamom, Mentha • Emetic - Ipecac • Antiamoebic - Kurchi, Ipecac • Laxative - Agar, Isabgol, Banana • Purgative - Senna, Castor oil • Cathartic - Senna
  • 39. Pharmacological/Therapeutic Drugs acting on Respiratory System • Antitussive - Opium (codeine) • Bronchodilators - Ephedra, Tea • Expectorant - Vasaka, Liquorice, Ipecac
  • 40. Pharmacological/Therapeutic Drugs acting on Autonomic Nervous System • Adrenergic - Ephedra • Cholinergic - Physostigma, Pilocarpus • Anticholinergic - Datura, Belladonna
  • 41. Pharmacological/Therapeutic Drugs acting on Cardiovascular System • Cardiotonic - Digitalis, Strophantus, Squill • Cardiac depressant - Cinchona, Veratrum • Vasoconstrictor - Ergot • Antihypertensive - Rauwolfia
  • 42. Pharmacological/Therapeutic Drugs acting on Central Nervous System • Central analgesic - Opium (morphine) • CNS depressant - Belladonna, Opium, Hyoscyamus • CNS stimulant - Tea, Coffee • Analeptic - Nux vomica, Camphor, Lobelia
  • 43. Pharmacological/Therapeutic • Antispasmodic - Datura, Hyoscyamus, Opium, Curare • Anticancer - Vinca, Podophyllum, Taxus • Antirrheumatic - Aconite, Colchicum, Guggal • Anthelminthic - Quassia, Vidang • Astringent - Catechu, Myrobalans • Antimalarial - Cinchona, Artemesia • Immunomodulatory - Ginseng, Ashwagandha, Tulsi • Immunizing agent - Vaccines, Sera, Antitoxin • Drugs acting Skin Membrane - Beeswax, Wool fat, Balsam of Tolu, Balsam of Peru • Chemotherapeutic - Antibiotics • Local anesthetic - Coca
  • 44. Chemical • Crude drugs are classified depending upon the active constituents • Irrespective of the morphological or taxonomical characters, the drugs with similar chemical constituents are grouped together • Advantage: it is a popular approach for phytochemical studies • Disadvantage: ambiguities arise when particular drugs possess a number of compounds belonging to different groups of compounds.
  • 45. Chemical Chemical Constituent Group • Alkaloids - Cinchona, Datura, Vinca, Ipecac, Nux vomica • Glycosides - Senna, Aloe, ginseng, Digitalis • Carbohydrates & its derivatives - Acacia, Starch, Isabgol • Volatile oil - Clove, Coriander, Fennel, Cinnamon, Cumin • Resin and Resin Combination - Benzoin, Tolu Balsam, Balsam of Peru • Tannins - Catechu, Tea • Enzymes - Papain, Casein, Trypsin • Lipids - Beeswax, Kokum butter, Lanolin
  • 46. Production of natural drug products 1. Collection (wild) 2. Cultivation (commercial), collection, harvesting, drying, garbling, packaging, storage and preservation e.g. ginseng, ginkgo, peppermint 3. Fermentation (Recombinant DNA technology or Genetically engineered drugs) 4. Cell-culture techniques 5. Microbial transformation 6. Biologics (prepared from the blood of animals)
  • 47. The role of natural products in drug discovery 1. Combinatorial chemistry 2. High-throughput screening of natural products 3. Combinatorial biosynthesis 4. Ethnopharmacology
  • 48. Scope of Pharmacognosy • 1. ISOLATION OR ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL : • Eg ; Strong acting substances such as glycosides from digitalis leaves, • Alkaloids from the plants of Belladonna, Hyocyamus, Rauwlofia • Morphine and other alkaloids from the plant opium were isolated and clinical uses studied
  • 49. 2. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP : Eg : Tubocurarine and Toxiferine from curare plant have muscle relaxant properties because of quaternary ammonium groups. The hypotensive and tranquillizing actions of reserpine are due to the trimethoxy benzoic acid
  • 50. 3. DRUGS OBTAINED BY PARTIAL SYNTHESIS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS: Eg : Preparation of Steroid hormones from diosgenin by acetolysis and oxidation and further preparation of cortisone by microbial reactions. 4. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS MODELS FOR SYNTHESIS OF NEW DRUGS : Eg: Morphine is the model of a large group of potent drugs . Cocaine for local anaesthetics Atropine for certain spasmolytics
  • 51. 5. DRUGS OF DIRECT THERAPEUTIC USES : • Among the natural constituents which even now cannot be replaced are important group of antibiotics, steroids, ergot alkaloids, vincristine etc 6.CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS : • clove, cinchona , cinnamon, senna, opium, etc 7. PREPARATION OF HERBAL FORMULATIONS : • churnas, asvas, aristas, leha, etc 8. DEVELOPMENT OF TISSUE CULTURED PLANTS
  • 52. Biological method of evaluation SIGNIFICANCE: 1.The method is generally used when standardization is not done satisfactorily by chemical or physical methods 2.When the quantity of the drug /sample are very less, then the drugs are evaluated by biological methods These methods are performed on living animals, isolating living organ and tissue, animal preparation, and microorganism ( Bioassay)
  • 53. Following method is used as 1.Anti inflammatory activity 2.Analgesic activity 3.Antipyretic activity 4.Anti ulcer activity 5.Antidiabetic activity 6.Anthelmintic activity on earth worms 7.Cardiac activity- on frog and pigeon 8.Microbiological methods- living bacteria, yeast, molds are used for the assaying vitamins and to determine the activity of antibiotic drugs
  • 54. Why do we need plants? 1. Source of drug molecules – They provide a number of extremely useful drugs that are difficult, if not impossible, to produce commercially by synthetic means • Most drugs can be synthesised • Still more economical to use the plant Papaver opium -> morphine, codeine (strong analgesic) Ergot fungus –> ergotamine (migraine), ergometrine (direct action on uterine muscle)
  • 55. Why do we need plants? 2. Source of complex molecules that can be modified to medicinal compounds • Example: Soya: saponins -> steroids – Some natural products contain compounds that demonstrate little or no activity themselves but which can be modified by chemical or biological methods to produce potent drugs not easily obtained by other methods • Baccatin III -> Taxol – Supply basic compounds that may be modified slightly to render them more effective or less toxic
  • 56. 3. Their utility as prototypes or models for synthetic drugs possessing physiologic activities similar to the originals COOH HO COOH OH3C O H3C COOH CH3 CH3 Salicylic Acid Aspirin Ibuprofen
  • 57. Morphine: No better painkiller. Once structure worked out wanted to improve it. What is required? Diacetylmorphine (heroin): OH group -> O-O-diacetyl. Still addictive? Codeine: Methylate hydroxyl phenolic; O-Me. 1/5 analgesic capacity of morphine, useful to suppress cough reflex Dihydromorphinone: Reduced =, oxidised 2y alc. Potential analgesic. Source of compounds to use as templates for designing new drugs
  • 58. Dihydrocodeine: Me-ether of previous. More powerful than codeine, less than morphine. Dextromethorphan: Good against cough reflex Is lower ring necessary? Pentazocin Phenazocine Is middle ring needed? Pethidine Methadone
  • 59. Why do we need plants? 4. Source of toxic molecules • To study the way the body responds to their pharmacological use • Investigating pharmacological mechanisms picrotoxin – nerve conduction
  • 60. Why do we need plants? • 5. Source of novel structures • these might never be thought of Catharanthus periwinkle -> vincristine (alkaloid dimer)
  • 61. Why do we need plants? • 6. Source of plant drugs • As a powder or extract • The pure compound is often not isolated because: » Active ingredient is unknown » Active ingredient is unstable » Isolation process is too costly
  • 62. Future • About 500,000 species of higher plants on earth • <10% investigated and only for one activity • Huge potential in plant kingdom