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By
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD.
Assistant Professor (Entomology)
JSACAT
Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Pests of Maize
Borers pests of maize
Stem fly, Atherigona orientalis, Muscidae, Diptera
Symptoms
Dead heart
Production of secondary and tertiary tillers
The attacked plants become unhealthy,
stunted and yellow.
Distribution: Worldwide: Skidmore (1985) states that
Atherigona orientalis is pan-tropical within 20 degrees north
and south of the equator.
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Eggs - white, elongate, flattened and
somewhat boat shaped. Lay eggs
on the lower surface of leaves
Pupates at the
base of the stem
or in soil
Maggot dirty
white to yellow
Management
Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70 WS 10 g/kg of seeds
Plough soon after harvest, remove and destroy the stubbles.
Set up the TNAU low cost fish meal trap 12/ha till the crop is 30 days old.
Soil application of phorate 10G 10 kg/ha at the time of sowing
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Small yellowish-
grey flies
Stem borer, Chilo partellus, Crambidae, Lepidoptera
Nature of damage
Caterpillar bores into the stem
and feeds on the central shoot.
Infests after one month
Symptoms
Shot holes on leaves caused by
young caterpillar
Dead heart and bore holes on
stem
Elongated windows
Distribution: India, Pakistan, Iran, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, South Africa, Sudan,
Tanzania, Uganda and on Mayotte.
2
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Yellowish brown with a brown head
Flat and oval and look creamy white
Light yellow brown to dark red brown Moth is medium size, straw coloured
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
Mix any of the following granular insecticides with sand to make up
a total quantity of 50 kg and apply in the leaf whorls on the 20th
day of sowing
Phorate 10% G @ 10 kg/ha
Carbaryl 4% G @ 20 kg/ha.
For stem borer, release egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis @
2,50,000 /ha coinciding egg laying period. Three releases at
weekly interval are desirable. Third release is to be accompanied
with larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes @ 5000/ha
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Pink borer, Sesamia inferens, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera
Nature/Symptoms of damage
Pink larva enters into the stem causing dead heart symptom
Distribution: India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Malaysia,
Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.
3
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Bead like laid in rows within the leaf sheath Pinkish brown with dark head
Straw coloured moth with white hind wings
Light yellow brown to dark red brown
Pupate in either stem or soil
Management
Spray phosalone 35%EC at every 20 days interval
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Defoliators
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera furgiperda, Noctuidae,
Lepidoptera
4
Recent invasion in India
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera furgiperda, Noctuidae,
Lepidoptera
Symptom of damage
Scrapping of leaf surface by young larvae.
Older larvae, feeds upon central whorl, causing extensive defoliation.
Whorl, tassel and cob fed by larva.
Distribution: Native to tropical and subtropical Americas, tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, India, Australia,
China. currently a major worldwide agricultural pest.
4
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Egg masses (120-150 eggs/ egg
mass) covered with scales
(A) Larvae with inverted “Y” shaped mark on head
(B) Larvae with 4 black spots arranged (in square shape) on 8th and 9th
abdominal segment
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Larval instars
Males having more patterns
and a distinct white spot on
each of their forewings
There is slight sexual dimorphism
Male Female
Females’ forewing grayish brown
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
Apply neem cake @ 250 kg/ha at the time of last ploughing.
Seed treatment with cyantraniliprole 19.8% + thiamethoxam 19.8% FS @ 4 ml/kg seed.
Border cropping with cowpea, gingelly, redgram or sunflower (garden land) and fodder sorghum
(dry land) @ 3 rows.
Set up FAW pheromone traps @ 12 nos./ha
Spray azadirachtin 1500 ppm @ 2.5 lit/ha or chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 200ml/ha (or)
flubendiamide 480SC@ 250ml/ha at early stage (15 - 20 DAE).
Spray Metarhizium anisopliae (TNAU-MA-GDU isolate) @ 2.5 kg/ha or emamectin benzoate 5 SG @
200g/ha or novaluron 10 EC @ 750 ml/ha or spinetoram 11.7 SC @ 250 ml/ha at late whorl stage (35 -
40 DAE).
One of the insecticides recommended in late whorl stages can be used at cob formation stage if
needed, but repetition to be avoided.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Cutworm, Mythimna separata, Noctuidae,
Lepidoptera
5
China, Japan, South-east Asia, India, eastern Australia, New Zealand, and some Pacific islands
Attack in maize along with others
crops like rice, sorghum, sugarcane,
oats, wheat etc. may cause the
damage of foliage parts.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Webworm, Cryptoblabes gnidiella, Pyraustidae,
Lepidoptera
6
The caterpillar causes damage by
constructing webs on maize cobs
and feeding on the flowers and
grains.
Adult is purplish in colour with
brown markings
Native to the Mediterranean Basin and naturalized in countries of Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, North
America, South America and the Caribbean
Managed with pesticides based
on Bacillus thuringiensis.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Ash weevil, Myllocerus spp., Curculionidae,
Coleoptera
Symptom of damage
Larva feeds on the
secondary roots
Adults on leaves.
Adult - Grey coloured weevil. M. subfasciatus M. discolour M. viridanus
Myllocerus subfasciatus Distribution: India, and Sri Lanka.
7
Management
Collect and destroy adults
Apply Neem cake @ 500 kg/ha at
the time of last ploughing
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Phadka grasshopper, Hieroglyphus nigrorepletus,
Acrididae, Orthoptera
8
Symptom of damage
Leaves defoliated from the margin;
plants often bared.
Nature of damage
Nymph and adult feed on the leaves
and shoots.
Egg: Gravid female trails its abdomen on the ground
searching for a soft moist spot. It drills a hole with its
ovipositor, inserts the abdomen with ovipositor, secretes
a fluid and lays the eggs one by one. The fluid hardens
into a capsule or egg-pod containing 30-40 eggs.
Nymph and Adult: Both have a conspicuous irregular
black dorsal pronotal stripe.
Distribution - Asia – India – Bihar, Karnataka,
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Sucking pests
Leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla, Lophopidae,
Hemiptera
Widely distributed in india including in bihar, haryana, uttar pradesh, punjab, and madhya pradesh than
in peninsular india.
Symptom of damage
Leaves become yellow
Covered with black sooty mould
Soft, pale brown
dorsally and pale
orange ventrally
9
Adult - Straw coloured,
head pointing forward as
a snout
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers
Set up light trap @ 1/ha
Detrash: 150 and 210th DAP
Release lepidopteran parasitoid
Epiricania melanoleuca @8000 -10,000 cocoon /ha.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Aphididae, Hemiptera
Nature of damage
Nymphs and adults suck plant sap from
the leaf, leaf sheath and inflorescence.
They occur in clusters.
Honeydew secreted by the aphids invites
sooty mold fungus, interfering with
photosynthesis.
Symptom of damage
Yellowing of leaves
The corn leaf aphid is cosmopolitan in distribution throughout the tropics, subtropics and warmer
temperate regions.
10
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
Seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70%WS @ 3.5 g/kg seed
Conservation of natural enemies such as coccinellids,
chrysopids and syrphids
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Shoot bug, Peregrinus maidis, Delphacidae,
Hemiptera
Symptom of damage
Plants become unhealthy stunted
and yellow.
Honeydew secreted by the bug
causes growth of sooty mould on
leaves.
The midribs of the leaves turn red
and may dry up subsequently.
Distribution: Widespread throughout most tropical and subtropical regions on earth, including
southern North America, South America, Africa, Australia, Southeast Asia and China.
11
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Egg: Laid inside the leaf tissue and covered with a white waxy substance.
Adult: Yellowish brown to dark brown with translucent wings.
Management
Spray any following insecticides
Dimethoate @ 0.02%,
Phosphomidon @ 250 ml in 450-500 litres water/ha
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Cob feeders
Corn worm/ Earworm, Helicoverpa armigera,
Noctuidae, Lepidoptera
12
Symptom of damage
Plants seen defoliated
Boreholes seen on the pods
Nature of damage
Young larva feeds on tender leaves, buds, flowers,
and subsequently it bores into the pods and feeds
on the seeds with its head and part of the body only
thrust inside, the rest remaining outside
Widespread in central and southern Europe,
temperate Asia, Australia and Africa
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
On the forewings, there is speck that forms a V-shaped mark. Hind wings are dull
grey coloured with a black border on the distal end.
Spherical in shape with
sculptures in the form of
longitudinal ribs
The colour varies according to the food intake. Dorsal surface
bears dark broken stripes. Head is reddish-brown. Larva is highly
cannibalistic and readily eats one another.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
•ETL: 2 early instar larvae/plant 5-8 eggs/plant
•Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera 12/ha
•Bird perches 50/ha
•Hand picking of grown up larvae and blister beetles
•Ha NPV 1.5 x1012 POB/ha with teepol (1 ml/lit.)
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)

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Pests of Maize_Dr.UPR_Identification, Binomics, Integrated Pest Management

  • 1. By Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. Assistant Professor (Entomology) JSACAT Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Pests of Maize
  • 3. Stem fly, Atherigona orientalis, Muscidae, Diptera Symptoms Dead heart Production of secondary and tertiary tillers The attacked plants become unhealthy, stunted and yellow. Distribution: Worldwide: Skidmore (1985) states that Atherigona orientalis is pan-tropical within 20 degrees north and south of the equator. 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 4. Eggs - white, elongate, flattened and somewhat boat shaped. Lay eggs on the lower surface of leaves Pupates at the base of the stem or in soil Maggot dirty white to yellow Management Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70 WS 10 g/kg of seeds Plough soon after harvest, remove and destroy the stubbles. Set up the TNAU low cost fish meal trap 12/ha till the crop is 30 days old. Soil application of phorate 10G 10 kg/ha at the time of sowing Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Small yellowish- grey flies
  • 5. Stem borer, Chilo partellus, Crambidae, Lepidoptera Nature of damage Caterpillar bores into the stem and feeds on the central shoot. Infests after one month Symptoms Shot holes on leaves caused by young caterpillar Dead heart and bore holes on stem Elongated windows Distribution: India, Pakistan, Iran, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and on Mayotte. 2 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 6. Yellowish brown with a brown head Flat and oval and look creamy white Light yellow brown to dark red brown Moth is medium size, straw coloured Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 7. Management Mix any of the following granular insecticides with sand to make up a total quantity of 50 kg and apply in the leaf whorls on the 20th day of sowing Phorate 10% G @ 10 kg/ha Carbaryl 4% G @ 20 kg/ha. For stem borer, release egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis @ 2,50,000 /ha coinciding egg laying period. Three releases at weekly interval are desirable. Third release is to be accompanied with larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes @ 5000/ha Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 8. Pink borer, Sesamia inferens, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera Nature/Symptoms of damage Pink larva enters into the stem causing dead heart symptom Distribution: India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. 3 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 9. Bead like laid in rows within the leaf sheath Pinkish brown with dark head Straw coloured moth with white hind wings Light yellow brown to dark red brown Pupate in either stem or soil Management Spray phosalone 35%EC at every 20 days interval Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 11. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera furgiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera 4 Recent invasion in India Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 12. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera furgiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera Symptom of damage Scrapping of leaf surface by young larvae. Older larvae, feeds upon central whorl, causing extensive defoliation. Whorl, tassel and cob fed by larva. Distribution: Native to tropical and subtropical Americas, tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, India, Australia, China. currently a major worldwide agricultural pest. 4 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 13. Egg masses (120-150 eggs/ egg mass) covered with scales (A) Larvae with inverted “Y” shaped mark on head (B) Larvae with 4 black spots arranged (in square shape) on 8th and 9th abdominal segment Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Larval instars
  • 14. Males having more patterns and a distinct white spot on each of their forewings There is slight sexual dimorphism Male Female Females’ forewing grayish brown Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 15. Management Apply neem cake @ 250 kg/ha at the time of last ploughing. Seed treatment with cyantraniliprole 19.8% + thiamethoxam 19.8% FS @ 4 ml/kg seed. Border cropping with cowpea, gingelly, redgram or sunflower (garden land) and fodder sorghum (dry land) @ 3 rows. Set up FAW pheromone traps @ 12 nos./ha Spray azadirachtin 1500 ppm @ 2.5 lit/ha or chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 200ml/ha (or) flubendiamide 480SC@ 250ml/ha at early stage (15 - 20 DAE). Spray Metarhizium anisopliae (TNAU-MA-GDU isolate) @ 2.5 kg/ha or emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 200g/ha or novaluron 10 EC @ 750 ml/ha or spinetoram 11.7 SC @ 250 ml/ha at late whorl stage (35 - 40 DAE). One of the insecticides recommended in late whorl stages can be used at cob formation stage if needed, but repetition to be avoided. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 16. Cutworm, Mythimna separata, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera 5 China, Japan, South-east Asia, India, eastern Australia, New Zealand, and some Pacific islands Attack in maize along with others crops like rice, sorghum, sugarcane, oats, wheat etc. may cause the damage of foliage parts. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 17. Webworm, Cryptoblabes gnidiella, Pyraustidae, Lepidoptera 6 The caterpillar causes damage by constructing webs on maize cobs and feeding on the flowers and grains. Adult is purplish in colour with brown markings Native to the Mediterranean Basin and naturalized in countries of Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, North America, South America and the Caribbean Managed with pesticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 18. Ash weevil, Myllocerus spp., Curculionidae, Coleoptera Symptom of damage Larva feeds on the secondary roots Adults on leaves. Adult - Grey coloured weevil. M. subfasciatus M. discolour M. viridanus Myllocerus subfasciatus Distribution: India, and Sri Lanka. 7 Management Collect and destroy adults Apply Neem cake @ 500 kg/ha at the time of last ploughing Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 19. Phadka grasshopper, Hieroglyphus nigrorepletus, Acrididae, Orthoptera 8 Symptom of damage Leaves defoliated from the margin; plants often bared. Nature of damage Nymph and adult feed on the leaves and shoots. Egg: Gravid female trails its abdomen on the ground searching for a soft moist spot. It drills a hole with its ovipositor, inserts the abdomen with ovipositor, secretes a fluid and lays the eggs one by one. The fluid hardens into a capsule or egg-pod containing 30-40 eggs. Nymph and Adult: Both have a conspicuous irregular black dorsal pronotal stripe. Distribution - Asia – India – Bihar, Karnataka, Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 21. Leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla, Lophopidae, Hemiptera Widely distributed in india including in bihar, haryana, uttar pradesh, punjab, and madhya pradesh than in peninsular india. Symptom of damage Leaves become yellow Covered with black sooty mould Soft, pale brown dorsally and pale orange ventrally 9 Adult - Straw coloured, head pointing forward as a snout Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 22. Management Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers Set up light trap @ 1/ha Detrash: 150 and 210th DAP Release lepidopteran parasitoid Epiricania melanoleuca @8000 -10,000 cocoon /ha. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 23. Aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Aphididae, Hemiptera Nature of damage Nymphs and adults suck plant sap from the leaf, leaf sheath and inflorescence. They occur in clusters. Honeydew secreted by the aphids invites sooty mold fungus, interfering with photosynthesis. Symptom of damage Yellowing of leaves The corn leaf aphid is cosmopolitan in distribution throughout the tropics, subtropics and warmer temperate regions. 10 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 24. Management Seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70%WS @ 3.5 g/kg seed Conservation of natural enemies such as coccinellids, chrysopids and syrphids Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 25. Shoot bug, Peregrinus maidis, Delphacidae, Hemiptera Symptom of damage Plants become unhealthy stunted and yellow. Honeydew secreted by the bug causes growth of sooty mould on leaves. The midribs of the leaves turn red and may dry up subsequently. Distribution: Widespread throughout most tropical and subtropical regions on earth, including southern North America, South America, Africa, Australia, Southeast Asia and China. 11 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 26. Egg: Laid inside the leaf tissue and covered with a white waxy substance. Adult: Yellowish brown to dark brown with translucent wings. Management Spray any following insecticides Dimethoate @ 0.02%, Phosphomidon @ 250 ml in 450-500 litres water/ha Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 28. Corn worm/ Earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera 12 Symptom of damage Plants seen defoliated Boreholes seen on the pods Nature of damage Young larva feeds on tender leaves, buds, flowers, and subsequently it bores into the pods and feeds on the seeds with its head and part of the body only thrust inside, the rest remaining outside Widespread in central and southern Europe, temperate Asia, Australia and Africa Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 29. On the forewings, there is speck that forms a V-shaped mark. Hind wings are dull grey coloured with a black border on the distal end. Spherical in shape with sculptures in the form of longitudinal ribs The colour varies according to the food intake. Dorsal surface bears dark broken stripes. Head is reddish-brown. Larva is highly cannibalistic and readily eats one another. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 30. Management •ETL: 2 early instar larvae/plant 5-8 eggs/plant •Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera 12/ha •Bird perches 50/ha •Hand picking of grown up larvae and blister beetles •Ha NPV 1.5 x1012 POB/ha with teepol (1 ml/lit.) Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)