SlideShare a Scribd company logo
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
Carl T. Bergstrom
Department of Biology
University of Washington
with R. McGee, O. Kosterlitz, A.Kaznatcheev, and B. Kerr
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
Ben Kerr
Olivia Kosterlitz Artem Kaznatcheev
Ryan McGee
The information behind phenotype
Photos: Carl Bergstrom
Where does this information come from?
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
natural selection
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
In particular, organisms need to
match their phenotypes to their
environments, their niches, their
life-histories, etc.
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
“The environment is light,
so grow light fur.”
— Mom Given that a light fur allele was
inherited,
it is likely that light fur has been favored
in the past, and thus it is likely
beneficial to develop light fur.
.
Every bit of adaptive
information in your
genome was paid for
in the blood of your
ancestors’ children.
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
But can we quantify it?
I think so.
Adaptive genetic information refers to the
inherited material that reduces an organism's
uncertainty about the current environment
so that its expected fitness is greater than it
would be due to chance alone.
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
Imagine the state of the environment as a random variable
E and the genome G as another random variable.
𝐼 𝐺; 𝐸 = 𝐻 𝐸 − 𝐻 𝐸 𝐺
Natural selection creates mutual
Information between E and G.
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
We can measure how much information has been
added looking at how much genotype frequencies have
changed due to selection.
𝐼 𝐺; 𝐸 = 𝐻 𝐸 − 𝐻 𝐸 𝐺
= 𝐷𝐾𝐿 (𝑃𝑡
(𝐺, 𝐸)||𝑃(𝐺)𝑃(𝐸))
= 𝐷𝐾𝐿(𝑃𝑡
(𝐺, 𝐸)||𝑃0
(𝐺, 𝐸))
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
As the frequency of the
best genotype increases
in the population, the
population gains
information about the
environment.
Nearly 70 years ago….
Nearly 70 years ago….
Selective deaths
Selective deaths
Substitution load
growth rate
of optimal type
⏞ ⏞
growth rate
of type i
“It is appropriate to
speak of a cost of
selection, since the
cost comes from the
fact that natural
selection is less
efficient than divine
intervention.”
- Joe Felsenstein
Substitution load
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
Beyond a thought-experiment
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
𝑤
𝑡
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑡
𝐿𝑡
𝐼𝑡
𝑤
(1)
𝑤
(2)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(1)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(2)
𝑤
𝑡
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑡
𝐿𝑡
𝐼𝑡
𝑤
(1)
𝑤
(2)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(1)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(2)
𝑤
𝑡
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑡
𝐿𝑡
𝐼𝑡
𝑤
(1)
𝑤
(2)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(1)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(2)
𝑤
𝑡
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑡
𝐿𝑡
𝐼𝑡
𝑤
(1)
𝑤
(2)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(1)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(2)
𝑤
𝑡
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑡
𝐿𝑡
𝐼𝑡
𝑤
(1)
𝑤
(2)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(1)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(2)
𝑤
𝑡
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑡
𝐿𝑡
𝐼𝑡
𝑤
(1)
𝑤
(2)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(1)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(2)
𝑤
𝑡
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑡
𝐿𝑡
𝐼𝑡
𝑤
(1)
𝑤
(2)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(1)
𝑤𝑚𝑎𝑥
(2)
𝐿𝑡
𝐼𝑡
population growth rate population growth rate
optimal type growth rate optimal type growth rate
optimal growth rate
𝐿𝑠𝑢𝑏
𝑇
𝐼𝑇
population growth rate population growth rate
optimal type growth rate optimal type growth rate
optimal growth rate
WTF?
Aha!
time
growth rate
of optimal type
⏞ ⏞
growth rate
of type i
Substitution Load
growth rate
of optimal type
in condition j
⏞ ⏞
growth rate
of type i
in condition j
probability of
condition j
Mismatch Load
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
Regret
Loss and regret
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
In computational learning theory,
• loss is the payoff cost of mismatch between
strategy and environment, and
• regret is the cost of having to learn the best
strategy: the difference between the cumulative
loss as the learner updates its strategy over time,
and the loss it could have achieved had it played
an optimal fixed strategy from the beginning.
By thinking about
regret, we can broadly
extend our results
about substitution load.
Photo: Carl Bergstrom
Load of the evolving
population
Load of the best type
Information gain of
evolving population
environment
genotype “idiosyncratically” stochastic environments
environment
genotype Cycling environments
environment
genotype Frequency-dependent fitnesses
Rock-
Paper-
Scissors
Load of the evolving
population
Load of the best type
Information gain of
evolving population
Theorem: Information gain converges
to regret, in fixed or stochastic
environments, with or without
frequency-dependence, etc.
Theorem: Information gain is
bounded above by empirical regret,
a measure of regret taken relative to
the ex-post optimal strategy.
Teaser: Among learning
algorithms, natural selection is
never ”far” from optimal in the
sense of minimizing regret.
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection

More Related Content

Recently uploaded

Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...
Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...
Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...
University of Maribor
 
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physicsTHE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
Dr. sreeremya S
 
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
Sérgio Sacani
 
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina PârvulescuMARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.netBuy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
ludasams003
 
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpectiveGasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Recupera
 
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPYReview Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
niranjangiri009
 
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana MadjarClassification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science
 
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotailComplementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Sérgio Sacani
 
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdfIntroduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf
kaavyashreegoskula
 
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptxpoikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
muralinath2
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
Sharon Liu
 
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopyA mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
Sérgio Sacani
 
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic SpecimenSynopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Sérgio Sacani
 
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
University of Maribor
 
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
PANDURANGLAWATE1
 
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptxAN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
kalpnayadav03021986
 
seed drying lecture, different types of dryers
seed drying lecture, different types of dryersseed drying lecture, different types of dryers
seed drying lecture, different types of dryers
Rammehargahlot1
 
Accessing Data to Support Pesticide Residue and Emerging Contaminant Analysis...
Accessing Data to Support Pesticide Residue and Emerging Contaminant Analysis...Accessing Data to Support Pesticide Residue and Emerging Contaminant Analysis...
Accessing Data to Support Pesticide Residue and Emerging Contaminant Analysis...
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Center for Computational Toxicology and Exposure
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...
Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...
Modelling, Simulation, and Computer-aided Design in Computational, Evolutiona...
 
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physicsTHE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics
 
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
SOFIA/HAWC+ FAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRIC LARGE-AREA CMZ EXPLORATION (FIREPLACE) ...
 
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina PârvulescuMARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
MARIGREEN PROJECT - overview, Oana Cristina Pârvulescu
 
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.netBuy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
Buy Xanax online now at chemworldstore.net
 
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpectiveGasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
 
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPYReview Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
Review Article:- A REVIEW ON RADIOISOTOPES IN CANCER THERAPY
 
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana MadjarClassification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
Classification and role of plant nutrients - Roxana Madjar
 
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotailComplementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
Complementary interstellar detections from the heliotail
 
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
 
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdfIntroduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf
 
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptxpoikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
 
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
20240710 ACMJ Diagrams Set 3.docx . Apache, Csharp, Mysql, Javascript stack a...
 
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopyA mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
 
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic SpecimenSynopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
Synopsis: Analysis of a Metallic Specimen
 
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
 
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf
 
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptxAN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
AN EMPIRE ACROSS THE THREE CONTINENTS.pptx
 
seed drying lecture, different types of dryers
seed drying lecture, different types of dryersseed drying lecture, different types of dryers
seed drying lecture, different types of dryers
 
Accessing Data to Support Pesticide Residue and Emerging Contaminant Analysis...
Accessing Data to Support Pesticide Residue and Emerging Contaminant Analysis...Accessing Data to Support Pesticide Residue and Emerging Contaminant Analysis...
Accessing Data to Support Pesticide Residue and Emerging Contaminant Analysis...
 

Featured

2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
Search Engine Journal
 
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design ProcessStorytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Chiara Aliotta
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
 
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
SocialHRCamp
 
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
Marius Sescu
 
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPTEverything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Expeed Software
 
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage EngineeringsProduct Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Pixeldarts
 
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental HealthHow Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
ThinkNow
 
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdfAI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
marketingartwork
 
Skeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture CodeSkeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Technologies
 
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
Neil Kimberley
 
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
contently
 
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
Albert Qian
 
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsSocial Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Kurio // The Social Media Age(ncy)
 
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Search Engine Journal
 
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
SpeakerHub
 
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
Clark Boyd
 
Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next
Tessa Mero
 
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentGoogle's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Lily Ray
 
How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations
Rajiv Jayarajah, MAppComm, ACC
 

Featured (20)

2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
2024 Trend Updates: What Really Works In SEO & Content Marketing
 
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design ProcessStorytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
Storytelling For The Web: Integrate Storytelling in your Design Process
 
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
Artificial Intelligence, Data and Competition – SCHREPEL – June 2024 OECD dis...
 
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
How to Leverage AI to Boost Employee Wellness - Lydia Di Francesco - SocialHR...
 
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
 
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPTEverything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
 
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage EngineeringsProduct Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
 
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental HealthHow Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
 
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdfAI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
 
Skeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture CodeSkeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture Code
 
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
 
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
 
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
 
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsSocial Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
 
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
 
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
 
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
 
Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next
 
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentGoogle's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
 
How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations
 

The cost of acquiring information by natural selection

Editor's Notes

  1. Adaptive genetic information refers to the contents of the inherited material that encode a representation of the population's environment and thereby reduce the organism’s uncertainty about the current selective conditions such that its expected fitness is greater than it would be by chance.