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Pests of Groundnut
By
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD.
Assistant Professor (Entomology)
JSACAT
Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Sucking pests of groundnut
Aphid, Aphis craccivora, Aphididae, Hemiptera
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Colonies of nymphs and adults found on leaves, terminal
shoots and pods and such the plant sap.
Vector of stunt disease in chickpea, rosette of groundnut
Serious pest when the rainfall is low.
Symptom of damage
Presence of aphid colonies on the leaves, terminal shoots and
pods. In severe cases, the plants wither and vigour reduced.
Worldwide distribution; abundant in subtropical and tropical regions, and in the Mediterranean
Green leafhopper, Empoasca kerri, Cicadellidae,
Hemiptera
2
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Nymphs and adults suck the sap and inject
toxins.
Symptom of damage
Affected leaves turn pale and then rust-red.
They curl downwards; in severe cases, show
'hopper burn' symptom, dry and fall to the
ground.
Distribution: Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, North America.
Yellow, laid on the underside of
the leaf, embedding them into
the leaf veins
Wedge-shaped, very active,
suck cell sap from underside
of the leaves
3 mm long, greenish
yellow during the
summer acquiring a
reddish tinge in the
winter. Adults move
briskly, forward and
laterally and jump or
fly away at slight
disturbance and
attracted to light at
night
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, Thripidae,
Thysanoptera
3
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Symptom of damage
Tender leaves showing yellowish green
patches on the upper surface and brown
necrotic areas and silvery sheen on the
lower surface
Nature of damage
Nymphs and adults suck the plant sap.
Indian subcontinent, North and South America, West Africa and is present in East Africa (Kenya)
Nymph Adult
Frankliniella schultzei - Transmits peanut bud necrosis
Defoliators of groundnut
Red hairy caterpillar, Amsacta albistriga, A. moorei,
Erebidae, Lepidoptera
4
Nature of damage
All the leaves are eaten away by the larvae
leaving the main stem alone.
Larvae are voracious feeders.
Distribution: Amsacata albistriga is predominant in South India
while A. moorie dominates northern parts of the country
Host range: Maize, sorghum, green gram, sesame, pearl
millet, finger millet, groundnut, sunhemp, castor, cotton
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Light yellow spherical eggs are laid in
clusters on the undersurface of the leaves
Hairy caterpillar reddish brown with black
band on either end having long reddish
brown hairs all over the body.
Pupa: Reddish brown and elongate remains under soil for 9-10 months. Adults
emerge after receiving the first monsoon showers.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Amsacta albistriga:
•Forewing- white with brownish streak all
over and yellowish streak along the anterior
margin and head
•Hind wing- white with black markings
Amsacta moorei:
•Forewing - white with brownish streak all
over and reddish streak along the anterior
margin and head
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
Collection and destruction of egg masses
The barnyard millet (Echinochloea frumentacea) may act as strong barrier
Summer ploughing and poison baiting
Erection of light traps soon after the monsoon for 20-45 days, collecting and killing of
adult moths are found to be very effective
The dispersing larvae of hairy caterpillar from one field to another can be checked by
digging trenches across the direction of their march, and prompt destruction of larvae
Vegetative traps utilizing Jatropha (wild castor) or Ipomea prevent the migration of the
grown up larvae
Prepare small balls with 10 kg rice bran + 1 kg jaggery + 1 liter quinolphos
broadcasting in the fields preferably in the evening times
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Leaf miner/ Surul poochi/ soybean leaf miner,
Aproaerema modicella, Gelechiidae, Lepidoptera
5
Nature of damage
Minute larvae mine into the leaves
Later they web several leaves together
Symptom of damage
Brown blotches in midrib
terminal leaflets with white patches
webbed together
distorted and finally get dried up
Indonesia (Java) and India
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
ETL: 1 larvae/meter row
•Set up light traps @ 1/ha
•Apply anyone of the following insecticides
• Dimethiate 30 EC 660 ml/ha
• Methyl demeton 25% EC 1000 ml/ha Dark brown moth
Laid on the leaves and shoots Small, green in colour with dark head and prothorax
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Tobaco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura, Noctuidae,
Lepidoptera
6
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Early instar larva remain
gregarious and cause
skeletonization.
Later instar cause defoliation
Symptom of damage
Skeletonization, defoliation
The countries with the most widespread population of S. litura include but are not limited to China,
Indonesia, India, Japan, and Malaysia
Yellow in colour, laid in mass
and covered with hairs.
Pale greenish with dark markings; gregarious in
the early stages
Brown colour,
obtect pupa
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Moth with wavy white markings on a brown forewing. Hindwings
white with a brown patch along the margin
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
•Hand pick and destroy the caterpillar
•Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts
•Summer ploughing to expose to the pupae
•Use light trap
•Apply Bacillus thuringenesis
•Field release of egg parasitoid such as Telenomus
spodopterae and Telenomus remus
•Field release of entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea
rileyi
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera, Noctuidae,
Lepidoptera
7
Symptom/nature of damage
Larvae feed on the foliage, prefers
flowers and buds
When tender leaf buds are eaten
symmetrical holes or cuttings can be
seen upon unfolding of leaflets
Widespread in central and southern Europe, temperate Asia, Australia and Africa
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
On the forewings, there is speck that forms a V-shaped mark. Hind wings are dull
grey coloured with a black border on the distal end.
Spherical in shape with
sculptures in the form of
longitudinal ribs
The colour varies according to the food intake. Dorsal surface
bears dark broken stripes. Head is reddish-brown. Larva is highly
cannibalistic and readily eats one another.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
Deep summer ploughing
Intercrop one rows of red gram for every 5 or 6 rows
Install pheromone trap @ 5/ha
Use Trichogramma chilonis @ 1 lakh/ha or Chrysoperla carnea @ 50000/ha at 40 and 50
days after sowing of groundnut can effectively check the pest
Apply HaNPV @ 250 Larval Eqivalent/ha or B.t (Bacillus thuringiensis) 1 kg/ha or 5% NSKE
for monitoring eggs and early instar larvae
Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, preying
mantids, robber fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield
bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, braconids, trichogrammatids,
NPV, green muscardine fungus
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Groundnut bud borer, Anarsia ephippias,
Gelechiidae, Lepidoptera
Symptoms of damage
Larva bores into the terminal buds and shoots
Emerging leaflets will have only the midribs or
several oblong feeding holes
India and Sri Lanka
8
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Larva: Chocolate brown in color
Management
Neem oil 3 % and leaf extract of Vitex negundo (notchi) 5 % are effective against this pest
The parasitoids Brachymeria sp cause parasitism up to 24 per cent on larvae
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Stem borer, Ver poochi, Sphenoptera perotetti,
Buprestidae, Coleoptera
Symptom of damage
Branches may droop and the plants show wilting
and may die when the grubs reach the root.
Nature of damage
Grubs tunnel the stem just below the soil surface
and main roots, tunnel containing elongate flat-
headed grubs.
9
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Pupation occurs inside burrows
(tunnels) from which the adult beetles
emerge by cutting their way out
Dark brown, shiny beetle, jewel like
and small (1 cm) beetle
Management
Deep summer ploughing to expose the
pupae to sun light and predation by birds.
Use well decomposed organic manure.
Destroy infested plant stems
Small flat oval eggs
laid on the main stem
of the plants
Slender pale whitish with flattened anterior
portion, called ‘flat-headed grubs’
Buprestidae
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Pod feeders
Pod borer (Ear wig), Anisolabis stalli, Forficulidae,
Dermaptera
10
Symptom of damage
Young pods showing bore
holes plugged with excreta
Sand particles filled pods
Discoloured pulps pods
without kernels
Dark brown to black with forceps
like caudal cerci and white leg joints
Nymph white in early
stages and later turn
brown
Carbofuran 3% G 50 kg/ha
Oriental in distribution including India
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Pod bug, Elasmolomus sordidus, Lygaeidae,
Hemiptera
11
Symptom of damage
Freshly harvested pods having shriveled
kernels
Nature of damage
Nymphs and adults suck oil from the kernels
of mature pods especially after harvest
making them unfit for use
Dark brown bugs
Widespread in Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico and Hawaii
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Blind ants, Dorylus spp. Formicidae, Hymenoptera
12
Ants found primarily in central and east Africa, although the range also extends to southern Africa
and tropical Asia.
• Driver (or) safari ants
• Blind, and communicate
primarily through
pheromones
• bore into
mature groundnut pods
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Root feeders
Termite, Odontotermes obesus, Termitidae, Isoptera
13
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
They live underground, but make small earthen
mounds or earthen passages that are visible
above the ground.
Termites generally damage the crop soon after
germination and in subsequent growth stages.
Symptom of damage
The damaged plants dry up completely and are
easily pulled out.
Tropical and subtropical regions of India
Root grub, Holotrichia consanguinea, Melolonthidae,
Coleoptera
14
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Egg: White,
almost round
Grub: Young grubs are translucent,
whitish yellow in colour , fleshy ‘C’ –
shaped (Scaraebiform)
Symptoms of damage
The grubs feed roots and damage pods.
Grubs feed on fine rootlets, resulting in pale
wilted plants, dying in patches.
Dark brown beetle. Beetles emerge
out of the soil within 3-4 days after
the onset of rain
Pre-dominant in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh

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6.1 Pests of Groundnut_Binomics_Identification_Dr.UPR

  • 1. Pests of Groundnut By Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. Assistant Professor (Entomology) JSACAT Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
  • 2. Sucking pests of groundnut
  • 3. Aphid, Aphis craccivora, Aphididae, Hemiptera 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Colonies of nymphs and adults found on leaves, terminal shoots and pods and such the plant sap. Vector of stunt disease in chickpea, rosette of groundnut Serious pest when the rainfall is low. Symptom of damage Presence of aphid colonies on the leaves, terminal shoots and pods. In severe cases, the plants wither and vigour reduced. Worldwide distribution; abundant in subtropical and tropical regions, and in the Mediterranean
  • 4. Green leafhopper, Empoasca kerri, Cicadellidae, Hemiptera 2 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap and inject toxins. Symptom of damage Affected leaves turn pale and then rust-red. They curl downwards; in severe cases, show 'hopper burn' symptom, dry and fall to the ground. Distribution: Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, North America.
  • 5. Yellow, laid on the underside of the leaf, embedding them into the leaf veins Wedge-shaped, very active, suck cell sap from underside of the leaves 3 mm long, greenish yellow during the summer acquiring a reddish tinge in the winter. Adults move briskly, forward and laterally and jump or fly away at slight disturbance and attracted to light at night Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 6. Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, Thripidae, Thysanoptera 3 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Symptom of damage Tender leaves showing yellowish green patches on the upper surface and brown necrotic areas and silvery sheen on the lower surface Nature of damage Nymphs and adults suck the plant sap. Indian subcontinent, North and South America, West Africa and is present in East Africa (Kenya) Nymph Adult Frankliniella schultzei - Transmits peanut bud necrosis
  • 8. Red hairy caterpillar, Amsacta albistriga, A. moorei, Erebidae, Lepidoptera 4 Nature of damage All the leaves are eaten away by the larvae leaving the main stem alone. Larvae are voracious feeders. Distribution: Amsacata albistriga is predominant in South India while A. moorie dominates northern parts of the country Host range: Maize, sorghum, green gram, sesame, pearl millet, finger millet, groundnut, sunhemp, castor, cotton Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 9. Light yellow spherical eggs are laid in clusters on the undersurface of the leaves Hairy caterpillar reddish brown with black band on either end having long reddish brown hairs all over the body. Pupa: Reddish brown and elongate remains under soil for 9-10 months. Adults emerge after receiving the first monsoon showers. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 10. Amsacta albistriga: •Forewing- white with brownish streak all over and yellowish streak along the anterior margin and head •Hind wing- white with black markings Amsacta moorei: •Forewing - white with brownish streak all over and reddish streak along the anterior margin and head Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 11. Management Collection and destruction of egg masses The barnyard millet (Echinochloea frumentacea) may act as strong barrier Summer ploughing and poison baiting Erection of light traps soon after the monsoon for 20-45 days, collecting and killing of adult moths are found to be very effective The dispersing larvae of hairy caterpillar from one field to another can be checked by digging trenches across the direction of their march, and prompt destruction of larvae Vegetative traps utilizing Jatropha (wild castor) or Ipomea prevent the migration of the grown up larvae Prepare small balls with 10 kg rice bran + 1 kg jaggery + 1 liter quinolphos broadcasting in the fields preferably in the evening times Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 12. Leaf miner/ Surul poochi/ soybean leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella, Gelechiidae, Lepidoptera 5 Nature of damage Minute larvae mine into the leaves Later they web several leaves together Symptom of damage Brown blotches in midrib terminal leaflets with white patches webbed together distorted and finally get dried up Indonesia (Java) and India Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 13. Management ETL: 1 larvae/meter row •Set up light traps @ 1/ha •Apply anyone of the following insecticides • Dimethiate 30 EC 660 ml/ha • Methyl demeton 25% EC 1000 ml/ha Dark brown moth Laid on the leaves and shoots Small, green in colour with dark head and prothorax Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 14. Tobaco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera 6 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Early instar larva remain gregarious and cause skeletonization. Later instar cause defoliation Symptom of damage Skeletonization, defoliation The countries with the most widespread population of S. litura include but are not limited to China, Indonesia, India, Japan, and Malaysia
  • 15. Yellow in colour, laid in mass and covered with hairs. Pale greenish with dark markings; gregarious in the early stages Brown colour, obtect pupa Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 16. Moth with wavy white markings on a brown forewing. Hindwings white with a brown patch along the margin Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 17. Management •Hand pick and destroy the caterpillar •Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts •Summer ploughing to expose to the pupae •Use light trap •Apply Bacillus thuringenesis •Field release of egg parasitoid such as Telenomus spodopterae and Telenomus remus •Field release of entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 18. Gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera 7 Symptom/nature of damage Larvae feed on the foliage, prefers flowers and buds When tender leaf buds are eaten symmetrical holes or cuttings can be seen upon unfolding of leaflets Widespread in central and southern Europe, temperate Asia, Australia and Africa Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 19. On the forewings, there is speck that forms a V-shaped mark. Hind wings are dull grey coloured with a black border on the distal end. Spherical in shape with sculptures in the form of longitudinal ribs The colour varies according to the food intake. Dorsal surface bears dark broken stripes. Head is reddish-brown. Larva is highly cannibalistic and readily eats one another. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 20. Management Deep summer ploughing Intercrop one rows of red gram for every 5 or 6 rows Install pheromone trap @ 5/ha Use Trichogramma chilonis @ 1 lakh/ha or Chrysoperla carnea @ 50000/ha at 40 and 50 days after sowing of groundnut can effectively check the pest Apply HaNPV @ 250 Larval Eqivalent/ha or B.t (Bacillus thuringiensis) 1 kg/ha or 5% NSKE for monitoring eggs and early instar larvae Conserve the bio control population of spiders, long horned grasshoppers, preying mantids, robber fly, ants, green lace wing, damsel flies/dragon flies, flower bugs, shield bugs, lady bird beetles, ground beetle, predatory cricket, braconids, trichogrammatids, NPV, green muscardine fungus Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 21. Groundnut bud borer, Anarsia ephippias, Gelechiidae, Lepidoptera Symptoms of damage Larva bores into the terminal buds and shoots Emerging leaflets will have only the midribs or several oblong feeding holes India and Sri Lanka 8 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 22. Larva: Chocolate brown in color Management Neem oil 3 % and leaf extract of Vitex negundo (notchi) 5 % are effective against this pest The parasitoids Brachymeria sp cause parasitism up to 24 per cent on larvae Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 23. Stem borer, Ver poochi, Sphenoptera perotetti, Buprestidae, Coleoptera Symptom of damage Branches may droop and the plants show wilting and may die when the grubs reach the root. Nature of damage Grubs tunnel the stem just below the soil surface and main roots, tunnel containing elongate flat- headed grubs. 9 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 24. Pupation occurs inside burrows (tunnels) from which the adult beetles emerge by cutting their way out Dark brown, shiny beetle, jewel like and small (1 cm) beetle Management Deep summer ploughing to expose the pupae to sun light and predation by birds. Use well decomposed organic manure. Destroy infested plant stems Small flat oval eggs laid on the main stem of the plants Slender pale whitish with flattened anterior portion, called ‘flat-headed grubs’ Buprestidae Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 26. Pod borer (Ear wig), Anisolabis stalli, Forficulidae, Dermaptera 10 Symptom of damage Young pods showing bore holes plugged with excreta Sand particles filled pods Discoloured pulps pods without kernels Dark brown to black with forceps like caudal cerci and white leg joints Nymph white in early stages and later turn brown Carbofuran 3% G 50 kg/ha Oriental in distribution including India Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 27. Pod bug, Elasmolomus sordidus, Lygaeidae, Hemiptera 11 Symptom of damage Freshly harvested pods having shriveled kernels Nature of damage Nymphs and adults suck oil from the kernels of mature pods especially after harvest making them unfit for use Dark brown bugs Widespread in Africa, Asia, Brazil, Mexico and Hawaii Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 28. Blind ants, Dorylus spp. Formicidae, Hymenoptera 12 Ants found primarily in central and east Africa, although the range also extends to southern Africa and tropical Asia. • Driver (or) safari ants • Blind, and communicate primarily through pheromones • bore into mature groundnut pods Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 30. Termite, Odontotermes obesus, Termitidae, Isoptera 13 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage They live underground, but make small earthen mounds or earthen passages that are visible above the ground. Termites generally damage the crop soon after germination and in subsequent growth stages. Symptom of damage The damaged plants dry up completely and are easily pulled out. Tropical and subtropical regions of India
  • 31. Root grub, Holotrichia consanguinea, Melolonthidae, Coleoptera 14 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Egg: White, almost round Grub: Young grubs are translucent, whitish yellow in colour , fleshy ‘C’ – shaped (Scaraebiform) Symptoms of damage The grubs feed roots and damage pods. Grubs feed on fine rootlets, resulting in pale wilted plants, dying in patches. Dark brown beetle. Beetles emerge out of the soil within 3-4 days after the onset of rain Pre-dominant in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh