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Pests of sugarcane
By
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD.
Assistant Professor (Entomology)
JSACAT
Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Borers
Early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus, Crambidae,
Lepidoptera
1
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Symptom of damage
Deadheart in 1-3 month old crop, rotten
portion emits an offensive odour.
bore holes at the base of the shoot.
Nature of damage
Caterpillar bores into the central shoot
and feeds on the internal tissue.
Distribution: India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thiawan, Philippines, Korea, Afghanistan and Burma
Flat-scale like eggs laid in 3-5 rows on
leaf lower surface in masses of 4-100
Dirty white with five dark violet longitudinal stripes
and dark brown head
Pupation takes place within the
tunnel. Caterpillar before pupating
makes a large exit hole in the stem
Pale greyish brown moth with black dots near the costal
margin of the forewings and with white hindwings
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
ETL: 15% dead heart.
Use resistant varieties like CO 312, CO 421, CO 661, CO 917 and CO 853
Early planting during December – January escapes the early shoot borer incidence.
Sugarcane intercropped with Daincha recorded the lowest early shoot borer incidence.
Trash mulching along the ridges to a thickness of 10-15 cm 3 days after planting.
Ensure adequate moisture to bring down the soil temperature and increase humidity
(unfavourable condition for the multiplication of early shoot borer).
Partial earthing up on 45 days after planting reduces the incidence.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Remove and destroy dead hearts
Install pheromone traps @ 12 Nos. /ha for surveillance and
monitoring
Apply granulosis virus 1.5 x 13 5 granules / ha (750 diseased
larvae/ha) along with teepol twice on 35 and 50 DAP.
Release 125 gravid females of tachinid parasitoid, Sturmiopsis
inferens per ac
Apply Carbaryl + Sevidol 4% G 12.5 kg, Carbofuron 3G 33 kg (Soil
application)
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus,
Crambidae, Lepidoptera
2
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Distribution: India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
Nature of damage
Caterpillars attack sugarcane
plants after 3 months of
planting
Entry is generally confined to
the first five internodes
Internodes shortened with
boreholes and excreta
Affected tissues
reddened
Scale-like white eggs are laid by female
moths in batches of 9-11, near the midribs,
on leaf sheaths or on stem
White larva with four violet longitudinal
stripes and light brown head
Pupation takes place in semi-dried
leaf sheath
Pale brown with white hind wings
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
Use resistant varieties like CO 975,COJ 46 and CO 7304.
Detrash the crop on 150th and 210th day of planting.
Detrashing dislodge the pupae that remain in the leaf sheath.
Install pheromone traps @ 10Nos. /ha for surveillance and monitoring,
change the septa/lure once in 45 days.
Release egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis at the rate of @ 2.5 cc /
release / ha. Six release at fortnightly intervals starting from 4th month
onwards.
Avoid the use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers.
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Top borer, Scirpophaga excerptalis, Pyralidae,
Lepidoptera
3
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Southern Asia from the Indian Subcontinent in the west to southern China in the east,
south to New Guinea, possibly Australia and the Solomon Islands
Symptom of damage
Dead heart reddish brown in colour
Parallel row of shot holes in the emerging
leaves
Bunchy top due to the growth of side shoots
Nature of damage
Caterpillars boring through the growing
point and reaches the stem, there it feeds on
the tissues
Eggs are laid near midribs on the
lower surface
White coloured with a red mid-dorsal line
Pupation takes place within the
larval tunnel with an exit hole
White coloured moth (female with anal tuft)
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Management
Use resistant variety CO 419, CO 745 and CO 6516 and tolerant varieties Co 859, Co 1158
and Co 7224
Small earthing up followed by trash mulching
Do not undertake maize, sorghum as intercrops
Prefer paired row system for planting
Remove the dead heart plants and destroy them
Collect and destroy the egg masses
Collection of egg masses on campaign basis once in 4 days initiating the collection from
the day of moth emergence
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Release Ichneumonid larval and prepupal parasitoid, Gambroides (Isotima) javensis @ 100
pairs / ha
Selective destruction of unparasitized eggs by placing the egg masses in 30 mesh nylon bags
that permit escape of adult parasitoids while containg the neonate larvae hatching from
unparasitized eggs
Application of Carbofuran 3G 1 kg a.i/ha or Thimet (Phorate) 10G 3 kg a.i/ha ten days before
the commencement of 3rd brood in sub tropical india
Application is done by opening a small furrow near the root zone, placing the granule
followed by a light irrigation
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Subterranean pests
Termites, Odontotermus obesus, Termitidae, Isoptera
4
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Odontotermus obesus
Native to India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Vietnam
The damaged plants dry
up completely and are
easily pulled out. The
plants damaged at later
stages give rise to white
ears.
White cream colored with dark
head
White grub, Holotrichia consanguinea,
Melolonthidae, Coleoptera
5
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Egg: White,
almost round
Grub: Young grubs are translucent,
whitish yellow in colour , fleshy ‘C’ –
shaped (Scaraebiform)
Symptoms of damage
The grubs feed roots and damage pods.
Grubs feed on fine rootlets, resulting in pale
wilted plants, dying in patches.
Dark brown beetle. Beetles emerge
out of the soil within 3-4 days after
the onset of rain
Pre-dominant in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh
Root aphid, Tetraneura javensis, Aphididae,
Hemiptera
6
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Nature of damage
Nymph and adult attack underground parts of
the plants. Plants become weak and may wilt.
Symptom of damage
Drying of plants in patches. Presence of black
ants, Camponotus compressus, around the base
of the plants. Nymph and Adult: Pinkish
globular aphids
Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Georgia, Kazakhstan, southern
and south-east Europe and the USA, India
Whiteflies, Aleurolobus barodensis, Aleyrodidae,
Hemiptera
7
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Firstly found in India in 1895, it had spread to 7 Asia countries
Nature of damage
Nymphs and adult suck the sap from
the leaves
Symptom of damage
Yellowing of leaves
Turn pinkish
Sooty mould on the honeydew
Stalked yellowish eggs
laid near the midrib on
leaf lower surface, which
turns black after 2hrs
Pale yellow neonate nymphs, flat and oval, later turn
shiny black, surrounded by fringes of wax
The fourth instar being the pupal
stage, possess ‘T’ shaped white
marking on the thorax
Pale yellow body with
hyaline wings dusted with
waxy bloom, exhibit brisk
fluttering movements
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Whiteflies, Neomaskellia bergii, Neomaskellia
andropogonis, Aleyrodidae, Hemiptera
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Distribution. Widespread. Asia, Africa, Oceania
Nature of damage
Nymph and adult suck plant sap from the
lower surface of leaves
Symptom of damage
Black, grey or white dot like pupae on the
undersurface of leaves
Yellowish white eggs laid on
undersurface of the leaves
Oval in shape and brownish coloured,
surrounded by white wax
Pale brown with black bands on wings
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla, Lophopidae,
Hemiptera
8
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Widely distributed in India including in Bihar, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and
Madhya Pradesh than in peninsular India
Symptom of damage
Yellow leaves, covered with black sooty mould; top
leaves gets dried up and lateral buds germinate
Nature of damage
Nymphs and adults remain in groups on the lower
surface of leaves and suck the plant sap. They secrete
honeydew, which attract sooty mould development.
Severe attack results in loss of sugar content in the
canes, to the extent of 34% and growth is suppressed.
Eggs laid in clusters on the lower
surface of leaves and covered with
white fluffy waxy filaments
Soft pale brown
dorsally and pale
orange ventrally with
two characteristic anal
filaments
Soft, straw coloured with the head pointing forward
as snout. Wings fold over the abdomen like hood;
they are densely veined and transparent
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Mealybug, Kiritshenkella sacchari (Saccharicoccus
sacchari), Pseudococcidae, Hemiptera
9
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Geographical distribution: The pest occurs in warm regions wherever sugarcane is
grown.
Light pink in colour and occurs underneath leaf
sheaths on sugarcane
Management
Use resistant varieties like CO 439, CO 443,
CO 720, CO 730 and CO 7704
Drain excess water from the field.
Detrash the crop on 150 and 210 DAP
Avoid excess usage of Nitrogen fertilizers
Scale insect, Melanaphis glomerata, Diaspididae,
Hemiptera
10
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Serious sugarcane pest in Maharashtra, Gujarat and in certain pockets of Andhra
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh
The leaves of infested canes show signs
of tip drying and unhealthy pale green
colour and with continued infestation
these turn yellow.
Desapping leads to non-opening of
leaves also, which also turn yellow and
finally dry up.
Use resistant varieties like CO 439, CO 443, CO 453, CO 671, CO 691 and CO 692
Select and plant the scale insect free setts.
Keep the fields and bunds free from weeds.
Avoid water stagnation in the field for the longer period.
Avoid repeated ratoons.
Detrash the crop at 150th and 210th day of planting.
Release Chilocoris nigritus (or) Pharascymnus horni.
Presoak the setts in 0.1% solution malathion.
Spray dimethoate 0.06% or 120th and 150th after detrashing.
Sugarcane woolly aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera,
Aphididae (Pemphigidae), Hemiptera
11
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
East and Southeast Asia
Symptom
Congregation of large number of white coloured nymphs
and adults on the under surface of leaf.
Yellowing and drying of leaves from the tip along the
margins.
Leaves become brittle and dries completely.
Heavy secretion of honey dew leads to development of
sooty mold.
Deposition of wooly matter on ground / soil distinctly visible.
Management
Cultural method
Paired row system of planting.
Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
Use of organic fertilizers.
Rapping of canes all along the rows.
Infested tops should not be transported.
Infested canes should not be used as seed
material for planting.
Biological method
Encourage natural predators viz., Diapha aphidivora , Ishchiodon
scutellaris, Episyrphus baleatus, Chrysopa sp., Schymnus sp., Cheilomenes
sexmaculata, Coccinella septempunctata, Synnonycha grandis, Brumus
sp. and Dideopsis aegrota
Pathogens like Cladosporium oxysporum, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium
lecanii and Beauveria bassiana
Release Encarsia flavoscutellum
Chemical method
Dip the seed sets in Chlorpyripos 20 EC solution (2 ml / lit) before planting
Spray Malathion 50 EC 2 ml / lit
Black winged bug, Proutista moesta, Deribidae,
Hemiptera
12
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Native to the tropics of Asia but have spread into other parts of the tropics, Indonesia,
India, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, China, Malaysia
Vector of root wilt(or) Kerala wilt disease caused by
Cadidatus Phytoplasma
Aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, Aphididae, Hemiptera
13
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Tropical Africa, Asia, the Far East and South America
Transmits Yellow Leaf disease in a semi-
persistent manner.
Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) is a
member of the Luteoviridae family.
The virus is localized within the phloem cells
of the plant.
Skipper, Telicota augias, Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera
14
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
It is found in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Indonesia and the Philippines
Symptom of damage
Leaves folded into tubular cells.
Nature of damage
Larva folds the leaves into tubular cells by
binding the tow edges together. It feeds
on the leaves from margin inwards leaving
behind the midrib intact.
Gurdaspur borer, Donacoscaptes (Bissetia)
steniellus, Crambidae, Lepidoptera
15
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
India, Pakistan and Vietnam
The female moth lays a batch of 100 to
300 eggs on the midrib of a sugarcane
leaf.
The larvae hatch out after about a
week and make their way into the
stem by drilling holes just above a
node.
They excavate galleries inside the
stem, feeding voraciously.
Grasshopper, Oxya velox, Acrididae, Orthoptera
16
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Global Distribution. Pakistan, Nepal, China: Hainan, Vietnam, Myanmar, Singapore,
Srilanka, Thailand, Bangladesh etc.
It's inappropriate feeding habits on leaf blades
and shoots gradually damage the plant
Spiny beetle, Asamangulia cuspidata,
Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera
17
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
Minor pest in a few states of subtropical India
Leaf miner
Sugarcane mite, Schizotetranychus andropogoni,
Tetranychidae, Acari
18
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
India, Mexico, Pakistan, Thailand
Propargite 57% EC @ 0.5 ml/lit
Dicofol 18.5% EC @ 2.5ml/lit

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Pests of sugarcane_Binomics_IPM_Dr.UPR.pdf

  • 1. Pests of sugarcane By Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. Assistant Professor (Entomology) JSACAT Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
  • 3. Early shoot borer, Chilo infuscatellus, Crambidae, Lepidoptera 1 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Symptom of damage Deadheart in 1-3 month old crop, rotten portion emits an offensive odour. bore holes at the base of the shoot. Nature of damage Caterpillar bores into the central shoot and feeds on the internal tissue. Distribution: India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thiawan, Philippines, Korea, Afghanistan and Burma
  • 4. Flat-scale like eggs laid in 3-5 rows on leaf lower surface in masses of 4-100 Dirty white with five dark violet longitudinal stripes and dark brown head Pupation takes place within the tunnel. Caterpillar before pupating makes a large exit hole in the stem Pale greyish brown moth with black dots near the costal margin of the forewings and with white hindwings Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 5. Management ETL: 15% dead heart. Use resistant varieties like CO 312, CO 421, CO 661, CO 917 and CO 853 Early planting during December – January escapes the early shoot borer incidence. Sugarcane intercropped with Daincha recorded the lowest early shoot borer incidence. Trash mulching along the ridges to a thickness of 10-15 cm 3 days after planting. Ensure adequate moisture to bring down the soil temperature and increase humidity (unfavourable condition for the multiplication of early shoot borer). Partial earthing up on 45 days after planting reduces the incidence. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 6. Remove and destroy dead hearts Install pheromone traps @ 12 Nos. /ha for surveillance and monitoring Apply granulosis virus 1.5 x 13 5 granules / ha (750 diseased larvae/ha) along with teepol twice on 35 and 50 DAP. Release 125 gravid females of tachinid parasitoid, Sturmiopsis inferens per ac Apply Carbaryl + Sevidol 4% G 12.5 kg, Carbofuron 3G 33 kg (Soil application) Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 7. Internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus, Crambidae, Lepidoptera 2 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Distribution: India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka Nature of damage Caterpillars attack sugarcane plants after 3 months of planting Entry is generally confined to the first five internodes Internodes shortened with boreholes and excreta Affected tissues reddened
  • 8. Scale-like white eggs are laid by female moths in batches of 9-11, near the midribs, on leaf sheaths or on stem White larva with four violet longitudinal stripes and light brown head Pupation takes place in semi-dried leaf sheath Pale brown with white hind wings Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 9. Management Use resistant varieties like CO 975,COJ 46 and CO 7304. Detrash the crop on 150th and 210th day of planting. Detrashing dislodge the pupae that remain in the leaf sheath. Install pheromone traps @ 10Nos. /ha for surveillance and monitoring, change the septa/lure once in 45 days. Release egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis at the rate of @ 2.5 cc / release / ha. Six release at fortnightly intervals starting from 4th month onwards. Avoid the use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers. Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 10. Top borer, Scirpophaga excerptalis, Pyralidae, Lepidoptera 3 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Southern Asia from the Indian Subcontinent in the west to southern China in the east, south to New Guinea, possibly Australia and the Solomon Islands Symptom of damage Dead heart reddish brown in colour Parallel row of shot holes in the emerging leaves Bunchy top due to the growth of side shoots Nature of damage Caterpillars boring through the growing point and reaches the stem, there it feeds on the tissues
  • 11. Eggs are laid near midribs on the lower surface White coloured with a red mid-dorsal line Pupation takes place within the larval tunnel with an exit hole White coloured moth (female with anal tuft) Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 12. Management Use resistant variety CO 419, CO 745 and CO 6516 and tolerant varieties Co 859, Co 1158 and Co 7224 Small earthing up followed by trash mulching Do not undertake maize, sorghum as intercrops Prefer paired row system for planting Remove the dead heart plants and destroy them Collect and destroy the egg masses Collection of egg masses on campaign basis once in 4 days initiating the collection from the day of moth emergence Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 13. Release Ichneumonid larval and prepupal parasitoid, Gambroides (Isotima) javensis @ 100 pairs / ha Selective destruction of unparasitized eggs by placing the egg masses in 30 mesh nylon bags that permit escape of adult parasitoids while containg the neonate larvae hatching from unparasitized eggs Application of Carbofuran 3G 1 kg a.i/ha or Thimet (Phorate) 10G 3 kg a.i/ha ten days before the commencement of 3rd brood in sub tropical india Application is done by opening a small furrow near the root zone, placing the granule followed by a light irrigation Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 15. Termites, Odontotermus obesus, Termitidae, Isoptera 4 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Odontotermus obesus Native to India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Vietnam The damaged plants dry up completely and are easily pulled out. The plants damaged at later stages give rise to white ears. White cream colored with dark head
  • 16. White grub, Holotrichia consanguinea, Melolonthidae, Coleoptera 5 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Egg: White, almost round Grub: Young grubs are translucent, whitish yellow in colour , fleshy ‘C’ – shaped (Scaraebiform) Symptoms of damage The grubs feed roots and damage pods. Grubs feed on fine rootlets, resulting in pale wilted plants, dying in patches. Dark brown beetle. Beetles emerge out of the soil within 3-4 days after the onset of rain Pre-dominant in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh
  • 17. Root aphid, Tetraneura javensis, Aphididae, Hemiptera 6 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Nature of damage Nymph and adult attack underground parts of the plants. Plants become weak and may wilt. Symptom of damage Drying of plants in patches. Presence of black ants, Camponotus compressus, around the base of the plants. Nymph and Adult: Pinkish globular aphids Distribution: China, Japan, Korea, Georgia, Kazakhstan, southern and south-east Europe and the USA, India
  • 18. Whiteflies, Aleurolobus barodensis, Aleyrodidae, Hemiptera 7 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Firstly found in India in 1895, it had spread to 7 Asia countries Nature of damage Nymphs and adult suck the sap from the leaves Symptom of damage Yellowing of leaves Turn pinkish Sooty mould on the honeydew
  • 19. Stalked yellowish eggs laid near the midrib on leaf lower surface, which turns black after 2hrs Pale yellow neonate nymphs, flat and oval, later turn shiny black, surrounded by fringes of wax The fourth instar being the pupal stage, possess ‘T’ shaped white marking on the thorax Pale yellow body with hyaline wings dusted with waxy bloom, exhibit brisk fluttering movements Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 20. Whiteflies, Neomaskellia bergii, Neomaskellia andropogonis, Aleyrodidae, Hemiptera Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Distribution. Widespread. Asia, Africa, Oceania Nature of damage Nymph and adult suck plant sap from the lower surface of leaves Symptom of damage Black, grey or white dot like pupae on the undersurface of leaves
  • 21. Yellowish white eggs laid on undersurface of the leaves Oval in shape and brownish coloured, surrounded by white wax Pale brown with black bands on wings Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 22. Leaf hopper, Pyrilla perpusilla, Lophopidae, Hemiptera 8 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Widely distributed in India including in Bihar, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Madhya Pradesh than in peninsular India Symptom of damage Yellow leaves, covered with black sooty mould; top leaves gets dried up and lateral buds germinate Nature of damage Nymphs and adults remain in groups on the lower surface of leaves and suck the plant sap. They secrete honeydew, which attract sooty mould development. Severe attack results in loss of sugar content in the canes, to the extent of 34% and growth is suppressed.
  • 23. Eggs laid in clusters on the lower surface of leaves and covered with white fluffy waxy filaments Soft pale brown dorsally and pale orange ventrally with two characteristic anal filaments Soft, straw coloured with the head pointing forward as snout. Wings fold over the abdomen like hood; they are densely veined and transparent Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology)
  • 24. Mealybug, Kiritshenkella sacchari (Saccharicoccus sacchari), Pseudococcidae, Hemiptera 9 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Geographical distribution: The pest occurs in warm regions wherever sugarcane is grown. Light pink in colour and occurs underneath leaf sheaths on sugarcane Management Use resistant varieties like CO 439, CO 443, CO 720, CO 730 and CO 7704 Drain excess water from the field. Detrash the crop on 150 and 210 DAP Avoid excess usage of Nitrogen fertilizers
  • 25. Scale insect, Melanaphis glomerata, Diaspididae, Hemiptera 10 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Serious sugarcane pest in Maharashtra, Gujarat and in certain pockets of Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh The leaves of infested canes show signs of tip drying and unhealthy pale green colour and with continued infestation these turn yellow. Desapping leads to non-opening of leaves also, which also turn yellow and finally dry up.
  • 26. Use resistant varieties like CO 439, CO 443, CO 453, CO 671, CO 691 and CO 692 Select and plant the scale insect free setts. Keep the fields and bunds free from weeds. Avoid water stagnation in the field for the longer period. Avoid repeated ratoons. Detrash the crop at 150th and 210th day of planting. Release Chilocoris nigritus (or) Pharascymnus horni. Presoak the setts in 0.1% solution malathion. Spray dimethoate 0.06% or 120th and 150th after detrashing.
  • 27. Sugarcane woolly aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera, Aphididae (Pemphigidae), Hemiptera 11 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) East and Southeast Asia Symptom Congregation of large number of white coloured nymphs and adults on the under surface of leaf. Yellowing and drying of leaves from the tip along the margins. Leaves become brittle and dries completely. Heavy secretion of honey dew leads to development of sooty mold. Deposition of wooly matter on ground / soil distinctly visible.
  • 28. Management Cultural method Paired row system of planting. Avoid excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers. Use of organic fertilizers. Rapping of canes all along the rows. Infested tops should not be transported. Infested canes should not be used as seed material for planting.
  • 29. Biological method Encourage natural predators viz., Diapha aphidivora , Ishchiodon scutellaris, Episyrphus baleatus, Chrysopa sp., Schymnus sp., Cheilomenes sexmaculata, Coccinella septempunctata, Synnonycha grandis, Brumus sp. and Dideopsis aegrota Pathogens like Cladosporium oxysporum, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana Release Encarsia flavoscutellum Chemical method Dip the seed sets in Chlorpyripos 20 EC solution (2 ml / lit) before planting Spray Malathion 50 EC 2 ml / lit
  • 30. Black winged bug, Proutista moesta, Deribidae, Hemiptera 12 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Native to the tropics of Asia but have spread into other parts of the tropics, Indonesia, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, China, Malaysia Vector of root wilt(or) Kerala wilt disease caused by Cadidatus Phytoplasma
  • 31. Aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, Aphididae, Hemiptera 13 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Tropical Africa, Asia, the Far East and South America Transmits Yellow Leaf disease in a semi- persistent manner. Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) is a member of the Luteoviridae family. The virus is localized within the phloem cells of the plant.
  • 32. Skipper, Telicota augias, Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera 14 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) It is found in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Indonesia and the Philippines Symptom of damage Leaves folded into tubular cells. Nature of damage Larva folds the leaves into tubular cells by binding the tow edges together. It feeds on the leaves from margin inwards leaving behind the midrib intact.
  • 33. Gurdaspur borer, Donacoscaptes (Bissetia) steniellus, Crambidae, Lepidoptera 15 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) India, Pakistan and Vietnam The female moth lays a batch of 100 to 300 eggs on the midrib of a sugarcane leaf. The larvae hatch out after about a week and make their way into the stem by drilling holes just above a node. They excavate galleries inside the stem, feeding voraciously.
  • 34. Grasshopper, Oxya velox, Acrididae, Orthoptera 16 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Global Distribution. Pakistan, Nepal, China: Hainan, Vietnam, Myanmar, Singapore, Srilanka, Thailand, Bangladesh etc. It's inappropriate feeding habits on leaf blades and shoots gradually damage the plant
  • 35. Spiny beetle, Asamangulia cuspidata, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera 17 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) Minor pest in a few states of subtropical India Leaf miner
  • 36. Sugarcane mite, Schizotetranychus andropogoni, Tetranychidae, Acari 18 Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. (Entomology) India, Mexico, Pakistan, Thailand Propargite 57% EC @ 0.5 ml/lit Dicofol 18.5% EC @ 2.5ml/lit