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Role of physical, biological,
mechanical, and chemical factors in
deterioration of grains
By
Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD.
Assistant Professor (Entomology)
JSACAT
Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Storage deterioration is any form of loss in quantity
and quality of bio- materials.
The major causes of deterioration in storage
• Physical
• Biological
• Mechanical
• Chemical
Storage only preserves quality. It never improves
quality.
It is advisable to start storage with quality food
product. Product with initial poor quality quickly
depreciates.
Introduction
Causes
Heat from external source (sun) due to
unsuitable storage structures
• False location, Insufficient shade,
Poor ventilation facility
Physical factors
Temperature
Effects
Losses in weight and losses in quality (nutritional value, germination power)
Development of fungi and formation of mycotoxins. Improved conditions for the
development of pests. Loss in germination and vigor
Causes
• Insufficient drying before storage and high relative
humidity (high grain moisture)
• Constructional faults (unsuitable materials, unsealed
floor, walls and roof, holes, gaps, etc.)
• Produce stored on the floor or next to the walls
Moisture
Biological factors
Causes of infestation
• Cross infestation from neighboring lots
• Hiding places in stores (cracks, fissures)
• Use of infested bags
• Introduction of infested lots
Effects
• Losses in weight and quality (impurities
such as droppings, cocoons and parts of
insects, reduction of nutrition value)
• Increase of temperature and moisture
Insect pest
Causes of infection
• High moisture content of stored produce
• High relative humidity in store
• Condensation
• Humidity and moisture produced by insects
Microorganisms
Effects
• Loss of weight (mould) and loss of quality (smell, taste, color, reduction in nutritional value and
germination %)
• Formation of mycotoxins
• Further condensation
Causes of infestation
• Badly closing doors, windows, ventilation
openings and holes
• Lack of barriers and lack of hygiene in store and
surrounding area (possible breeding and hiding
places)
Effects
• Loss of weight
• High loss in quality due to contamination of
produce with faeces and urine
• Contamination of produce with pathogenic agents
(typhoid, rabies, hepatitis, plague, etc.)
• Damage of material (bags, doors, electric cables)
Rodents
Causes of infestation
• Open or broken doors, windows, ventilation
openings and roofs
Effects
• Losses in weight and damage to bags
• Contamination of stored produce with
droppings and pathogenic agents
Birds
Causes
• Incorrect harvesting methods
• Poor handling, threshing, shelling,
cleaning, sorting, drying
o No temperature insulation
o No moisture proofing
o No rat and bird proofing
o Not disinfected
Effects
• Losses in quantity and quality
• Increased vulnerability to infestation
from pests, fungi and rodents
Mechanical factors
Curtain wall made of concrete
Hardware cloth
Rat proofing
Causes
• Chemical changes accelerated by
• Mycotoxins
• Pesticides
• Insecticides-prophylactic treatment
• Fumigants-curative treatment
Effects
• Degradation of nutrients
• Losses in weight and quality (germination %, nutritional value)
Chemical factors
The interaction is more important than the factors alone.
The interaction of all these factors decide the fate of grain during
storage

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11.1 Role of physical biological in deterioration of grains.pdf

  • 1. Role of physical, biological, mechanical, and chemical factors in deterioration of grains By Dr. U. Pirithiraj, P.hD. Assistant Professor (Entomology) JSACAT Affiliated to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
  • 2. Storage deterioration is any form of loss in quantity and quality of bio- materials. The major causes of deterioration in storage • Physical • Biological • Mechanical • Chemical Storage only preserves quality. It never improves quality. It is advisable to start storage with quality food product. Product with initial poor quality quickly depreciates. Introduction
  • 3. Causes Heat from external source (sun) due to unsuitable storage structures • False location, Insufficient shade, Poor ventilation facility Physical factors Temperature Effects Losses in weight and losses in quality (nutritional value, germination power) Development of fungi and formation of mycotoxins. Improved conditions for the development of pests. Loss in germination and vigor Causes • Insufficient drying before storage and high relative humidity (high grain moisture) • Constructional faults (unsuitable materials, unsealed floor, walls and roof, holes, gaps, etc.) • Produce stored on the floor or next to the walls Moisture
  • 4. Biological factors Causes of infestation • Cross infestation from neighboring lots • Hiding places in stores (cracks, fissures) • Use of infested bags • Introduction of infested lots Effects • Losses in weight and quality (impurities such as droppings, cocoons and parts of insects, reduction of nutrition value) • Increase of temperature and moisture Insect pest
  • 5. Causes of infection • High moisture content of stored produce • High relative humidity in store • Condensation • Humidity and moisture produced by insects Microorganisms Effects • Loss of weight (mould) and loss of quality (smell, taste, color, reduction in nutritional value and germination %) • Formation of mycotoxins • Further condensation
  • 6. Causes of infestation • Badly closing doors, windows, ventilation openings and holes • Lack of barriers and lack of hygiene in store and surrounding area (possible breeding and hiding places) Effects • Loss of weight • High loss in quality due to contamination of produce with faeces and urine • Contamination of produce with pathogenic agents (typhoid, rabies, hepatitis, plague, etc.) • Damage of material (bags, doors, electric cables) Rodents
  • 7. Causes of infestation • Open or broken doors, windows, ventilation openings and roofs Effects • Losses in weight and damage to bags • Contamination of stored produce with droppings and pathogenic agents Birds
  • 8. Causes • Incorrect harvesting methods • Poor handling, threshing, shelling, cleaning, sorting, drying o No temperature insulation o No moisture proofing o No rat and bird proofing o Not disinfected Effects • Losses in quantity and quality • Increased vulnerability to infestation from pests, fungi and rodents Mechanical factors Curtain wall made of concrete Hardware cloth Rat proofing
  • 9. Causes • Chemical changes accelerated by • Mycotoxins • Pesticides • Insecticides-prophylactic treatment • Fumigants-curative treatment Effects • Degradation of nutrients • Losses in weight and quality (germination %, nutritional value) Chemical factors
  • 10. The interaction is more important than the factors alone. The interaction of all these factors decide the fate of grain during storage