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Perio-Prostho Relations
-DR AISHWARYA PANDEY
-DEPARTMENT OF PERIODONTOLOGY
-BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY
CONTENTS
– Introduction
– The impacts of periodontal health on prosthetic therapy
– The impacts of prosthetic factors on periodontal/ peri-implant
health
– Biologic Width
– Proximal Relationship
– Restoration contours
– The location of restorative margins
– Trauma from occlusion
– Gingiva retraction technique : the effects on soft tissue
– Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
– Comprehensive dental therapy is founded on team works. Of
all disciplines within modern dentistry, periodontics and
prosthodontics have the strongest and the most intimate
connections.
– For prosthodontics, periodontal health plays an important role
on the longevity of restorations.
– On the other hand, defective prostheses may contribute to
progression of periodontal diseases.
– To achieve successful treatment outcomes, periodontists and
prosthodontist should cooperate in treatment plan,
performance and maintenance.
Prosthesis Periodontium
HARMONY
The impacts of periodontal
health on prosthetic therapy
– The function and lifespan of the prosthesis will be
compromised if periodontal diseases remain
uncontrolled after prosthesis delivery.
– In addition, periodontal inflammation results in soft
tissue changes in terms of texture, color, size and
gingival consistency.
– It then leads to impaired esthetic outcomes by
deteriorating the harmony between periodontium
and prosthesis.
– Thus, active periodontal diseases and contributing factors
should be eliminated or controlled prior to prosthodontic
constructions.
– The signs of active periodontal inflammation include pocket
formation, the presence of bleeding on probing or suppuration,
and tissue changes of gingiva.
– Without controlling the existing periodontal inflammation, a
cascade of adverse events of periodontal destruction would take
place and cause persistent inflammation, bone resorption and
eventually tooth loss.
– In addition to inflammation control, there should be soft
and hard tissue management to prepare sites for successful
prosthetic treatments.
– Surgical procedures, such as ridge and bone augmentation
as well as sinus lifting, could be performed for future
implant sites to correct existing ridge deformities.
– Mucogingival procedures may also benefit esthetic
outcomes and oral health maintenance
Regular periodontal
maintenance is a key
to reduce the
incidence of tooth
or implant loss
following prosthetic
therapy.
– For those patients who had history of
periodontitis, regular supportive periodontal
therapy is even more beneficial to prevent further
disease progression.
– In other words, regular compliance of periodontal
maintenance is the essence to prevent the
recurrence of periodontal diseases and to maintain
the integrity of treatment outcomes.
The impacts of prosthetic
factors on periodontal/ peri-
implant health
Prostheses should be carefully designed and
performed, in harmony with the surrounding
periodontium, to maintain periodontal/ peri-
implant health.
Defective
restorations
Accumulation
of dental plaque
and retention of
food debris
Periodontal
inflammation
Invasion of
biologic width
Periodontal
inflammation
Biologic width
– The dimension of dentogingival complex,
called "biologic width (BW)", is a cuff-like
barrier that acts as a protective physiological
seal around natural teeth.
– It possesses a self restoration capacity and
dynamic adaptability.
– The compositions of BW include
junctional epithelium and connective
tissue attachment.
– Mean distance of epithelial and
connective tissue components are
0.97mm and 1.07mm, respectively.
– The violation of BW jeopardizes periodontal health.
– BW invading could result from several reasons, such as
extensive caries, subgingival restorations, short clinical
crown, and teeth fracture.
– Resulting from the breach of BW, histologically,
attachment loss will be found to reestablish the certain
dentogingival junction around restorations and lead to
periodontal destruction.
– Clinically, the signs of BW violation consist of pain,
gingival inflammation, localized gingival hyperplasia,
pocket formation, and loss of periodontal apparatus.
– Therefore, further corrective procedures should be
considered prior to restorative treatments if any
qualms about BW violation, including orthodontic
extrusion and surgical crown lengthening procedures.
Ramifications of a biologic width violation if a restorative margin
is placed within the zone of the attachment. On the mesial
surface of the left central incisor, bone has not been lost, but
gingival inflammation occurs. On the distal surface of the left
central incisor, bone loss has occurred, and a normal biologic
width has been re-established.
Proximal Relationship
– Embrasure types, referring both horizontal and vertical
dimensions of the interproximal spaces, show impacts
on the presence of interproximal papilla.
– Loss of interproximal papilla results in impaired
esthetics and promotion of food impaction,
aggravating periodontal destruction.
– Contact types between prostheses may also play a role on
periodontal health.
– Sites with open contacts show more prevalence of food
impaction and often present greater pocket depth and
clinical attachment loss.
– Food impaction contributes to increasing pocket depth and
clinical attachment level.
– Thus, clinicians should avoid to place open contacts
between prostheses.
– Thorough proximal cleaning should be addressed to
patients.
– The demands for implant-support
prosthesis are more strict: a minimum
of 3mm of inter-implant distance is
suggested to maintain the alveolar
crestal level, preventing the possible
papillary loss; whereas papillary loss
would be expected if the dimensions
between two implants is more than
3mm.
Restoration contours
Adequate
crown
contours
Maintenance
of Biologic
width
Protection
of gingival
margins
Access for
oral
hygiene
– Over contour may have negative influence on periodontium
since it increases plaque retention.
– Meanwhile, inadequate crown reduction for the restorative
material should be avoided to prohibit the overcontoured
crown.
– Restorative overhang is also considered as a
contributing factor of periodontal diseases as it
may aggregate the plaque accumulation which
potentiates gingival inflammation and worsen
the periodontal status.
– Removal of overhang may also result in
reduction of pocket depth and clinical
attachment gain.
– Restorative overhang should be prevented by
the proper uses of matrix bands and wedges.
The location of restorative
margins
– Restorative margin locations should be established based
on several factors, including extension of caries,
retention/resistance forms, and esthetics.
– Using free gingival margin as the references, the supra-
and subgingival restorations have their own pros and
cons.
– With respect to periodontal health, the supragingival
restoration is the most favorable design since it is easy
to be cleaned.
– In spite of better esthetics, subgingival restorations were
associated with greater periodontal inflammation.
– In addition to tissue biotype, subgingival restorative margins may
be harmful to periodontium/ peri-implant tissues because of the
following reasons.
– First, the margin has higher risk of BW invasion, enhancing
further periodontal destruction.
– Limited access is another possible cause when restorative margins
are placed subgingivally.
– Furthermore, the efficacy of proper oral hygiene maintenances is
questioned for extensively subgingival restorations.
Trauma from occlusion
– As a functional unit, the tooth and its supporting structures
bear the brunt of occlusal forces on the crown.
– In response to occlusal forces, the attachment apparatus may
experience tissue changes, including injury, repair and
adaptive remodeling of the periodontium.
– Several factors are relative to trauma from occlusion (TFO)
including occlusal disharmony, parafunction (i.e. clenching
and bruxism), and occlusal schemes.
– Clinicians should perform prosthetic treatments with caution
to avoid failure following TFO.
– As a result of excessive force or reduced periodontal
supports, teeth under TFO or occlusal trauma showed
following clinical characteristics: tooth pain, increasing
tooth mobility, sensitivity to percussion, fremitus, occlusal
wear and even tooth fracture.
– Radiographic changes consist of PDL space widening,
disruption of the lamina dura, root resorption and peri-
apical or furcation radiolucency.
– It may also aggravate the existing periodontal destruction as
a co-destructive factor along with inflammation.
– In the late stage, chronic TFO may cause tooth migration
and loss of vertical dimension, enhancing impaired esthetics
and the need of oral rehabilitation.
– Occlusal overloading also causes biomechanical implant
complications and marginal bone loss around dental
implants.
– Marginal bone resorption even under the circumstance of
healthy peri-implant tissue.
– In addition, the disease may not be reversed once it
progressed.
– Possible loss of osseointegration
– Fracture of prosthetic components
– Loosening of attachment or abutment screw.
– Implant failure
Biomechanical implant complications due
traumatic occlusion
Gingiva retraction technique
: the effects on soft tissue
– An acceptable impression is needed to avoid improper
marginal adaptation that may cause periodontal tissue
inflammation or the risk of recurrent caries.
– Management of the gingival tissue is essential for
obtaining acceptable impression especially for
subgingivally located restorations.
– Various gingival displacement methods, such as
mechanical, chemico-mechanical and surgical are
available.
– Chemical agents as well as the mechanical force of
retraction cords could trigger temporary gingival
recession and gingival inflammation.
– Hence, the proper manipulation of gingival retraction
techniques such as materials and time-control are the key
factors to avoid permanent tissue damage while
impression-taking process is made.
Conclusion
– The relationship between prosthodontics and periodontics is
intimate and inseparable.
– Robust supporting periodontal/peri-implant tissues provide
solid foundations for predictable prosthetic therapy.
– In addition, regaining stable periodontal conditions should
rely on establishment of proper contact types, occlusal
scheme and quality prosthesis.
– Both specialties share a common goal: to create
pleasing esthetic with a harmonious
stomatognathic system.
Perio-Prostho.pptx

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Perio-Prostho.pptx

  • 1. Perio-Prostho Relations -DR AISHWARYA PANDEY -DEPARTMENT OF PERIODONTOLOGY -BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY
  • 2. CONTENTS – Introduction – The impacts of periodontal health on prosthetic therapy – The impacts of prosthetic factors on periodontal/ peri-implant health – Biologic Width – Proximal Relationship – Restoration contours – The location of restorative margins – Trauma from occlusion – Gingiva retraction technique : the effects on soft tissue – Conclusion
  • 3. INTRODUCTION – Comprehensive dental therapy is founded on team works. Of all disciplines within modern dentistry, periodontics and prosthodontics have the strongest and the most intimate connections. – For prosthodontics, periodontal health plays an important role on the longevity of restorations. – On the other hand, defective prostheses may contribute to progression of periodontal diseases. – To achieve successful treatment outcomes, periodontists and prosthodontist should cooperate in treatment plan, performance and maintenance.
  • 5. The impacts of periodontal health on prosthetic therapy – The function and lifespan of the prosthesis will be compromised if periodontal diseases remain uncontrolled after prosthesis delivery. – In addition, periodontal inflammation results in soft tissue changes in terms of texture, color, size and gingival consistency. – It then leads to impaired esthetic outcomes by deteriorating the harmony between periodontium and prosthesis.
  • 6. – Thus, active periodontal diseases and contributing factors should be eliminated or controlled prior to prosthodontic constructions. – The signs of active periodontal inflammation include pocket formation, the presence of bleeding on probing or suppuration, and tissue changes of gingiva. – Without controlling the existing periodontal inflammation, a cascade of adverse events of periodontal destruction would take place and cause persistent inflammation, bone resorption and eventually tooth loss.
  • 7. – In addition to inflammation control, there should be soft and hard tissue management to prepare sites for successful prosthetic treatments. – Surgical procedures, such as ridge and bone augmentation as well as sinus lifting, could be performed for future implant sites to correct existing ridge deformities. – Mucogingival procedures may also benefit esthetic outcomes and oral health maintenance
  • 8. Regular periodontal maintenance is a key to reduce the incidence of tooth or implant loss following prosthetic therapy.
  • 9. – For those patients who had history of periodontitis, regular supportive periodontal therapy is even more beneficial to prevent further disease progression. – In other words, regular compliance of periodontal maintenance is the essence to prevent the recurrence of periodontal diseases and to maintain the integrity of treatment outcomes.
  • 10. The impacts of prosthetic factors on periodontal/ peri- implant health Prostheses should be carefully designed and performed, in harmony with the surrounding periodontium, to maintain periodontal/ peri- implant health.
  • 11. Defective restorations Accumulation of dental plaque and retention of food debris Periodontal inflammation
  • 13. Biologic width – The dimension of dentogingival complex, called "biologic width (BW)", is a cuff-like barrier that acts as a protective physiological seal around natural teeth. – It possesses a self restoration capacity and dynamic adaptability.
  • 14. – The compositions of BW include junctional epithelium and connective tissue attachment. – Mean distance of epithelial and connective tissue components are 0.97mm and 1.07mm, respectively.
  • 15. – The violation of BW jeopardizes periodontal health. – BW invading could result from several reasons, such as extensive caries, subgingival restorations, short clinical crown, and teeth fracture. – Resulting from the breach of BW, histologically, attachment loss will be found to reestablish the certain dentogingival junction around restorations and lead to periodontal destruction.
  • 16. – Clinically, the signs of BW violation consist of pain, gingival inflammation, localized gingival hyperplasia, pocket formation, and loss of periodontal apparatus. – Therefore, further corrective procedures should be considered prior to restorative treatments if any qualms about BW violation, including orthodontic extrusion and surgical crown lengthening procedures.
  • 17. Ramifications of a biologic width violation if a restorative margin is placed within the zone of the attachment. On the mesial surface of the left central incisor, bone has not been lost, but gingival inflammation occurs. On the distal surface of the left central incisor, bone loss has occurred, and a normal biologic width has been re-established.
  • 18. Proximal Relationship – Embrasure types, referring both horizontal and vertical dimensions of the interproximal spaces, show impacts on the presence of interproximal papilla. – Loss of interproximal papilla results in impaired esthetics and promotion of food impaction, aggravating periodontal destruction.
  • 19. – Contact types between prostheses may also play a role on periodontal health. – Sites with open contacts show more prevalence of food impaction and often present greater pocket depth and clinical attachment loss. – Food impaction contributes to increasing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. – Thus, clinicians should avoid to place open contacts between prostheses. – Thorough proximal cleaning should be addressed to patients.
  • 20. – The demands for implant-support prosthesis are more strict: a minimum of 3mm of inter-implant distance is suggested to maintain the alveolar crestal level, preventing the possible papillary loss; whereas papillary loss would be expected if the dimensions between two implants is more than 3mm.
  • 22. – Over contour may have negative influence on periodontium since it increases plaque retention. – Meanwhile, inadequate crown reduction for the restorative material should be avoided to prohibit the overcontoured crown.
  • 23. – Restorative overhang is also considered as a contributing factor of periodontal diseases as it may aggregate the plaque accumulation which potentiates gingival inflammation and worsen the periodontal status. – Removal of overhang may also result in reduction of pocket depth and clinical attachment gain. – Restorative overhang should be prevented by the proper uses of matrix bands and wedges.
  • 24. The location of restorative margins – Restorative margin locations should be established based on several factors, including extension of caries, retention/resistance forms, and esthetics. – Using free gingival margin as the references, the supra- and subgingival restorations have their own pros and cons. – With respect to periodontal health, the supragingival restoration is the most favorable design since it is easy to be cleaned.
  • 25.
  • 26. – In spite of better esthetics, subgingival restorations were associated with greater periodontal inflammation. – In addition to tissue biotype, subgingival restorative margins may be harmful to periodontium/ peri-implant tissues because of the following reasons. – First, the margin has higher risk of BW invasion, enhancing further periodontal destruction. – Limited access is another possible cause when restorative margins are placed subgingivally. – Furthermore, the efficacy of proper oral hygiene maintenances is questioned for extensively subgingival restorations.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. Trauma from occlusion – As a functional unit, the tooth and its supporting structures bear the brunt of occlusal forces on the crown. – In response to occlusal forces, the attachment apparatus may experience tissue changes, including injury, repair and adaptive remodeling of the periodontium. – Several factors are relative to trauma from occlusion (TFO) including occlusal disharmony, parafunction (i.e. clenching and bruxism), and occlusal schemes. – Clinicians should perform prosthetic treatments with caution to avoid failure following TFO.
  • 31. – As a result of excessive force or reduced periodontal supports, teeth under TFO or occlusal trauma showed following clinical characteristics: tooth pain, increasing tooth mobility, sensitivity to percussion, fremitus, occlusal wear and even tooth fracture. – Radiographic changes consist of PDL space widening, disruption of the lamina dura, root resorption and peri- apical or furcation radiolucency.
  • 32. – It may also aggravate the existing periodontal destruction as a co-destructive factor along with inflammation. – In the late stage, chronic TFO may cause tooth migration and loss of vertical dimension, enhancing impaired esthetics and the need of oral rehabilitation. – Occlusal overloading also causes biomechanical implant complications and marginal bone loss around dental implants.
  • 33. – Marginal bone resorption even under the circumstance of healthy peri-implant tissue. – In addition, the disease may not be reversed once it progressed. – Possible loss of osseointegration – Fracture of prosthetic components – Loosening of attachment or abutment screw. – Implant failure Biomechanical implant complications due traumatic occlusion
  • 34. Gingiva retraction technique : the effects on soft tissue – An acceptable impression is needed to avoid improper marginal adaptation that may cause periodontal tissue inflammation or the risk of recurrent caries. – Management of the gingival tissue is essential for obtaining acceptable impression especially for subgingivally located restorations. – Various gingival displacement methods, such as mechanical, chemico-mechanical and surgical are available.
  • 35. – Chemical agents as well as the mechanical force of retraction cords could trigger temporary gingival recession and gingival inflammation. – Hence, the proper manipulation of gingival retraction techniques such as materials and time-control are the key factors to avoid permanent tissue damage while impression-taking process is made.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. Conclusion – The relationship between prosthodontics and periodontics is intimate and inseparable. – Robust supporting periodontal/peri-implant tissues provide solid foundations for predictable prosthetic therapy. – In addition, regaining stable periodontal conditions should rely on establishment of proper contact types, occlusal scheme and quality prosthesis. – Both specialties share a common goal: to create pleasing esthetic with a harmonious stomatognathic system.