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Leadership - Early & Contemporary
Approaches to Leadership
Dr. G C Mohanta, BE, MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt)
Professor
Leaders
 Leaders are individuals who exert influence to help
meet group goals:
 Formal
 Informal
 Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader
actually does help
What is Leadership?
 The ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to
contribute to the effectiveness and success of the
organizations of which they are members.
 Robert House (2004)
 The ability to influence a group toward the
achievement of a vision or set of goals.
 Robbins & Judge (2008)
Early Approaches to
Leadership
 Trait Approach
 Behavioral Approach
 Job-Centered and Employee-Centered Approach
 Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Approach
 Path-Goal Approach
 Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach
 Leader-Member Exchange Approach
 Hersey and Blanchard Model
 Fiedler’s Contingency Approach
Trait Approach
 The trait approach seeks to identify
personal characteristics that effective
leaders possess.
Some Traits/Characteristics
of Effective Leader
 Intelligence
 Task-relevant
knowledge
 Dominance
 Self-confidence
 Drive
 Motivation
 Energy/activity levels
 Tolerance for stress
 Integrity and honesty
 Emotional maturity
 Cognitive ability
 Knowledge of the
business
 Charisma
Behavioral Approach
The behavior approach focuses
on the behaviors that effective
leaders engage in.
 Consideration behavior
 Initiating Structure behavior
 Leader Reward Behavior
 Leader Punishing Behavior
Consideration & Initiating-
structure Behavior
Consideration behavior – involves
being concerned with subordinates’
feelings & respecting subordinates’ ideas
Initiating-structure behavior –
involves clearly defining the leader-
subordinate roles so that subordinates
know what is expected of them
Job-Centered and Employee-
Centered Approach
 Leaders exhibiting job-centered behaviors:
 Pay close attention to the work of subordinates
 Explain all work procedures
 Are interested mainly in performance and effective
completion of the task
 Leaders exhibiting employee-centered behaviors:
 Pay close attention to the human aspects of the group
 Attempt to build effective work groups with high
performance goals
 Employee-centered leader behavior is more likely
to result in effective group performance than job-
centered leader behavior.
Least Preferred Coworker (LPC)
Approach
 Developed by Fred Fiedler, attempts to explain and
reconcile both the leader’s personality and the
complexities of the situation.
 Contends that a leader’s effectiveness depends on
the situation and, as a result, some leaders may be
effective in one situation or organization but not in
another.
Elements of LPC Approach
 Task Motivation Versus Relationship
Motivation
 Fiedler and his associates maintain that leadership
effectiveness depends on the match between the leader’s
personality and the situation.
 Fiedler also identified three factors that
determine the favorableness of the situation:
 Leader-member relations
 Task structure
 Leader position power
Path-Goal Approach
 Originated with expectancy theory of
motivation
 Paths = Employee expectancies
 Goals = Employee performance
 States that effective leaders ensure that
employees who perform their jobs well
receive more valued rewards than those
who perform poorly
Path-Goal Approach
Path-Goal Leadership Model
Employee
Contingencies
Environmental
Contingencies
Leader
Behaviors
• Directive
• Supportive
• Participative
• Achievement-
oriented
Leader
Effectiveness
• Employee
motivation
• Employee
satisfaction
• Acceptance
of leader
Path-Goal Leadership Styles
 Directive
 Provide psychological structure to jobs
 Task-oriented behaviors
 Supportive
 Provide psychological support
 People-oriented behaviors
 Participative
 Encourage/facilitate employee involvement
 Achievement-oriented
 Encourage peak performance through goal setting
and positive self-fulfilling prophecy
Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach
 The key component of this approach is
determining how much to involve
subordinates in making decisions.
 The approach requires that managers use
one of two different decision trees:
 Time-driven model (tree) – intended for use in
making an effective decision as quickly as
possible
 Development-driven model (tree) –used for
developing the decision-making skills of others
Vroom’s Decision Tree (continued)
 Situational Factors
 After choosing a tree, the leader assesses the
situation in terms of several factors to determine
whether the given factor is “high” or “low.”
 Factors include:
 Decision significance
 The importance & likelihood of commitment by
followers
 The leader and group’s expertise
 Group support
 Team competence
Vroom’s Decision Tree (continued)
Decision Styles and Subordinate
Participation
 Five decision styles are:
 Decide
 Delegate
 Consult (individually)
 Consult (group)
 Facilitate
 The model is a tool mangers can apply in
deciding how much subordinates should
participate in the decision-making process.
Leader-Member Exchange
Approach
 This model stresses that leaders develop
unique working relationships with each of
their subordinates.
 They establish a special relationship with a small
number of trusted subordinates referred to as the in-
group; subordinates who are not part of this group are
called the out-group.
 In-group usually receives special duties requiring
responsibility and autonomy; members may also receive
special privileges.
 In-group members have a higher level of performance
and satisfaction than out-group members.
Hersey and Blanchard Model
 The Hersey and Blanchard Model identifies
different combinations of leadership
presumed to work best with different levels
of organizational maturing on the part of
subordinates.
 As the maturity of the followers improves,
the leader’s leadership style can shift from a
“telling” style to a “selling” style and, finally,
to a “delegating” style.
Fiedler’s Contingency Approach
Leadership effectiveness determined by
 The characteristic of individuals
 The situations in which they find
themselves
Distinct leadership styles
 Relationship-oriented
 Task-oriented
Relationship-oriented &
Task-oriented
Relationship-oriented
 Wants to be liked by
and to get along well
with subordinates
 Getting job done is
second priority
Task-oriented
 Wants high
performance and
accomplishment of all
tasks
 Getting job done is
first priority
Contemporary Approaches
to Leadership
Transformational Leadership Approach
Transactional leadership Approach
Charismatic Leadership Approach
Level-5 Leadership Approach
Transformational Leadership
Approach
 A leadership perspective that explains how
leaders change teams or organizations by
creating, communicating, and modeling a
vision for the organization or work unit, and
inspiring employees to strive for that vision
 Inspire followers to transcend their own
self-interests for the good of the
organization
Transformational Leadership
Elements
1. Create a strategic vision
Depiction of company’s attractive future
 motivates and bonds employees
Leader champions the vision
2. Communicate the vision
Frame message around a grand purpose
Create a shared mental model of the future
Use symbols, metaphors
Transformational Leadership
Elements (contd.)
3. Model the vision
 Walk the talk
 Symbolize/demonstrate the vision through behavior
 Builds employee trust in the leader
4. Build commitment to the vision
 Increased through communicating and modeling the
vision
 Increased through employee involvement in shaping the
shared vision
Transactional Leadership
Approach
Transactional leaders
 Leaders who guide or motivate their followers
in the direction of established goals by
clarifying role and task requirements
 Managing & achieving current objectives
more efficiently
 link job performance to rewards
 ensure employees have necessary resources
Charismatic Leadership Approach
 A person who is dominant, self-confident,
convinced of the moral righteousness of his
beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement
and adventure in followers.
 Four characteristics of charismatic leaders
 Have a vision
 Are willing to take personal risks to achieve the vision
 Are sensitive to follower needs
 Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary
How Charismatic Leaders
Influence Followers
 A four-step process:
1. Leader articulates an attractive vision
 Vision Statement:
A formal, long-term strategy to attain goals
 Links past, present, and future
2. Leader communicates high performance expectations
and confidence in follower ability
3. Leader conveys a new set of values by setting an
example
4. Leader engages in emotion-inducing and often
unconventional behavior to demonstrate convictions
about the vision
Level-5 Leadership Approach
Level-5 Leader are very effective leaders
who possess four typical leadership traits:
 Individual competency
 Team skills
 Managerial competence
 Ability to stimulate others to high
performance
Plus a combination of strong
professional will (determination) and
humility that builds enduring greatness.

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Leadership, early & contemporary approaches to leadership

  • 1. Leadership - Early & Contemporary Approaches to Leadership Dr. G C Mohanta, BE, MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor
  • 2. Leaders  Leaders are individuals who exert influence to help meet group goals:  Formal  Informal  Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help
  • 3. What is Leadership?  The ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute to the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members.  Robert House (2004)  The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.  Robbins & Judge (2008)
  • 4. Early Approaches to Leadership  Trait Approach  Behavioral Approach  Job-Centered and Employee-Centered Approach  Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Approach  Path-Goal Approach  Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach  Leader-Member Exchange Approach  Hersey and Blanchard Model  Fiedler’s Contingency Approach
  • 5. Trait Approach  The trait approach seeks to identify personal characteristics that effective leaders possess.
  • 6. Some Traits/Characteristics of Effective Leader  Intelligence  Task-relevant knowledge  Dominance  Self-confidence  Drive  Motivation  Energy/activity levels  Tolerance for stress  Integrity and honesty  Emotional maturity  Cognitive ability  Knowledge of the business  Charisma
  • 7. Behavioral Approach The behavior approach focuses on the behaviors that effective leaders engage in.  Consideration behavior  Initiating Structure behavior  Leader Reward Behavior  Leader Punishing Behavior
  • 8. Consideration & Initiating- structure Behavior Consideration behavior – involves being concerned with subordinates’ feelings & respecting subordinates’ ideas Initiating-structure behavior – involves clearly defining the leader- subordinate roles so that subordinates know what is expected of them
  • 9. Job-Centered and Employee- Centered Approach  Leaders exhibiting job-centered behaviors:  Pay close attention to the work of subordinates  Explain all work procedures  Are interested mainly in performance and effective completion of the task  Leaders exhibiting employee-centered behaviors:  Pay close attention to the human aspects of the group  Attempt to build effective work groups with high performance goals  Employee-centered leader behavior is more likely to result in effective group performance than job- centered leader behavior.
  • 10. Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Approach  Developed by Fred Fiedler, attempts to explain and reconcile both the leader’s personality and the complexities of the situation.  Contends that a leader’s effectiveness depends on the situation and, as a result, some leaders may be effective in one situation or organization but not in another.
  • 11. Elements of LPC Approach  Task Motivation Versus Relationship Motivation  Fiedler and his associates maintain that leadership effectiveness depends on the match between the leader’s personality and the situation.  Fiedler also identified three factors that determine the favorableness of the situation:  Leader-member relations  Task structure  Leader position power
  • 12. Path-Goal Approach  Originated with expectancy theory of motivation  Paths = Employee expectancies  Goals = Employee performance  States that effective leaders ensure that employees who perform their jobs well receive more valued rewards than those who perform poorly
  • 14. Path-Goal Leadership Model Employee Contingencies Environmental Contingencies Leader Behaviors • Directive • Supportive • Participative • Achievement- oriented Leader Effectiveness • Employee motivation • Employee satisfaction • Acceptance of leader
  • 15. Path-Goal Leadership Styles  Directive  Provide psychological structure to jobs  Task-oriented behaviors  Supportive  Provide psychological support  People-oriented behaviors  Participative  Encourage/facilitate employee involvement  Achievement-oriented  Encourage peak performance through goal setting and positive self-fulfilling prophecy
  • 16. Vroom’s Decision Tree Approach  The key component of this approach is determining how much to involve subordinates in making decisions.  The approach requires that managers use one of two different decision trees:  Time-driven model (tree) – intended for use in making an effective decision as quickly as possible  Development-driven model (tree) –used for developing the decision-making skills of others
  • 17. Vroom’s Decision Tree (continued)  Situational Factors  After choosing a tree, the leader assesses the situation in terms of several factors to determine whether the given factor is “high” or “low.”  Factors include:  Decision significance  The importance & likelihood of commitment by followers  The leader and group’s expertise  Group support  Team competence
  • 18. Vroom’s Decision Tree (continued) Decision Styles and Subordinate Participation  Five decision styles are:  Decide  Delegate  Consult (individually)  Consult (group)  Facilitate  The model is a tool mangers can apply in deciding how much subordinates should participate in the decision-making process.
  • 19. Leader-Member Exchange Approach  This model stresses that leaders develop unique working relationships with each of their subordinates.  They establish a special relationship with a small number of trusted subordinates referred to as the in- group; subordinates who are not part of this group are called the out-group.  In-group usually receives special duties requiring responsibility and autonomy; members may also receive special privileges.  In-group members have a higher level of performance and satisfaction than out-group members.
  • 20. Hersey and Blanchard Model  The Hersey and Blanchard Model identifies different combinations of leadership presumed to work best with different levels of organizational maturing on the part of subordinates.  As the maturity of the followers improves, the leader’s leadership style can shift from a “telling” style to a “selling” style and, finally, to a “delegating” style.
  • 21. Fiedler’s Contingency Approach Leadership effectiveness determined by  The characteristic of individuals  The situations in which they find themselves Distinct leadership styles  Relationship-oriented  Task-oriented
  • 22. Relationship-oriented & Task-oriented Relationship-oriented  Wants to be liked by and to get along well with subordinates  Getting job done is second priority Task-oriented  Wants high performance and accomplishment of all tasks  Getting job done is first priority
  • 23. Contemporary Approaches to Leadership Transformational Leadership Approach Transactional leadership Approach Charismatic Leadership Approach Level-5 Leadership Approach
  • 24. Transformational Leadership Approach  A leadership perspective that explains how leaders change teams or organizations by creating, communicating, and modeling a vision for the organization or work unit, and inspiring employees to strive for that vision  Inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization
  • 25. Transformational Leadership Elements 1. Create a strategic vision Depiction of company’s attractive future  motivates and bonds employees Leader champions the vision 2. Communicate the vision Frame message around a grand purpose Create a shared mental model of the future Use symbols, metaphors
  • 26. Transformational Leadership Elements (contd.) 3. Model the vision  Walk the talk  Symbolize/demonstrate the vision through behavior  Builds employee trust in the leader 4. Build commitment to the vision  Increased through communicating and modeling the vision  Increased through employee involvement in shaping the shared vision
  • 27. Transactional Leadership Approach Transactional leaders  Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements  Managing & achieving current objectives more efficiently  link job performance to rewards  ensure employees have necessary resources
  • 28. Charismatic Leadership Approach  A person who is dominant, self-confident, convinced of the moral righteousness of his beliefs, and able to arouse a sense of excitement and adventure in followers.  Four characteristics of charismatic leaders  Have a vision  Are willing to take personal risks to achieve the vision  Are sensitive to follower needs  Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary
  • 29. How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers  A four-step process: 1. Leader articulates an attractive vision  Vision Statement: A formal, long-term strategy to attain goals  Links past, present, and future 2. Leader communicates high performance expectations and confidence in follower ability 3. Leader conveys a new set of values by setting an example 4. Leader engages in emotion-inducing and often unconventional behavior to demonstrate convictions about the vision
  • 30. Level-5 Leadership Approach Level-5 Leader are very effective leaders who possess four typical leadership traits:  Individual competency  Team skills  Managerial competence  Ability to stimulate others to high performance Plus a combination of strong professional will (determination) and humility that builds enduring greatness.