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Introduction to Poetry
Poetry  is the most misunderstood form of writing. It is also arguably the purest form of writing. Poetry is a sense of the beautiful; characterized by a love of beauty and expressing this through words. It is art. Like art it is very difficult to define because it is an expression of what the poet thinks and feels and may  take any form the poet chooses for this expression.  Poetry is not easily defined. Often it takes the form of verse, but not all poetry has this structure. Poetry is a creative use of words which, like all art, is intended to stir an emotion in the audience. Poetry generally has some structure that separates it from prose.
The basic unit of poetry is the  line . It serves the same function as the sentence in prose, although most poetry maintains the use of  grammar  within the structure of the poem. Most poems have a structure in which each line contains a set amount of  syllables ; this is called  meter . Lines are also often grouped into  stanzas .  The  stanza  in poetry is equivalent or equal to the paragraph in prose. Often the  lines  in a stanza will have a specific  rhyme scheme . Some of the more common stanzas are:  Couplet: a two line stanza  Triplet: a three line stanza  Quatrain: a four line stanza  Cinquain: a five line stanza
Meter is the  measured  arrangement of words in poetry, the rhythmic  pattern   of a stanza , determined by the kind and number of  lines .  Meter is an organized way to arrange stressed/accented  syllables  and unstressed/unaccented  syllables .  Who se  wood s /  thes e  ar e /  I  think / I  know
Rhyme  is when the  endings  of the words sound the same.  Read the poem with me out loud. Dust of Snow  by Robert Frost The way a  crow Shook down on  me The dust of  snow From a hemlock  tree Has given my  heart A change of  mood And save some  part Of a day I had  rued.
Rhyme scheme is the pattern of  rhyming  words at the end of each  line .  Not all poetry has a  rhyme scheme .  They are not hard to identify, but you must look carefully at which words  rhyme  and which do not. Dust of Snow  by Robert Frost The way a  crow Shook down on  me The dust of  snow From a hemlock  tree Has given my  heart A change of  mood And save some  part Of a day I had  rued. A B A B C D C D Poems of more than  one  stanza often repeat the  same  rhyme scheme in each  stanza .
Repetition is the  repeating  of a sound, word, or phrase for  emphasis .   Inside Inside the house  (I get ready) Inside the car  (I go to school) Inside the school (I wait for the bell to ring) ☺ ☺ ☺
Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using  figurative language . Figurative language is any language that goes beyond the  literal  meaning of words in order to furnish  new effects  or  fresh insights  into an idea or a subject. The most common figures of speech are  simile ,  metaphor , and  alliteration .  Figurative language is used in poetry to compare two things that are usually  not thought  of as  being alike .   
A  simile  is a figure of speech in which  two  essentially  unlike  things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by  like  or  as . The  clouds  looked  like  cotton candy . Grandpa  was  as   stubborn  as a   mule Tom's  head  is  as   hard  as a   rock .
A  metaphor  is a figure of speech in which an  implied  comparison is made between two  unlike  things that actually have something  important in common .    Clouds  are  cotton candy.   Grandpa  was  a mule.   Tom  is  a rock.  They are fluffy. They are stubborn. They are hard.
Alliteration is the repetition of the  same  sounds or of the  same  kinds of sounds at the  beginning  of words or in stressed syllables, as in  "on scrolls of silver snowy sentences"   (Hart Crane).  Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal. To find an alliteration, you must look the repetitions of the  same consonant sound through out a line . Silvery snowflakes fall silently Softly sheathing all with moonlight Until sunrise slowly shows Snow softening swiftly . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Now you try the one in your packet.
Imagery  is an appeal to the  senses . The poet describes something to help you to  see ,  hear ,  touch ,  taste , or  smell  the topic of the poem.  Fog The fog comes on little cat feet.  It sits looking over harbor and city  on silent haunches and then moves on.    Carl Sandburg  SEE, HEAR SEE HEAR, SEE, FEEL Now do the poem in your packet.
An  exaggerated  statement used to heighten effect is a hyperbole. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to  emphasize a point.   I’ve told you a million times not to leave the dirty glass on the table . The exaggeration in the number of times. In your packets, write two more hyperbole.  Have your partner check them.
An  idiom  is a phrase where the words together have a meaning that is  different  from the dictionary  definitions  of the  individual words.  This can make idioms hard for students to understand. A day late and a dollar short.   This idiom means   it is too little, too late.   Write two more examples of idioms to share with the class.
The formation or use of words such as  buzz  or  murmur  that  imitate  the  sounds  associated with the objects or actions they refer to is called an  alliteration .  It is a word or a grouping of words that  imitates   the sound  it is  describing , such as animal noises like "oink" or "meow", or suggesting its source object (these are the more important ones), such as "boom", "click", "bunk", "clang", "buzz", or "bang".
SOUND OF NATURE   by Marie Josephine Smith    Ticking, tocking. Head is rocking. Tippy toeing.   Quietly. Snap, crack. Crushing branch. Helter, skelter. Run for shelter. Pitter, patter. Rain starts to fall. Gathering momentum. Becomes a roar. Thunder booms. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
A figure of speech, which gives the  qualities  of a  person  to an animal, an object, or an idea is called  personification . It is a  comparison , which the author uses to show something in an entirely  new light , to communicate a certain  feeling or attitude  towards it and to control the way a  reader perceives  it.  A brave handsome tree fell with a creaking rending cry.  The author is giving a tree the human quality of  bravery  and the ability  ot cry.
Free verse  is just what it says it is - poetry that is written  without  proper rules about form, rhyme, rhythm, and meter.  In free verse the writer makes his/her own  rules . The writer decides how the poem should  look ,  feel , and  sound .
Winter Poem By  Nikki Giovanni once a snowflake fell on my brow and i loved it so much and i kissed it and it was happy and called its cousins and brothers and a web of snow engulfed me then i reached to love them all and i squeezed them and they became a spring rain and i stood perfectly still and was a flower
Haiku  is one of the most important forms of traditional  Japanese  poetry. Haiku is, today, a  17-syllable  verse form consisting of three metered lines of  5 ,  7 , and  5 syllables .  Each Haiku must contain a  kigo , a  season  word, which indicate in which season the Haiku is set. For example, cherry blossoms indicate  spring , snow indicate  winter , and mosquitoes indicate  summer , but the season word isn't always that obvious. In the next three haikus, try to guess the theme.
Fog On the mountain top The fog fell down thick and fast It was like pea soup. Rain Tip-tap goes the rain. As it hits the window pane I can hear the rain.   Hail They fell in showers. Like diamonds upon the ground Big hailstones were found. Haikus By Paul McCann   The theme of these three poems is  weather in late autumn or early winter.
The simplicity of the  limerick  quite possibly accounts for its extreme longevity. It consists of  five  lines with the rhyme scheme  a a b b a . The  first ,  second , and  fifth  lines are trimeter, a verse with three measures, while the  third  and  fourth  lines are dimeter, a verse with two measures. Often the third and fourth lines are printed as a single line with internal rhyme. Old Man with a Beard Edward Lear  There was an Old Man with a beard, Who said, 'It is just as I feared! Two Owls and a Hen,  Four Larks and a Wren,  Have all built their nests in my beard!'  A A B B A
A  narrative  poem, often of folk origin and intended to be  sung , consisting of simple  stanzas  and usually having a  refrain . The Ballade Of The Mistletoe Bough  by Ellis Parker Butler   I am standing under the mistletoe, And I smile, but no answering smile replies For her haughty glance bids me plainly know That not for me is the thing I prize; Instead, from her coldly scornful eyes, Indifference looks on my barefaced guile; She knows, of course, what my act implies— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile?
I stand here, eager, and beam and glow, And she only looks a refined surprise As clear and crisp and as cold as snow, And as—Stop! I will never criticize! I know what her cold glance signifies; But I’ll stand just here as I am awhile Till a smile to my pleading look replies— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile? Just look at those lips, now! I claim they show A spirit unmeet under Christmas skies; I claim that such lips on such maidens owe A—something—the custom justifies; I claim that the mistletoe rule applies To her as well as the rank and file; We should meet these things in a cheerful guise— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile?
Some might consider the study of poetry old fashioned, yet even in our hurried lives we are surrounded by it: children's rhymes, verses from songs, trite commercial jingles, well written texts. Any time we recognize words as interesting for sound, meaning or construct, we note poetics.

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Introduction to-poetry

  • 2. Poetry is the most misunderstood form of writing. It is also arguably the purest form of writing. Poetry is a sense of the beautiful; characterized by a love of beauty and expressing this through words. It is art. Like art it is very difficult to define because it is an expression of what the poet thinks and feels and may take any form the poet chooses for this expression. Poetry is not easily defined. Often it takes the form of verse, but not all poetry has this structure. Poetry is a creative use of words which, like all art, is intended to stir an emotion in the audience. Poetry generally has some structure that separates it from prose.
  • 3. The basic unit of poetry is the line . It serves the same function as the sentence in prose, although most poetry maintains the use of grammar within the structure of the poem. Most poems have a structure in which each line contains a set amount of syllables ; this is called meter . Lines are also often grouped into stanzas . The stanza in poetry is equivalent or equal to the paragraph in prose. Often the lines in a stanza will have a specific rhyme scheme . Some of the more common stanzas are: Couplet: a two line stanza Triplet: a three line stanza Quatrain: a four line stanza Cinquain: a five line stanza
  • 4. Meter is the measured arrangement of words in poetry, the rhythmic pattern of a stanza , determined by the kind and number of lines . Meter is an organized way to arrange stressed/accented syllables and unstressed/unaccented syllables . Who se wood s / thes e ar e / I think / I know
  • 5. Rhyme is when the endings of the words sound the same. Read the poem with me out loud. Dust of Snow by Robert Frost The way a crow Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree Has given my heart A change of mood And save some part Of a day I had rued.
  • 6. Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming words at the end of each line . Not all poetry has a rhyme scheme . They are not hard to identify, but you must look carefully at which words rhyme and which do not. Dust of Snow by Robert Frost The way a crow Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree Has given my heart A change of mood And save some part Of a day I had rued. A B A B C D C D Poems of more than one stanza often repeat the same rhyme scheme in each stanza .
  • 7. Repetition is the repeating of a sound, word, or phrase for emphasis . Inside Inside the house (I get ready) Inside the car (I go to school) Inside the school (I wait for the bell to ring) ☺ ☺ ☺
  • 8. Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language . Figurative language is any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. The most common figures of speech are simile , metaphor , and alliteration . Figurative language is used in poetry to compare two things that are usually not thought of as being alike .  
  • 9. A simile is a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as . The clouds looked like cotton candy . Grandpa was as stubborn as a mule Tom's head is as hard as a rock .
  • 10. A metaphor is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something important in common .   Clouds are cotton candy. Grandpa was a mule. Tom is a rock. They are fluffy. They are stubborn. They are hard.
  • 11. Alliteration is the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables, as in "on scrolls of silver snowy sentences" (Hart Crane). Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal. To find an alliteration, you must look the repetitions of the same consonant sound through out a line . Silvery snowflakes fall silently Softly sheathing all with moonlight Until sunrise slowly shows Snow softening swiftly . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Now you try the one in your packet.
  • 12. Imagery is an appeal to the senses . The poet describes something to help you to see , hear , touch , taste , or smell the topic of the poem. Fog The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on.   Carl Sandburg SEE, HEAR SEE HEAR, SEE, FEEL Now do the poem in your packet.
  • 13. An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect is a hyperbole. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point. I’ve told you a million times not to leave the dirty glass on the table . The exaggeration in the number of times. In your packets, write two more hyperbole. Have your partner check them.
  • 14. An idiom is a phrase where the words together have a meaning that is different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. This can make idioms hard for students to understand. A day late and a dollar short.   This idiom means it is too little, too late. Write two more examples of idioms to share with the class.
  • 15. The formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to is called an alliteration . It is a word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing , such as animal noises like "oink" or "meow", or suggesting its source object (these are the more important ones), such as "boom", "click", "bunk", "clang", "buzz", or "bang".
  • 16. SOUND OF NATURE by Marie Josephine Smith Ticking, tocking. Head is rocking. Tippy toeing. Quietly. Snap, crack. Crushing branch. Helter, skelter. Run for shelter. Pitter, patter. Rain starts to fall. Gathering momentum. Becomes a roar. Thunder booms. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
  • 17. A figure of speech, which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea is called personification . It is a comparison , which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light , to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it. A brave handsome tree fell with a creaking rending cry. The author is giving a tree the human quality of bravery and the ability ot cry.
  • 18. Free verse is just what it says it is - poetry that is written without proper rules about form, rhyme, rhythm, and meter. In free verse the writer makes his/her own rules . The writer decides how the poem should look , feel , and sound .
  • 19. Winter Poem By Nikki Giovanni once a snowflake fell on my brow and i loved it so much and i kissed it and it was happy and called its cousins and brothers and a web of snow engulfed me then i reached to love them all and i squeezed them and they became a spring rain and i stood perfectly still and was a flower
  • 20. Haiku is one of the most important forms of traditional Japanese poetry. Haiku is, today, a 17-syllable verse form consisting of three metered lines of 5 , 7 , and 5 syllables . Each Haiku must contain a kigo , a season word, which indicate in which season the Haiku is set. For example, cherry blossoms indicate spring , snow indicate winter , and mosquitoes indicate summer , but the season word isn't always that obvious. In the next three haikus, try to guess the theme.
  • 21. Fog On the mountain top The fog fell down thick and fast It was like pea soup. Rain Tip-tap goes the rain. As it hits the window pane I can hear the rain.   Hail They fell in showers. Like diamonds upon the ground Big hailstones were found. Haikus By Paul McCann   The theme of these three poems is weather in late autumn or early winter.
  • 22. The simplicity of the limerick quite possibly accounts for its extreme longevity. It consists of five lines with the rhyme scheme a a b b a . The first , second , and fifth lines are trimeter, a verse with three measures, while the third and fourth lines are dimeter, a verse with two measures. Often the third and fourth lines are printed as a single line with internal rhyme. Old Man with a Beard Edward Lear There was an Old Man with a beard, Who said, 'It is just as I feared! Two Owls and a Hen, Four Larks and a Wren, Have all built their nests in my beard!' A A B B A
  • 23. A narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung , consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain . The Ballade Of The Mistletoe Bough by Ellis Parker Butler I am standing under the mistletoe, And I smile, but no answering smile replies For her haughty glance bids me plainly know That not for me is the thing I prize; Instead, from her coldly scornful eyes, Indifference looks on my barefaced guile; She knows, of course, what my act implies— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile?
  • 24. I stand here, eager, and beam and glow, And she only looks a refined surprise As clear and crisp and as cold as snow, And as—Stop! I will never criticize! I know what her cold glance signifies; But I’ll stand just here as I am awhile Till a smile to my pleading look replies— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile? Just look at those lips, now! I claim they show A spirit unmeet under Christmas skies; I claim that such lips on such maidens owe A—something—the custom justifies; I claim that the mistletoe rule applies To her as well as the rank and file; We should meet these things in a cheerful guise— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile?
  • 25. Some might consider the study of poetry old fashioned, yet even in our hurried lives we are surrounded by it: children's rhymes, verses from songs, trite commercial jingles, well written texts. Any time we recognize words as interesting for sound, meaning or construct, we note poetics.