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Internet and WWW
   The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible
    series of interconnected computer networks that
    transmit data by packet switching using the standard
    internet protocol (IP).

   It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions
    of smaller domestic, academic, business, and
    government networks, which together carry various
    information and services, such as electronic
    mail,online chat,file transfer, and the interlinked web
    pages and other resources of the World Wide
    Web(WWW).
INTERNET ARCHITECTURE
   History
   Growth
   today
History
    Sputnik
   United States to create the Advanced Research Projects
    Agency, known as ARPA, in 1958
   British Post Office, Telenet, DATAPAC and TRANSPAC
    collaborated in 1981
   TCP/IP in 1983
   1985 NSF commissioned 56kb/sec n/w backbone using
    Fuzzballs followed by commission of 1.5 megabit/second
    backbone called NSFnet
   1988 opening the network for commercial interest.The US
    Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the
    NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the
    link was made in the summer of 1989. Other commercial
    electronic e-mail services were soon connected, including
    OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve. In that same year, three
    commercial Internet Service Providers were created: UUNET,
    PSINET,CERFNET
   Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then
    later merged with, the Internet include Usenet and Bitnet
   Various other commercial and educational networks, such as
   Telenet,
     Tymnet Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the
    growing Internet.
     Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded
    national computer network with free dial up access in cities
    throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s.
    This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the
    1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular
   The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any pre-existing
    communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth,
GROWTH
    World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by English scientist
    Tim Berners-Lee in 1989
   An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, based upon HyperCard.
    It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser.
    In 1993, theNational Center for Supercomputing Applications at the
    University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994
    there was growing public interest in the previously academic, technical
    Internet.
   By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and
    consequently, so had its misuse as a reference to the World Wide Web

   Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully
    accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer
    networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained
    separate). During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by
    100% per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997
Todays Internet
   Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its
    infrastructure,
   the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial
    contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical
    specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data
    over the network. Indeed, the Internet is essentially defined by its
    interconnections and routing policies.
   Review, philosopher N.J. Slabbert, a writer on policy issues for
    the Washington,D.C. –based Urban Land Institute, has asserted
    that the Internet is fast becoming a basic feature of global
    civilization, so that what has traditionally been called “civil
    society” is now becoming identical with information technology
    society as defined by Internet use.
Summary of
                Stages in development of internet
   Innovation (1961-1974)
       The concept of packet switiching
       The first “killer app”of internet is born
       Invention of client server computing
       TCP/IP is invented
   Instituitionalization (1975- 1995)
       TCP/IP adopted as DoD standard
       Personal computers invented
       Domain Name server introduced (DNS )
       www is born
       NSFNET created
   Commercialization(1995 onwards)
       Fully commercial internet is born.
       Netwoks as AT&T,Sprint,UUNet,MCI take over operations of backbone
       Ecommerce begins with pur online retail stores and auctions
WWW
   The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a
    system of interlinked hyertext documents accessed via the
    internet. With a Web browser, a user views Web pages that may
    contain text, images,videos, and other multimedia and navigates
    between them using hyperlinks.
   The World Wide Web was created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-
    Lee, working at CERNin Geneva, Switzerland. Since then,
    Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the
    development of Web standards (such as the markup languages
    in which Web pages are composed), and in recent years has
    advocated his vision of a Semantic web. Robert Cailliau, also at
    CERN, was an early evangelist for the project.
Working of WWW
   Typing of URL in web browser or using hyperlink
   Resolving of IP address Using DNS
   HTTP request sent to the web server,html page
    requested first ,parsed and then additional req is
    sent for images and other files.
   browser then renders the page onto the screen as
    specified by its HTML, CSS and other Web
    languages. Any images and other resources are
    incorporated to produce the on-screen Web page
    that the user sees.
Internet protocol suite
Internet Protocol Suite
    Different internet access methods
ACCESS METHOD MAXIMUM DATA
              RATE
Telephone modem                      56kbps


Ethernet (local area n/w)            10/100mbps

ISDN                                 112-128 KBPS

Cable modem                          30 Mbps (theoretical)
                                     1.5 Mbps(practical)

Asymmetric digital subscriber line   1.5-9Mbps(network to users)
(ASDL)                               16-640kbps(users to network)


Wireless local area network          1-2 Mbps
Internet service provider ISP

   An Internet service provider (abbr. ISP, also called
    Internet access provider or IAP) is a business or
    organization that provides consumers or businesses
    access to the internet and related services. I
   In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone
    companies.
   Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual
    or group with sufficient money and expertise.
    In addition to Internet access via various technologies
    such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a
    combination of services including Internet, domain
    name registration and hosting, web hosting etc
Internet Governing Bodies

   IAB-Internet Architecture Board
   ICANN –Internet Corporation for assigned
    name and numbers
   IEGS-Internet Engineering Steering group
   IETF-Internet Engineering task force
   W3C-World Wide Web consortium
Governing Bodies in India
   IAMAI- Internet and mobile Association of
    India
   ISPAI- Internet service provider Association
    of India
   IOAI –Internet and online Association of India
NETWORK TOPOLOGY

In computer networking, topology refers to the
layout of connected devices
   bus
   ring
   star
   tree
   mesh
Bus
   Bus networks use a common backbone to connect all devices. A
    single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication
    medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector.
    A device wanting to communicate with another device on the
    network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other
    devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and
    processes the message. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy
    to install and don't require much cabling compared to the
    alternatives. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both
    were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago for bus
    topologies. However, bus networks work best with a limited number
    of devices. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a
    network bus, performance problems will likely result. In addition, if
    the backbone cable fails, the entire network effectively becomes
    unusable.
Ring
Ring
   In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for
                                     ]
    communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the
    same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in
    any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire
    network.

   To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or
    Token Ring technology. Ring topologies are found in some office
    buildings or school campuses.
Star
   Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features
    a central connection point called a "hub node" that may be a
    network hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub
    with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Compared to the bus
    topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure
    in any star network cable will only take down one computer's
    network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however,
    the entire network also fails.)
Tree
   Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies
    together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub
    devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub
    functions as the root of a tree of devices. This bus/star
    hybrid approach supports future expandability of the
    network much better than a bus (limited in the number of
    devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a
    star (limited by the number of hub connection points)
    alone.
Mesh
   Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the
    previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take
    any of several possible paths from source to destination. Some
    WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing.

   A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is
    called a full mesh. As shown in the illustration below, partial mesh
    networks also exist in which some devices connect only indirectly to
    others.
Mesh

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Internet and www

  • 2. The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard internet protocol (IP).  It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail,online chat,file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web(WWW).
  • 4. History  Growth  today
  • 5.
  • 6. History  Sputnik  United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in 1958  British Post Office, Telenet, DATAPAC and TRANSPAC collaborated in 1981  TCP/IP in 1983  1985 NSF commissioned 56kb/sec n/w backbone using Fuzzballs followed by commission of 1.5 megabit/second backbone called NSFnet  1988 opening the network for commercial interest.The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of 1989. Other commercial electronic e-mail services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve. In that same year, three commercial Internet Service Providers were created: UUNET, PSINET,CERFNET
  • 7. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the Internet include Usenet and Bitnet  Various other commercial and educational networks, such as  Telenet, Tymnet Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded national computer network with free dial up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular  The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth,
  • 8. GROWTH  World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989  An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, based upon HyperCard. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser.  In 1993, theNational Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic, technical Internet.  By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its misuse as a reference to the World Wide Web  Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100% per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and 1997
  • 9. Todays Internet  Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure,  the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is essentially defined by its interconnections and routing policies.  Review, philosopher N.J. Slabbert, a writer on policy issues for the Washington,D.C. –based Urban Land Institute, has asserted that the Internet is fast becoming a basic feature of global civilization, so that what has traditionally been called “civil society” is now becoming identical with information technology society as defined by Internet use.
  • 10. Summary of Stages in development of internet  Innovation (1961-1974)  The concept of packet switiching  The first “killer app”of internet is born  Invention of client server computing  TCP/IP is invented  Instituitionalization (1975- 1995)  TCP/IP adopted as DoD standard  Personal computers invented  Domain Name server introduced (DNS )  www is born  NSFNET created  Commercialization(1995 onwards)  Fully commercial internet is born.  Netwoks as AT&T,Sprint,UUNet,MCI take over operations of backbone  Ecommerce begins with pur online retail stores and auctions
  • 11. WWW  The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hyertext documents accessed via the internet. With a Web browser, a user views Web pages that may contain text, images,videos, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks.  The World Wide Web was created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners- Lee, working at CERNin Geneva, Switzerland. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of Web standards (such as the markup languages in which Web pages are composed), and in recent years has advocated his vision of a Semantic web. Robert Cailliau, also at CERN, was an early evangelist for the project.
  • 12. Working of WWW  Typing of URL in web browser or using hyperlink  Resolving of IP address Using DNS  HTTP request sent to the web server,html page requested first ,parsed and then additional req is sent for images and other files.  browser then renders the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML, CSS and other Web languages. Any images and other resources are incorporated to produce the on-screen Web page that the user sees.
  • 15. Different internet access methods ACCESS METHOD MAXIMUM DATA RATE Telephone modem 56kbps Ethernet (local area n/w) 10/100mbps ISDN 112-128 KBPS Cable modem 30 Mbps (theoretical) 1.5 Mbps(practical) Asymmetric digital subscriber line 1.5-9Mbps(network to users) (ASDL) 16-640kbps(users to network) Wireless local area network 1-2 Mbps
  • 16. Internet service provider ISP  An Internet service provider (abbr. ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a business or organization that provides consumers or businesses access to the internet and related services. I  In the past, most ISPs were run by the phone companies.  Now, ISPs can be started by just about any individual or group with sufficient money and expertise.  In addition to Internet access via various technologies such as dial-up and DSL, they may provide a combination of services including Internet, domain name registration and hosting, web hosting etc
  • 17.
  • 18. Internet Governing Bodies  IAB-Internet Architecture Board  ICANN –Internet Corporation for assigned name and numbers  IEGS-Internet Engineering Steering group  IETF-Internet Engineering task force  W3C-World Wide Web consortium
  • 19. Governing Bodies in India  IAMAI- Internet and mobile Association of India  ISPAI- Internet service provider Association of India  IOAI –Internet and online Association of India
  • 20. NETWORK TOPOLOGY In computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected devices
  • 21. bus  ring  star  tree  mesh
  • 22. Bus
  • 23. Bus networks use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago for bus topologies. However, bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a network bus, performance problems will likely result. In addition, if the backbone cable fails, the entire network effectively becomes unusable.
  • 24. Ring
  • 25. Ring  In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for ] communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network.  To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or Token Ring technology. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.
  • 26. Star  Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub node" that may be a network hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails.)
  • 27.
  • 28. Tree  Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the root of a tree of devices. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.
  • 29.
  • 30. Mesh  Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. Some WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing.  A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. As shown in the illustration below, partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices connect only indirectly to others.
  • 31. Mesh