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Assignment on Intellectual Property
Name: Mohammad Salim Hosen
ID: 162-15-1044
Section: PC-A
Course Code: CSE 498
Intellectual Property
IP and Changing Technology
Intellectual Property relates to intangible creative work that is
protected for the creator's use under the law as a patent, copyright,
trademark, or trade secret.
Four types of protection:
◦ Copyright: the right to copy a work
◦ Patent: the right to use/recreate/manufacture an invention
◦ Trademark: the right to use a word, phrase, sound
◦ Trade secret: you don’t tell anybody, nobody should know
IP and Changing Technology
Problems for IP owners with newly available IT:
◦ High-quality copying
◦ High-quantity distribution
◦ Faster / easier copying
◦ Less expensive
Copyright
Copyright is the right to copy a work. Copyright protection is
available for original works of authorship that are fixed in a tangible
form weather published or unpublished.
Copyright owners have the exclusive right to:
– Make copies of the work
– Produce derivative works
– Distribute copies
– Perform the work in public
– Display the work in public
Examples of copyrighted work
• Literary works
– books, pamphlets, poems
– other works consisting of text
– computer programs (!)
• Dramatic works
– films, videos, plays, screenplays, scripts
• Music works
– Compositions (words & music, or music only)
• Artistic works
– Paintings, drawings, maps, photographs, sculptures,
architectural works
Copyright vs. Patent
• Copyright:
– Protects works that owe their origin to the expressive efforts of
an individual.
– Key is that if the work is “original” (i.e., created independently) then it can be
“copyrighted”.
• Even if there is a closely similar work in existence.
– Copyright owner has rights only against those who use their
work without permission (i.e., defense against plagiarism).
• Patents:
– Protect the discoveries of inventors.
– For as long as patent lasts, holder has a monopoly right.
– This right prevents anyone from producing implementations of
their invention, even if same discovery was made independently.
Fair Use
For some uses of copyright work, permission is not required. Allows uses
of copyright material contributing to the creation of new work
In its most general sense, a fair use is any copying of copyrighted material
done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment
upon, criticize, or parody a copyrighted work. Such uses can be done
without permission from the copyright owner. In other words, fair use is a
defense against a claim of copyright infringement. If your use qualifies as a
fair use, then it would not be considered an infringement.
Fair use Example
• It is legal to:
– Lend a commercial CD to a friend, give him a blank CD-R, let him use your computer,
and help him burn the CD-R which he can keep for private use.
– Copy a commercial CD, keep the copy, and give your friend the original.
• BUT, you cannot legally make the copy yourself and give your
friend the copy.
Solutions to IT's impact on copyright
• There are three groups of solutions
– Technological
– Markets and Management
– Regulations and Enforcement
• Technological
– Expiration date encoded.
– Hardware dongle required.
– “Activation” features.
– Digital-rights management (DRM) – encryption and other schemes
Can prevent saving, printing, making more than N copies, distribution, extracting excerpts, ffw
over commercials
Solutions to IT's impact on copyright
• Markets and Management
– Subscribe to services
– Collect fees from users and large organizations.
– Meter usage of copyrighted material on a network.
– Offer discounts to educational users.
– Educate the public about the value of copyrighted material produced by creators and
publishers.
• Regulations and Enforcement
– US: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and other laws.
– Canada: Will there be a Canadian DMCA?
– Enforce current laws and punish abusers.
Free Software
• Notion of “free software” has been advocated by Richard Stallman
– “Free” means “free from certain copyright restrictions”
• Examples:
– GNU project
– Emacs
– “free” compilers and utilities
– Linux
– Apache webserver tools
– GNOME
Patents
• Q: Should software be Copyrighted or Patented?
• Copyrights:
– Protect the expression of an idea in a fixed or tangible form.
– Are cheap, easy to obtain, and last a long time.
– Allow fair dealing of the intellectual property.
• Patents:
– Protect new, non-obvious, and useful processes.
– Are expensive, difficult to obtain, and last for short periods of time (20 years in
Canada & USA)
– Allow licensing to other developers
Copyright & software forms
• Recall that software can take several forms:
– source code
– object code
– microcode (i.e., within processors)
• Each of these can be copyrighted
– For instance, copyrighting object code deals with software piracy.
• But what happens if:
– The copyrighted source code is in C
– yet someone rewrites it into Java?
– Is copyright infringed?
• US Courts have drawn no distinction between source and object
code
– Sculpture analogy: doesn’t matter if sculpture is in bronze or in marble
Copyright & software forms
• But what about software versus hardware?
• Software is copyrightable
– Yet we know that the same software could be turned into hardware
– and hardware falls under the purview of patent.
– (Note: the hardwired version could not be copyrighted.)
• Is software patentable?
– 1970s: US Supreme Court initially ruled software as unpatentable
• That is: algorithms were deemed to constitute abstract ideas or
methods
• This placed software outside of patentable subject matter
Patents
• Possible patentable material:
– machines
– industrial processes
– compositions of matter
– articles of manufacture that are novel, useful, and non-obvious
• Patents are obtained in many jurisdiction by submitting an
application to a Patent Office
– US: Patent and Trademark Office (PTO)
– Canada: Patent Office
• Patent must describe:
– how to make the claimed invention
– how to use it
– claims delineating the inventions covered by the patent
Free software & Open Source Licenses
• Berkeley software distribution license (BSD)
– Code is free & can be modified, but must
include a copyright notice
• Gnu public license (GPL)
– New works made from software under the GPL must also be released under the GPL
and have source code available (=“copyleft”)
THANK YOU

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Intellectual property

  • 1. Assignment on Intellectual Property Name: Mohammad Salim Hosen ID: 162-15-1044 Section: PC-A Course Code: CSE 498
  • 3. IP and Changing Technology Intellectual Property relates to intangible creative work that is protected for the creator's use under the law as a patent, copyright, trademark, or trade secret. Four types of protection: ◦ Copyright: the right to copy a work ◦ Patent: the right to use/recreate/manufacture an invention ◦ Trademark: the right to use a word, phrase, sound ◦ Trade secret: you don’t tell anybody, nobody should know
  • 4. IP and Changing Technology Problems for IP owners with newly available IT: ◦ High-quality copying ◦ High-quantity distribution ◦ Faster / easier copying ◦ Less expensive
  • 5. Copyright Copyright is the right to copy a work. Copyright protection is available for original works of authorship that are fixed in a tangible form weather published or unpublished. Copyright owners have the exclusive right to: – Make copies of the work – Produce derivative works – Distribute copies – Perform the work in public – Display the work in public
  • 6. Examples of copyrighted work • Literary works – books, pamphlets, poems – other works consisting of text – computer programs (!) • Dramatic works – films, videos, plays, screenplays, scripts • Music works – Compositions (words & music, or music only) • Artistic works – Paintings, drawings, maps, photographs, sculptures, architectural works
  • 7. Copyright vs. Patent • Copyright: – Protects works that owe their origin to the expressive efforts of an individual. – Key is that if the work is “original” (i.e., created independently) then it can be “copyrighted”. • Even if there is a closely similar work in existence. – Copyright owner has rights only against those who use their work without permission (i.e., defense against plagiarism). • Patents: – Protect the discoveries of inventors. – For as long as patent lasts, holder has a monopoly right. – This right prevents anyone from producing implementations of their invention, even if same discovery was made independently.
  • 8. Fair Use For some uses of copyright work, permission is not required. Allows uses of copyright material contributing to the creation of new work In its most general sense, a fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon, criticize, or parody a copyrighted work. Such uses can be done without permission from the copyright owner. In other words, fair use is a defense against a claim of copyright infringement. If your use qualifies as a fair use, then it would not be considered an infringement.
  • 9. Fair use Example • It is legal to: – Lend a commercial CD to a friend, give him a blank CD-R, let him use your computer, and help him burn the CD-R which he can keep for private use. – Copy a commercial CD, keep the copy, and give your friend the original. • BUT, you cannot legally make the copy yourself and give your friend the copy.
  • 10. Solutions to IT's impact on copyright • There are three groups of solutions – Technological – Markets and Management – Regulations and Enforcement • Technological – Expiration date encoded. – Hardware dongle required. – “Activation” features. – Digital-rights management (DRM) – encryption and other schemes Can prevent saving, printing, making more than N copies, distribution, extracting excerpts, ffw over commercials
  • 11. Solutions to IT's impact on copyright • Markets and Management – Subscribe to services – Collect fees from users and large organizations. – Meter usage of copyrighted material on a network. – Offer discounts to educational users. – Educate the public about the value of copyrighted material produced by creators and publishers. • Regulations and Enforcement – US: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and other laws. – Canada: Will there be a Canadian DMCA? – Enforce current laws and punish abusers.
  • 12. Free Software • Notion of “free software” has been advocated by Richard Stallman – “Free” means “free from certain copyright restrictions” • Examples: – GNU project – Emacs – “free” compilers and utilities – Linux – Apache webserver tools – GNOME
  • 13. Patents • Q: Should software be Copyrighted or Patented? • Copyrights: – Protect the expression of an idea in a fixed or tangible form. – Are cheap, easy to obtain, and last a long time. – Allow fair dealing of the intellectual property. • Patents: – Protect new, non-obvious, and useful processes. – Are expensive, difficult to obtain, and last for short periods of time (20 years in Canada & USA) – Allow licensing to other developers
  • 14. Copyright & software forms • Recall that software can take several forms: – source code – object code – microcode (i.e., within processors) • Each of these can be copyrighted – For instance, copyrighting object code deals with software piracy. • But what happens if: – The copyrighted source code is in C – yet someone rewrites it into Java? – Is copyright infringed? • US Courts have drawn no distinction between source and object code – Sculpture analogy: doesn’t matter if sculpture is in bronze or in marble
  • 15. Copyright & software forms • But what about software versus hardware? • Software is copyrightable – Yet we know that the same software could be turned into hardware – and hardware falls under the purview of patent. – (Note: the hardwired version could not be copyrighted.) • Is software patentable? – 1970s: US Supreme Court initially ruled software as unpatentable • That is: algorithms were deemed to constitute abstract ideas or methods • This placed software outside of patentable subject matter
  • 16. Patents • Possible patentable material: – machines – industrial processes – compositions of matter – articles of manufacture that are novel, useful, and non-obvious • Patents are obtained in many jurisdiction by submitting an application to a Patent Office – US: Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) – Canada: Patent Office • Patent must describe: – how to make the claimed invention – how to use it – claims delineating the inventions covered by the patent
  • 17. Free software & Open Source Licenses • Berkeley software distribution license (BSD) – Code is free & can be modified, but must include a copyright notice • Gnu public license (GPL) – New works made from software under the GPL must also be released under the GPL and have source code available (=“copyleft”)