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PRESENTED BY
RIYA SARKAR [D-160]
What Is Inclusive Education?
 all students attend and are welcomed by their neighbourhood
schools in age appropriate, regular classes and are supported to
learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the
school.
 develop and design schools, classrooms, programs and activities so
that all students learn and participate together.
 ensuring access to quality education for all by effectively meeting
their diverse needs in a way that is responsive, accepting,
respectful and supportive.
Benefits for students
 Enable each student to fully participate in the learning
environment that is designed for all and is shared with peers
 Provide a positive climate, promote a sense of belonging and
ensure student progress toward appropriate personal, social,
emotional and academic goals
 Are responsive to individual learning needs by providing
sufficient levels of support and applying student-centred
teaching practices and principles.
Importance of Inclusive Education
 Inclusive systems provide a better quality education
 Schools provide the context for a child’s first relationship with the world
outside their families, enabling the development of social relationships.
 Respect and understanding grow when students of diverse abilities and
backgrounds play, socialize, and learn together.
 Education that excludes and segregates perpetuates discrimination
against traditionally marginalized groups.
 When education is more inclusive, so are concepts of civic
participation, employment, and community life.
Is it better to separate children
who need specialized attention?
Separate, special education provides no guarantee of
success for children who need special attention; inclusive
schools that provide supportive, context-appropriate
conditions for learning demonstrate far better outcomes.
Extracurricular activities, peer support, or more specialized
interventions involve the entire school community working
as a team.
What are the basic elements of
inclusive education?
 Use of teaching assistants or specialists: A specialist who
helps teachers address the needs of all students and who
pulls students out of class to work with them individually.
 Inclusive curriculum: An inclusive curriculum includes
locally relevant themes and contributions by marginalized
and minority groups.
 Parental involvement: Most schools strive for some level of
parental involvement, but it is often limited to emails
home and occasional parent–teacher conferences.
To advance inclusive education
 Ensure that educators have the training, flexibility, and resources to teach
 Ensure that kindergartens and schools receive adequate and sustainable
financial support so that all activities and services are fully inclusive
 Empower parents to assert their children’s right to education
 Enable the entire community—including mainstream and special
educators, social workers, parents, and students to work together .
 Hold governments accountable for implementing antidiscrimination
legislation, legal mandates for inclusion, and policies to remove barriers.
Is inclusive education expensive?
 Making education inclusive is not a cost-cutting measure. Governments
must be prepared to invest substantial resources at the outset on system
reforms such as teacher and staff training; improving infrastructure,
learning materials, and equipment; and revising curricula.
 Funding mechanisms must be reformed so that schools that enroll
students with special needs receive the necessary additional financial
resources. When students move from special schools to mainstream
schools, the funding should also follow.
Fully inclusive schools and general
or special education
 Fully inclusive schools, which are rare, no longer distinguish between
"general education" and "special education" programs
 Instead, the school is restructured so that all students learn together.
 All approaches to inclusive schooling require administrative and
managerial changes to move from the traditional approaches to
elementary and high school education.
 Inclusion remains in 2015 as part of school and educational reform
initiatives in the US and other parts of the world.
Classification of students and
educational practices
 Classification of students by disability is standard in educational
systems which use diagnostic, educational and psychological testing,
among others.
 Inclusion has two sub-types: the first is sometimes called regular
inclusion or partial inclusion, and the other is full inclusion.
 Inclusive practice is not always inclusive but is a form of integration.
For example, students with special needs are educated in regular
classes for nearly all of the day, or half
Factors determine the success of
inclusive classrooms
 Collaboration between general and special educators
 Family-school partnerships
 Integrated service delivery
 Ongoing training and staff development
 Leadership of teachers and administrators
 Well-constructed plans that identify specific
accommodations, modifications, and goals for each student
 Coordinated planning and communication between "general" and "special
needs" staff
Common practices in inclusive
classrooms
 Using games to build community
 Involving students in solving problems
 Sharing songs, books that teach
community
 Openly dealing with individual
differences by discussion
 Assigning classroom jobs that build
community
 look for ways to help each other
 Utilizing physical therapy equipment
Encouraging students to take the role
of teacher
 Focusing on the strength of a student
 Create classroom checklists
 Take breaks when necessary
 Create an area for children to
calm down
 Organize student desk in groups
 Create a welcoming environment
 Set ground rules and stick with
them
 Help establish short-term goals
 Design a multi-faced curriculum
 Communicate regular with
parents Seek support from other
special education teachers
Criticisms
 Critics of full and partial inclusion include educators, administrators
and parents.
 Full and partial inclusion approaches neglect to acknowledge the fact
that most students with significant special needs require
individualized instruction or highly controlled environments.
 a child with serious inattention problems may be unable to focus in a
classroom that contains twenty or more active children.
 At least one study examined the lack of individualized services
provided for students with IEPs when placed in an inclusive rather than
mainstreamed environment.
 Some researchers have maintained school districts neglect to prepare
general education staff for students with special needs, thus preventing
any achievement.
 Moreover, school districts often expound an inclusive philosophy for
political reasons, and do away with any valuable pull-out services
 Some argue that inclusive schools are not a cost-effective response
Conclusion
 Inclusion is viewed by some as a practice philosophically attractive yet
impractical. Studies have not corroborated the proposed advantages of
full or partial inclusion.
 Moreover, "push in" servicing does not allow students with moderate to
severe disabilities individualized instruction in a resource room, from
which many show considerable benefit in both learning and emotional
development.
 Parents of disabled students may be cautious about placing their
children in an inclusion program because of fears that the children will
be ridiculed by other students, or be unable to develop regular life skills
in an academic classroom.
THANK YOU

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Inclusive education ppt

  • 2. What Is Inclusive Education?  all students attend and are welcomed by their neighbourhood schools in age appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the school.  develop and design schools, classrooms, programs and activities so that all students learn and participate together.  ensuring access to quality education for all by effectively meeting their diverse needs in a way that is responsive, accepting, respectful and supportive.
  • 3. Benefits for students  Enable each student to fully participate in the learning environment that is designed for all and is shared with peers  Provide a positive climate, promote a sense of belonging and ensure student progress toward appropriate personal, social, emotional and academic goals  Are responsive to individual learning needs by providing sufficient levels of support and applying student-centred teaching practices and principles.
  • 4. Importance of Inclusive Education  Inclusive systems provide a better quality education  Schools provide the context for a child’s first relationship with the world outside their families, enabling the development of social relationships.  Respect and understanding grow when students of diverse abilities and backgrounds play, socialize, and learn together.  Education that excludes and segregates perpetuates discrimination against traditionally marginalized groups.  When education is more inclusive, so are concepts of civic participation, employment, and community life.
  • 5. Is it better to separate children who need specialized attention? Separate, special education provides no guarantee of success for children who need special attention; inclusive schools that provide supportive, context-appropriate conditions for learning demonstrate far better outcomes. Extracurricular activities, peer support, or more specialized interventions involve the entire school community working as a team.
  • 6. What are the basic elements of inclusive education?  Use of teaching assistants or specialists: A specialist who helps teachers address the needs of all students and who pulls students out of class to work with them individually.  Inclusive curriculum: An inclusive curriculum includes locally relevant themes and contributions by marginalized and minority groups.  Parental involvement: Most schools strive for some level of parental involvement, but it is often limited to emails home and occasional parent–teacher conferences.
  • 7. To advance inclusive education  Ensure that educators have the training, flexibility, and resources to teach  Ensure that kindergartens and schools receive adequate and sustainable financial support so that all activities and services are fully inclusive  Empower parents to assert their children’s right to education  Enable the entire community—including mainstream and special educators, social workers, parents, and students to work together .  Hold governments accountable for implementing antidiscrimination legislation, legal mandates for inclusion, and policies to remove barriers.
  • 8. Is inclusive education expensive?  Making education inclusive is not a cost-cutting measure. Governments must be prepared to invest substantial resources at the outset on system reforms such as teacher and staff training; improving infrastructure, learning materials, and equipment; and revising curricula.  Funding mechanisms must be reformed so that schools that enroll students with special needs receive the necessary additional financial resources. When students move from special schools to mainstream schools, the funding should also follow.
  • 9. Fully inclusive schools and general or special education  Fully inclusive schools, which are rare, no longer distinguish between "general education" and "special education" programs  Instead, the school is restructured so that all students learn together.  All approaches to inclusive schooling require administrative and managerial changes to move from the traditional approaches to elementary and high school education.  Inclusion remains in 2015 as part of school and educational reform initiatives in the US and other parts of the world.
  • 10. Classification of students and educational practices  Classification of students by disability is standard in educational systems which use diagnostic, educational and psychological testing, among others.  Inclusion has two sub-types: the first is sometimes called regular inclusion or partial inclusion, and the other is full inclusion.  Inclusive practice is not always inclusive but is a form of integration. For example, students with special needs are educated in regular classes for nearly all of the day, or half
  • 11. Factors determine the success of inclusive classrooms  Collaboration between general and special educators  Family-school partnerships  Integrated service delivery  Ongoing training and staff development  Leadership of teachers and administrators  Well-constructed plans that identify specific accommodations, modifications, and goals for each student  Coordinated planning and communication between "general" and "special needs" staff
  • 12. Common practices in inclusive classrooms  Using games to build community  Involving students in solving problems  Sharing songs, books that teach community  Openly dealing with individual differences by discussion  Assigning classroom jobs that build community  look for ways to help each other  Utilizing physical therapy equipment Encouraging students to take the role of teacher  Focusing on the strength of a student  Create classroom checklists  Take breaks when necessary  Create an area for children to calm down  Organize student desk in groups  Create a welcoming environment  Set ground rules and stick with them  Help establish short-term goals  Design a multi-faced curriculum  Communicate regular with parents Seek support from other special education teachers
  • 13. Criticisms  Critics of full and partial inclusion include educators, administrators and parents.  Full and partial inclusion approaches neglect to acknowledge the fact that most students with significant special needs require individualized instruction or highly controlled environments.  a child with serious inattention problems may be unable to focus in a classroom that contains twenty or more active children.  At least one study examined the lack of individualized services provided for students with IEPs when placed in an inclusive rather than mainstreamed environment.  Some researchers have maintained school districts neglect to prepare general education staff for students with special needs, thus preventing any achievement.  Moreover, school districts often expound an inclusive philosophy for political reasons, and do away with any valuable pull-out services  Some argue that inclusive schools are not a cost-effective response
  • 14. Conclusion  Inclusion is viewed by some as a practice philosophically attractive yet impractical. Studies have not corroborated the proposed advantages of full or partial inclusion.  Moreover, "push in" servicing does not allow students with moderate to severe disabilities individualized instruction in a resource room, from which many show considerable benefit in both learning and emotional development.  Parents of disabled students may be cautious about placing their children in an inclusion program because of fears that the children will be ridiculed by other students, or be unable to develop regular life skills in an academic classroom.