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HUMAN TRAFFICKING Look Beneath the Surface: Identifying and Helping  Victims of Human Trafficking
Presentation Overview Understanding human trafficking Identifying human trafficking victims Health problems of trafficking victims Special considerations when working with trafficking victims Support for victims through Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (the TVPA)
Human Trafficking: What Is It? Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery  Victims of trafficking exploited for commercial sex or labor purposes Traffickers use force, fraud or coercion to achieve exploitation After drug dealing, human trafficking is tied with the illegal arms trade as the second largest criminal industry in the world, and it is the fastest growing.
Human Trafficking: What Is It? Sex Trafficking:  Commercial sex act induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which person performing the act is under age 18. Victims can be found working in massage parlors, brothels, strip clubs, escort services Crime of trafficking occurs with the exploitation of the victim.  The physical movement of the victim is not a requisite. The TVPA protects both U.S. citizens and non-citizens.
Human Trafficking: What Is It? Labor Trafficking:  Using force, fraud or coercion to recruit, harbor, transport, obtain or employ a person for labor or services in  involuntary servitude ,  peonage ,  debt bondage  or  slavery Victims can be found in domestic situations as nannies or maids, sweatshop factories, janitorial jobs, construction sites, farm work, restaurants, panhandling
Human Trafficking:  How Are Victims Trafficked? Force, fraud and coercion are methods used by traffickers to press victims into lives of servitude, abuse Force:  Rape, beatings, constraint, confinement Fraud:  Includes false and deceptive offers of employment, marriage, better life Coercion:  T hreats of serious harm to, or physical restraint of, any person; any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause victims to believe that failure to perform an act would result in restraint against them; or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process.
Human Trafficking:  Who Are Victims? Approximately 800,000 to 900,000 victims annually trafficked across international borders worldwide Between 18,000 and 20,000 victims trafficked into United States annually. More than half of victims trafficked into United States are thought to be children; victims are probably about equally women and men. Victims can be trafficked into the U.S. from anywhere in the world.  Victims have come from, among other places, Africa, Asia, India, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Russia, and Canada. Within the U.S., both citizens and non-citizens fall prey to traffickers.
Many victims in the U.S. do not speak English  or the local language in other countries to where they are sent. They  are unable to communicate with service providers, police, or others who might be able to help them. Often kept isolated and activities restricted to prevent them from seeking help Typically watched, escorted or guarded by traffickers or associates of traffickers Traffickers may “coach” victims to answer questions with cover story about being wife, student or tourist Victims comply and don’t seek help because of fear  Human Trafficking:  Who Are Victims?
Trafficking Victims: Understanding Mindset Frequently victims: They don’t speak the  language  or know the culture. Confined to room or small space to work, eat, sleep Fear, distrust health providers, government, police Fear of being deported Unaware what is being done to them is a crime Do not consider themselves victims Blame themselves for their situations May develop loyalties, positive feelings toward trafficker as coping mechanism May try to protect trafficker from authorities Sometimes victims do not know where they are, because traffickers frequently move them to escape detection Fear for safety of family in home country
Myths Associated with  Human Trafficking Myth #1:   All Prostitutes Are Willing Participants
Myths Associated with  Human Trafficking Myth #2:   All Immigrants Smuggled into the United States  or other countries  Enter Willingly
Myths Associated with  Human Trafficking Myth #3:  All Participants Involved in Human Trafficking Are Criminals
Identifying Victims of  Human Trafficking Social service providers play important role identifying and helping trafficking victims While trafficking is largely a hidden social problem, victims are in plain sight if you know what to look for  Very few places where someone from outside has opportunity to interact with victim
Identifying Victims of  Human Trafficking Is potential victim accompanied by another person who seems controlling? Does person accompanying  the  potential victim insist on giving information to you? Can you see or detect any physical abuse? Does potential victim seem submissive or fearful? Does potential victim have difficulty communicating because of language or cultural barriers? Does potential victim have any identification?
Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking Before talking to potential trafficking victim, isolate individual from  the  person accompanying her/him without raising suspicions   Individual accompanying person may be trafficker posing as spouse, other family member or employer Say that it is your policy to speak to person alone Enlist trusted translator/interpreter who also understands victim’s cultural needs  If person is child, important to enlist help of specialist skilled in interviewing child trafficking or abuse victims
Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking For victim’s safety, strict confidentiality is paramount Talk to victims in  a  safe, confidential and trusting environment Importance of indirectly and sensitively probing to determine if person is trafficking victim May deny being trafficking victim, so best not to ask direct questions Phrase “trafficking victim” will have no meaning
Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking: Questions Can you leave your work or job situation if you want? When you are not working, can you come and go as you please? Have you been threatened with harm if you try to quit? Has anyone threatened your family? What are your working or living conditions like? Where do you sleep and eat? Do you have to ask permission to eat, sleep or go to the bathroom? Is there a lock on your door or windows so you cannot get out?
Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking: Messages Gaining victim’s trust important first step in providing assistance Sample messages to convey: We are here to help you. Our first priority is your safety. If you are a victim of trafficking and you cooperate, you will not be deported. We will  give you the social services that you need. We can find you a safe place to stay.   We can help get you what you need.  We want to make sure what happened to you doesn’t happen to anyone else.  You are entitled to assistance. We can help you get assistance. If you are a victim of trafficking, you can receive help to rebuild your life safely in this country.
Victims of Trafficking  and Their Needs There are four general areas of victim needs: Immediate assistance   Housing, food, medical, safety and security, language interpretation and legal services Mental health assistance   Counseling Income assistance Cash, living assistance Legal status visa, immigration, certification
Getting Victims of Human Trafficking the Help They Need If you think you have come in contact with victim of human trafficking,  Call local police if victim is at risk of imminent harm
Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) Areas of Focus: Prevention Public awareness and education Protection T visa, certification, benefits and services to help victims rebuilt their lives Prosecution Created Federal crime of trafficking, new law enforcement tools and efforts
TVPA: How Law Protects Victims Enables trafficking victims to obtain medical care, witness protection, other types of social service assistance Enables victims to obtain legal immigration status Criminalizes trafficking Permits prosecution where victim's service compelled by confiscation of documents Increases prison terms for all slavery violations from 10 years to 20 years; adds life imprisonment for death, kidnapping or sexual abuse of victim
TVPA Reauthorized in 2003 Federal government authorized more than $20 million to continue domestic fight against human trafficking  New law strengthens legal elements of TVPA Sex and labor trafficking now considered offenses under RICO statute Encourages nation’s 21,000 law enforcement agencies to investigate cases of trafficking
QUESTIONS Are trafficking and smuggling the same? No.  Trafficking  and  smuggling  are not the same. Human trafficking involves deceiving or coercing someone to move -- either within a country or abroad through legal or illegal channels -- for the purpose of exploiting him or her.  Smuggling is assisting someone for a fee to cross a border illegally.
QUESTIONS Why are people trafficked? Is it a new problem? What causes it? The trafficking in human beings is not new. But it is a rapidly growing problem. A number of factors have led to its expansion, such as the easy profits made from exploitation; growing deprivation and marginalization of the poor; discrimination against women; restrictive migration laws; a lack of information about the realities and dangers of trafficking and insufficient penalties against traffickers.
QUESTIONS How many people are trafficked?  It is impossible to know precisely and statistics are difficult to obtain because trafficking is an underground activity. The International Labor Organization in 2005 estimated at least 2.4 million people have been trafficked.
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Identifying And Helping

  • 1. HUMAN TRAFFICKING Look Beneath the Surface: Identifying and Helping Victims of Human Trafficking
  • 2. Presentation Overview Understanding human trafficking Identifying human trafficking victims Health problems of trafficking victims Special considerations when working with trafficking victims Support for victims through Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (the TVPA)
  • 3. Human Trafficking: What Is It? Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery Victims of trafficking exploited for commercial sex or labor purposes Traffickers use force, fraud or coercion to achieve exploitation After drug dealing, human trafficking is tied with the illegal arms trade as the second largest criminal industry in the world, and it is the fastest growing.
  • 4. Human Trafficking: What Is It? Sex Trafficking: Commercial sex act induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which person performing the act is under age 18. Victims can be found working in massage parlors, brothels, strip clubs, escort services Crime of trafficking occurs with the exploitation of the victim. The physical movement of the victim is not a requisite. The TVPA protects both U.S. citizens and non-citizens.
  • 5. Human Trafficking: What Is It? Labor Trafficking: Using force, fraud or coercion to recruit, harbor, transport, obtain or employ a person for labor or services in involuntary servitude , peonage , debt bondage or slavery Victims can be found in domestic situations as nannies or maids, sweatshop factories, janitorial jobs, construction sites, farm work, restaurants, panhandling
  • 6. Human Trafficking: How Are Victims Trafficked? Force, fraud and coercion are methods used by traffickers to press victims into lives of servitude, abuse Force: Rape, beatings, constraint, confinement Fraud: Includes false and deceptive offers of employment, marriage, better life Coercion: T hreats of serious harm to, or physical restraint of, any person; any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause victims to believe that failure to perform an act would result in restraint against them; or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process.
  • 7. Human Trafficking: Who Are Victims? Approximately 800,000 to 900,000 victims annually trafficked across international borders worldwide Between 18,000 and 20,000 victims trafficked into United States annually. More than half of victims trafficked into United States are thought to be children; victims are probably about equally women and men. Victims can be trafficked into the U.S. from anywhere in the world. Victims have come from, among other places, Africa, Asia, India, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Russia, and Canada. Within the U.S., both citizens and non-citizens fall prey to traffickers.
  • 8. Many victims in the U.S. do not speak English or the local language in other countries to where they are sent. They are unable to communicate with service providers, police, or others who might be able to help them. Often kept isolated and activities restricted to prevent them from seeking help Typically watched, escorted or guarded by traffickers or associates of traffickers Traffickers may “coach” victims to answer questions with cover story about being wife, student or tourist Victims comply and don’t seek help because of fear Human Trafficking: Who Are Victims?
  • 9. Trafficking Victims: Understanding Mindset Frequently victims: They don’t speak the language or know the culture. Confined to room or small space to work, eat, sleep Fear, distrust health providers, government, police Fear of being deported Unaware what is being done to them is a crime Do not consider themselves victims Blame themselves for their situations May develop loyalties, positive feelings toward trafficker as coping mechanism May try to protect trafficker from authorities Sometimes victims do not know where they are, because traffickers frequently move them to escape detection Fear for safety of family in home country
  • 10. Myths Associated with Human Trafficking Myth #1: All Prostitutes Are Willing Participants
  • 11. Myths Associated with Human Trafficking Myth #2: All Immigrants Smuggled into the United States or other countries Enter Willingly
  • 12. Myths Associated with Human Trafficking Myth #3: All Participants Involved in Human Trafficking Are Criminals
  • 13. Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking Social service providers play important role identifying and helping trafficking victims While trafficking is largely a hidden social problem, victims are in plain sight if you know what to look for Very few places where someone from outside has opportunity to interact with victim
  • 14. Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking Is potential victim accompanied by another person who seems controlling? Does person accompanying the potential victim insist on giving information to you? Can you see or detect any physical abuse? Does potential victim seem submissive or fearful? Does potential victim have difficulty communicating because of language or cultural barriers? Does potential victim have any identification?
  • 15. Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking Before talking to potential trafficking victim, isolate individual from the person accompanying her/him without raising suspicions Individual accompanying person may be trafficker posing as spouse, other family member or employer Say that it is your policy to speak to person alone Enlist trusted translator/interpreter who also understands victim’s cultural needs If person is child, important to enlist help of specialist skilled in interviewing child trafficking or abuse victims
  • 16. Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking For victim’s safety, strict confidentiality is paramount Talk to victims in a safe, confidential and trusting environment Importance of indirectly and sensitively probing to determine if person is trafficking victim May deny being trafficking victim, so best not to ask direct questions Phrase “trafficking victim” will have no meaning
  • 17. Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking: Questions Can you leave your work or job situation if you want? When you are not working, can you come and go as you please? Have you been threatened with harm if you try to quit? Has anyone threatened your family? What are your working or living conditions like? Where do you sleep and eat? Do you have to ask permission to eat, sleep or go to the bathroom? Is there a lock on your door or windows so you cannot get out?
  • 18. Communicating with Victims of Human Trafficking: Messages Gaining victim’s trust important first step in providing assistance Sample messages to convey: We are here to help you. Our first priority is your safety. If you are a victim of trafficking and you cooperate, you will not be deported. We will give you the social services that you need. We can find you a safe place to stay.   We can help get you what you need.  We want to make sure what happened to you doesn’t happen to anyone else.  You are entitled to assistance. We can help you get assistance. If you are a victim of trafficking, you can receive help to rebuild your life safely in this country.
  • 19. Victims of Trafficking and Their Needs There are four general areas of victim needs: Immediate assistance Housing, food, medical, safety and security, language interpretation and legal services Mental health assistance Counseling Income assistance Cash, living assistance Legal status visa, immigration, certification
  • 20. Getting Victims of Human Trafficking the Help They Need If you think you have come in contact with victim of human trafficking, Call local police if victim is at risk of imminent harm
  • 21. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) Areas of Focus: Prevention Public awareness and education Protection T visa, certification, benefits and services to help victims rebuilt their lives Prosecution Created Federal crime of trafficking, new law enforcement tools and efforts
  • 22. TVPA: How Law Protects Victims Enables trafficking victims to obtain medical care, witness protection, other types of social service assistance Enables victims to obtain legal immigration status Criminalizes trafficking Permits prosecution where victim's service compelled by confiscation of documents Increases prison terms for all slavery violations from 10 years to 20 years; adds life imprisonment for death, kidnapping or sexual abuse of victim
  • 23. TVPA Reauthorized in 2003 Federal government authorized more than $20 million to continue domestic fight against human trafficking New law strengthens legal elements of TVPA Sex and labor trafficking now considered offenses under RICO statute Encourages nation’s 21,000 law enforcement agencies to investigate cases of trafficking
  • 24. QUESTIONS Are trafficking and smuggling the same? No. Trafficking and smuggling are not the same. Human trafficking involves deceiving or coercing someone to move -- either within a country or abroad through legal or illegal channels -- for the purpose of exploiting him or her. Smuggling is assisting someone for a fee to cross a border illegally.
  • 25. QUESTIONS Why are people trafficked? Is it a new problem? What causes it? The trafficking in human beings is not new. But it is a rapidly growing problem. A number of factors have led to its expansion, such as the easy profits made from exploitation; growing deprivation and marginalization of the poor; discrimination against women; restrictive migration laws; a lack of information about the realities and dangers of trafficking and insufficient penalties against traffickers.
  • 26. QUESTIONS How many people are trafficked? It is impossible to know precisely and statistics are difficult to obtain because trafficking is an underground activity. The International Labor Organization in 2005 estimated at least 2.4 million people have been trafficked.

Editor's Notes

  1. I’m going to begin today’s presentation with a story: A woman kept in domestic servitude in the United States for several years was rescued when a neighbor, noticing that she had a large tumor, offered to take the woman to a local social service organization. Luckily, the social service providers asked the right questions and realized the woman was a victim of human trafficking. As a result, they helped the woman escape her situation and receive the assistance she desperately needed. Her employers received 15-20 years in jail. This is a success story because, first, the neighbor took the important step in bringing the woman to the social service provider, and second, because the providers helping the woman were able to look beneath the surface to probe whether or not she was a possible trafficking victim. Today, I’m going to discuss the important role social service providers play in identifying, and therefore, helping victims of human trafficking.