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HUMAN
TRAFFICKING
Child Sex Trade
Presented By:
BSHS407
Introduction
• Define child sex trade and the scope
of the problem
• The issues affecting victims and their
families of child trade.
• The process a child sex trade victim
goes through when seeking
compensation and restitution from
his or her assailant
• Factors that may prevent individuals
from reporting and prosecuting child
sex trade
• The primary elements and myths
associated with child sex trade
Child Sex Trade
Child sex tourism is the commercial sexual exploitation of
children by men or women who travel from one place to
another, usually from a richer country to a poorer less-developed
country, to engage in sexual acts with children.
(Wallace & Roberson, 2011, Chapter 8).
Scope of the Problem
•According to some reports, Americans make up 38 percent of all sex tourists in
Cambodia and 80 percent in Costa Rica.
•The majority of American victims of commercial sexual exploitation tend to be
runaway or thrown away youths who live on the streets who become victims of
prostitution.
•It is not only the girls on the streets who are affected—for boys and
transgender youth, the average age of entry into prostitution is eleven to
thirteen years.
• In many developing countries the authorities decline to take any action
because of the economic benefit to the country.
•Child sex tourism is a dynamic and ever-shifting problem—it occurs where the
right circumstances combine. When one country accelerates action on the
issue, it may spread elsewhere.
The issues
affecting victims
and their families
of child sex trade
• Human and social costs of trafficking include:
• human rights violations
• social breakdown,
• organized crime,
• depriving countries of human capital
• public health problems,
• erosion of governmental authority.
• Victims are manipulated through the act or threat of violence
• Victims live in constant fear
• Each victim lives in a situation outside the rules of law.
• Child victims are unable to develop new relationships with
peers or adults other than the person who is victimizing them.
(Wallace & Roberson, 2011, Chapter 8).
The process a victim goes through when
seeking compensation and restitution
from his or her assailant
• Crime Victims Compensation
(The victim must cooperate
with law enforcement)
• Minors are not statutorily
immune from prosecution for
prostitution
• Buyers of commercial sex acts
may lie and claim they did not
know the victim was
underage
(Sharedhope International, 2015).
Arizona Law
Crime Classification Sentence Fine Asset
forfeiture
Sex Traffickiing Class 2 Felony 3 - 12.5 Years Max $150.000 No
Child Prostitution minor
under 15 Class 2 Felony 13 – 27 Years Max $150.000 No
Child Prostitution –
Defendant knew minor
was 15-17
Class 2 Felony 7 – 21 Years Max $150.000 No
Child Prostitution –
minor was 15-17
Class 6 Felony .33 – 2 Years Max $150.000 No
Sexual exploitation of a
minor –possessing child
pornography of victim
15 or older
Class 2 Felony 3 - 12.5 Years Max $150.000 Yes
(Sharedhope International, 2015).
Factors that may prevent
individuals from reporting and
prosecuting human trafficking
• Fear1
• Shame2
• Lack of awareness3
Lack of cooperation4
The primary elements and myths
associated with human trafficking-
child sex trade
Myth 1: Trafficked persons can only be foreign nationals or are only
immigrants from other countries.
Reality: The federal definition of human trafficking includes both U.S. citizens
and foreign nationals.
Myth 2: Human trafficking is another term for human smuggling.
Reality: Smuggling is a crime against a country’s borders: human trafficking is
a crime against a person.
Myth 3: Victims of human trafficking will immediately ask for help or
assistance and will self-identify as a victim of a crime.
Reality: Victims of human trafficking often do not immediately seek help or
self-identify as victims of a crime due to a variety of factors, including lack
of trust, self-blame, or specific instructions by the traffickers regarding
how to behave when talking to law enforcement or social services.
(National Human Trafficking Resource Center, 2015).
References
Sharedhope International. (2015). 2014 state report cards-Protected Innocence challenge. Retrieved from
http://sharedhope.org/PICframe4/reportcards/PIC_RC_2014_AZ.pdf
Wallace, H., & Roberson, C. (2011). Family violence: Legal, medical and social perspectives (6th ed.). Retrieved from
The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database
National Human Trafficking Resource Center. (2015). Myths & misconceptions. Retrieved from
http://www.traffickingresourcecenter.org/what-human-trafficking/myths-misconceptions

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Human Trafficing & Child Sex Trade

  • 2. Introduction • Define child sex trade and the scope of the problem • The issues affecting victims and their families of child trade. • The process a child sex trade victim goes through when seeking compensation and restitution from his or her assailant • Factors that may prevent individuals from reporting and prosecuting child sex trade • The primary elements and myths associated with child sex trade
  • 3. Child Sex Trade Child sex tourism is the commercial sexual exploitation of children by men or women who travel from one place to another, usually from a richer country to a poorer less-developed country, to engage in sexual acts with children. (Wallace & Roberson, 2011, Chapter 8).
  • 4. Scope of the Problem •According to some reports, Americans make up 38 percent of all sex tourists in Cambodia and 80 percent in Costa Rica. •The majority of American victims of commercial sexual exploitation tend to be runaway or thrown away youths who live on the streets who become victims of prostitution. •It is not only the girls on the streets who are affected—for boys and transgender youth, the average age of entry into prostitution is eleven to thirteen years. • In many developing countries the authorities decline to take any action because of the economic benefit to the country. •Child sex tourism is a dynamic and ever-shifting problem—it occurs where the right circumstances combine. When one country accelerates action on the issue, it may spread elsewhere.
  • 5. The issues affecting victims and their families of child sex trade
  • 6. • Human and social costs of trafficking include: • human rights violations • social breakdown, • organized crime, • depriving countries of human capital • public health problems, • erosion of governmental authority. • Victims are manipulated through the act or threat of violence • Victims live in constant fear • Each victim lives in a situation outside the rules of law. • Child victims are unable to develop new relationships with peers or adults other than the person who is victimizing them. (Wallace & Roberson, 2011, Chapter 8).
  • 7. The process a victim goes through when seeking compensation and restitution from his or her assailant
  • 8. • Crime Victims Compensation (The victim must cooperate with law enforcement) • Minors are not statutorily immune from prosecution for prostitution • Buyers of commercial sex acts may lie and claim they did not know the victim was underage (Sharedhope International, 2015).
  • 9. Arizona Law Crime Classification Sentence Fine Asset forfeiture Sex Traffickiing Class 2 Felony 3 - 12.5 Years Max $150.000 No Child Prostitution minor under 15 Class 2 Felony 13 – 27 Years Max $150.000 No Child Prostitution – Defendant knew minor was 15-17 Class 2 Felony 7 – 21 Years Max $150.000 No Child Prostitution – minor was 15-17 Class 6 Felony .33 – 2 Years Max $150.000 No Sexual exploitation of a minor –possessing child pornography of victim 15 or older Class 2 Felony 3 - 12.5 Years Max $150.000 Yes (Sharedhope International, 2015).
  • 10. Factors that may prevent individuals from reporting and prosecuting human trafficking
  • 11. • Fear1 • Shame2 • Lack of awareness3 Lack of cooperation4
  • 12. The primary elements and myths associated with human trafficking- child sex trade
  • 13. Myth 1: Trafficked persons can only be foreign nationals or are only immigrants from other countries. Reality: The federal definition of human trafficking includes both U.S. citizens and foreign nationals. Myth 2: Human trafficking is another term for human smuggling. Reality: Smuggling is a crime against a country’s borders: human trafficking is a crime against a person. Myth 3: Victims of human trafficking will immediately ask for help or assistance and will self-identify as a victim of a crime. Reality: Victims of human trafficking often do not immediately seek help or self-identify as victims of a crime due to a variety of factors, including lack of trust, self-blame, or specific instructions by the traffickers regarding how to behave when talking to law enforcement or social services. (National Human Trafficking Resource Center, 2015).
  • 14. References Sharedhope International. (2015). 2014 state report cards-Protected Innocence challenge. Retrieved from http://sharedhope.org/PICframe4/reportcards/PIC_RC_2014_AZ.pdf Wallace, H., & Roberson, C. (2011). Family violence: Legal, medical and social perspectives (6th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database National Human Trafficking Resource Center. (2015). Myths & misconceptions. Retrieved from http://www.traffickingresourcecenter.org/what-human-trafficking/myths-misconceptions

Editor's Notes

  1. Define child sex trade and the scope of the problem The issues affecting victims and their families of child trade. The process a child sex trade victim goes through when seeking compensation and restitution from his or her assailant Factors that may prevent individuals from reporting and prosecuting child sex trade The primary elements and myths associated with child sex trade
  2. Child sex tourism is the commercial sexual exploitation of children by men or women who travel from one place to another, usually from a richer country to a poorer less-developed country, to engage in sexual acts with children.
  3. According to some reports, Americans make up 38 percent of all sex tourists in Cambodia and 80 percent in Costa Rica. The majority of American victims of commercial sexual exploitation tend to be runaway or thrown away youths who live on the streets who become victims of prostitution. It is not only the girls on the streets who are affected—for boys and transgender youth, the average age of entry into prostitution is eleven to thirteen years. In many developing countries the authorities decline to take any action because of the economic benefit to the country. Child sex tourism is a dynamic and ever-shifting problem—it occurs where the right circumstances combine. When one country accelerates action on the issue, it may spread elsewhere
  4. The issues affecting victims and their families of child sex trade
  5. Issues Human and social costs of trafficking include: human rights violations social breakdown, organized crime, depriving countries of human capital public health problems, erosion of governmental authority. Each victim is manipulated through the act or threat of violence. Victims live in constant fear Each victim lives in a situation outside the rules of law. Few children in this situation are able to develop new relationships with peers or adults other than the person who is victimizing them.
  6. The process a child sex trade victim goes through when seeking compensation and restitution from his or her assailant
  7. Crime victims’ compensation is available for victims of human trafficking ; however, participating in the conduct and, failing to report the crime within 72 hours and to file a claim within two years (absent a finding of good cause), or failing to cooperate with law enforcement could prevent the victims from receiving compensation. Minors are not statutorily immune from prosecution for prostitution and may face barriers to treatment and victims’ compensation to fund their recovery. buyers of commercial sex acts may claim mistake of age in offenses against older minors, shifting the burden to prosecutors to obtain meaningful penalties.
  8. Arizona law provides substantial penalties for sex trafficking and gives law enforcement critical investigative tools to pursue demand. Child victim-witnesses have limited protections in the trial process. Minors under 15 may be permitted to testify via closed-circuit television and the “rape shield” law is limited to victims of sexual offenses, leaving testifying victims of sex trafficking unprotected from the trauma of cross-examination at the trials of their traffickers.
  9. Factors that may prevent individuals from reporting and prosecuting human trafficking
  10. Fear-The child victim may believe that disclosing the crime will only make things worse. For example, sexual abuse victims may fear that the abuser will retaliate against them or their families, Shame: Fear of others’ reactions is a leading reason that child victims delay getting help for victimization. Youth victims may feel responsible for not preventing their victimization and think others will blame them, too. They may feel ashamed about what happened and fear that others will look down on them. Lack of awareness: Child victims of human trafficking may not be aware that a crime has occurred or that anyone could help. Lack of cooperation by local authorities-collection of evidence and testimony depends on the cooperation of the local police agencies. Differences in language, customs, and attitude toward commercial sexual exploitation of children may lead to a lack of cooperation by local authorities. In many developing countries the authorities decline to take any action because of the economic benefit to the country.
  11. The primary elements and myths associated with human trafficking
  12. Myth 1: Trafficked persons can only be foreign nationals or are only immigrants from other countries. Reality: The federal definition of human trafficking includes both U.S. citizens and foreign nationals.  Myth 2: Human trafficking is another term for human smuggling. Reality: Smuggling is a crime against a country’s borders: human trafficking is a crime against a person. Myth 3: Victims of human trafficking will immediately ask for help or assistance and will self-identify as a victim of a crime. Reality: Victims of human trafficking often do not immediately seek help or self-identify as victims of a crime due to a variety of factors, including lack of trust, self-blame, or specific instructions by the traffickers regarding how to behave when talking to law enforcement or social services.