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A view from the inside: Forest communities’
perceptions of tenure security, Indonesia
Helen Markelova, Esther Mwangi, Moira Moeliono, Nining Liswanti,
Bayuni Shantiko
IASC 2013, June 3-7, Mt. Fuji
Outline
 Objectives
 Study setting
 Methods
 Findings: forest use and
management; tenure; perceptions of
tenure security
 Conclusions: Disconnect between
people’s perceptions and broader
realities—or is there?
Introduction (2)
 Identify local level forest resource tenure and resource
management systems
 Local perceptions of tenure security and key threats to current
and future access
Objectives
THINKING beyond the canopy
The setting: West Kalimantan and Central Moluccas
Seram Island: Central Moluccas
 Rich biodiversity
(117 birds, 38
mammals)
 Manusela NP
(covers 11% of
Seram)
 10 sub-districts &
108 villages
 175,500 people
living on Seram
 Lower population
density (15.2
inhabitants/km2)
 Central Maluku
covers 7,700 km2
 Main district
revenue:
agriculture &
fishery
• lack of
opportunity as
logging ban
• lack of resources,
conflict with NP
• gold mining:
opportunity vs env
risks
•Highly depend on
NTFP
• Concession
threat (PT Toras at
Mendalam
watershed)
• gold mining:
opportunity vs env
risks
• palm oil
plantation will
continue
• dryland
converted by
rubber
• Palm oil
plantations are
established
• lack of
opportunity,
conflict among
villagers related to
land for palm oil
allocation
Kapuas Hulu (West Kalimantan)
Hill dipterocarp forests,
sub-montane and montane
forests
2National Park & Forest
reserves = 50%
 Human population:
208,915; 94% rural;
7 persons/km2
 Main district revenue:
agriculture, fishing, timber
and NTFPs
Methods
 Stratified random selection of 20 villages each
in Seram Island and Kapuas Hulu
 Household surveys
 Key informant interviews
 Focused group discussions
 Dissaggregated by gender and age (35yrs cut off)
 120 ; average 6 individuals
 Analysis
 Responses categorized according to key issues of
interest based on questions in the FGD instrument
 Used nVIVO to organize data and identify patterns in
the responses
Findings:Forest use
 Daily subsistence : food crops and
perennials, NTFPs, firewood, herbs
 Income: timber and non-timber forest
products, hunting, fruit trees
 Cultural: sacred groves, burial sites
 Services: clean water, prevention of
floods, erosion, and landslides,
THINKING beyond the canopy
Products Subsistence Sale
Wood-based products Firewood Firewood
Timber (lengua, ironwood,
mangrove tree)
Timber (lengua, ironwood,
bamboo, Samama,
mangrove)
Leaves for roofing/household
items
Rattan
Non-timber forest products Medicinal plants Durian
Honey Sugar palm trees
Sago Sago
Bamboo sprouts Cloves
Gaharu
Resin
Rubber
Honey
Crops coconut, cocoa, cassava,
bananas, sweet potato, taro
coconut, cocoa, nutmeg,
cassava, taro, sweet potatoes,
bananas, oranges, beans,
chilly, peanuts, green peas
Forest vegetables bamboo sprouts, ganemo
leave, mushrooms, fern
bamboo sprouts, ganemo
leaves
Game animals boar, cassowary boar, deer, cockatoo,
cassowary
Birds finch, Cucak Hijau, cockatoo
Other Cattle feed Bats
Butterflies
Findings: forest management
• Participation in various forest management
functions (see table)
• NOT: externally initiated projects
– Preferred species for income (rattan, rubber);
improved market access for forest products
THINKING beyond the canopy
Management Functions Actors (internal and external)
involved, across sites---Seram
Actors (internal and external)
involved, across sites---Kapuas Hulu
Defining/protecting borders
(SDA)
villagers, village government, resource
owner, village police, village
staff/officials, King, sub-district
government, Agrarian Office, Forestry
Office, National Park officers,
customary leaders, clan, regional
government
customary leaders, village head,
villagers, village officials, Tuai Rumah
Developing/Enforcing
rules/regulations
king, sub-district government, village
government, villagers, village head,
customary head, Forestry office,
regional government
customary head, village head, village
officials, Tuai Rumah, villagers
Monitoring compliance village staff, government, villagers,
king, village police, Forestry Office,
Kewang, head of development affairs
office, forest rangers, customary head,
neighboring villagers, village head
customary head, village head, village
officials, Tuai Rumah, villagers,
Resolving conflicts village government, king, police,
Forestry Office, village head, Babinsa
(non-commissioned officers for village
control), customary leaders,
government, village officials, religious
leaders, the police
customary head, tumenggung, village
head, sub-district head, Tuai Rumah
Providing
leadership/organization
Sub-village head, customary
institutions, village government,
villagers, King, members of the village
youth organization, village head,
Forestry officers, village officials, farm
groups, government
village head, hamlet head, customary
head, Tuai Rumah
Assessing fines/sanctions sub-village head, customary
institutions, King, villagers, police,
Forestry Office, government, forest
rangers, village government
No responses recorded
Findings: rights and access
Shared village forests
• Cultivate, harvest, manage
• Responsibility to protect
• Withdrawal and management rights
(making them “claimants” according to
Schlager’s and Ostrom’s bundle of
rights, 1992).
Land parcels for cultivation
Inheritance through families across generations
Customary rules
Seram: land rights are allocated by the clan
and authorized by the village government (men);
land certificates
THINKING beyond the canopy
Rights and access (contd)
Source of rights
-customary nature of rights to forests
-geographical proximity
-members of the clan
-generally unaware of state laws regarding the use of non-state forests (save
for concessions)
-villagers in close proximity to National Parks or protected forests
knowledgeable
Findings: tenure security
Perceptions of tenure security
 Will continue to have access to land and forest resources in
the following 5 years
 Enjoy easy access to forests under functioning customary
rights
 Families have their own plots for cultivation
 Forests in their areas still vast and customary restrictions on
opening up forest
 Threats : oil palm plantations; mining; national park/PAs;
illegal logging;
 Opportunities: stricter rules on use and who can use;
reforestation; delineating borders between household land
and forests; infrastructure and market access; involve more
stakeholders
Concluding remarks
 Multiple uses: subsistence, income, environmental
 Customary authority and some interaction with officials in Seram
 Overall secure per villagers’ perceptions
 Disconnect between perceptions & realities around them.
Does it matter, really?
Thank you!
www.colupsia.org

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IASC 2013: Communities' perceptions on land tenure

  • 1. A view from the inside: Forest communities’ perceptions of tenure security, Indonesia Helen Markelova, Esther Mwangi, Moira Moeliono, Nining Liswanti, Bayuni Shantiko IASC 2013, June 3-7, Mt. Fuji
  • 2. Outline  Objectives  Study setting  Methods  Findings: forest use and management; tenure; perceptions of tenure security  Conclusions: Disconnect between people’s perceptions and broader realities—or is there?
  • 3. Introduction (2)  Identify local level forest resource tenure and resource management systems  Local perceptions of tenure security and key threats to current and future access Objectives
  • 4. THINKING beyond the canopy The setting: West Kalimantan and Central Moluccas
  • 5. Seram Island: Central Moluccas  Rich biodiversity (117 birds, 38 mammals)  Manusela NP (covers 11% of Seram)  10 sub-districts & 108 villages  175,500 people living on Seram  Lower population density (15.2 inhabitants/km2)  Central Maluku covers 7,700 km2  Main district revenue: agriculture & fishery
  • 6. • lack of opportunity as logging ban • lack of resources, conflict with NP • gold mining: opportunity vs env risks •Highly depend on NTFP • Concession threat (PT Toras at Mendalam watershed) • gold mining: opportunity vs env risks • palm oil plantation will continue • dryland converted by rubber • Palm oil plantations are established • lack of opportunity, conflict among villagers related to land for palm oil allocation Kapuas Hulu (West Kalimantan) Hill dipterocarp forests, sub-montane and montane forests 2National Park & Forest reserves = 50%  Human population: 208,915; 94% rural; 7 persons/km2  Main district revenue: agriculture, fishing, timber and NTFPs
  • 7. Methods  Stratified random selection of 20 villages each in Seram Island and Kapuas Hulu  Household surveys  Key informant interviews  Focused group discussions  Dissaggregated by gender and age (35yrs cut off)  120 ; average 6 individuals  Analysis  Responses categorized according to key issues of interest based on questions in the FGD instrument  Used nVIVO to organize data and identify patterns in the responses
  • 8. Findings:Forest use  Daily subsistence : food crops and perennials, NTFPs, firewood, herbs  Income: timber and non-timber forest products, hunting, fruit trees  Cultural: sacred groves, burial sites  Services: clean water, prevention of floods, erosion, and landslides,
  • 9. THINKING beyond the canopy Products Subsistence Sale Wood-based products Firewood Firewood Timber (lengua, ironwood, mangrove tree) Timber (lengua, ironwood, bamboo, Samama, mangrove) Leaves for roofing/household items Rattan Non-timber forest products Medicinal plants Durian Honey Sugar palm trees Sago Sago Bamboo sprouts Cloves Gaharu Resin Rubber Honey Crops coconut, cocoa, cassava, bananas, sweet potato, taro coconut, cocoa, nutmeg, cassava, taro, sweet potatoes, bananas, oranges, beans, chilly, peanuts, green peas Forest vegetables bamboo sprouts, ganemo leave, mushrooms, fern bamboo sprouts, ganemo leaves Game animals boar, cassowary boar, deer, cockatoo, cassowary Birds finch, Cucak Hijau, cockatoo Other Cattle feed Bats Butterflies
  • 10. Findings: forest management • Participation in various forest management functions (see table) • NOT: externally initiated projects – Preferred species for income (rattan, rubber); improved market access for forest products
  • 11. THINKING beyond the canopy Management Functions Actors (internal and external) involved, across sites---Seram Actors (internal and external) involved, across sites---Kapuas Hulu Defining/protecting borders (SDA) villagers, village government, resource owner, village police, village staff/officials, King, sub-district government, Agrarian Office, Forestry Office, National Park officers, customary leaders, clan, regional government customary leaders, village head, villagers, village officials, Tuai Rumah Developing/Enforcing rules/regulations king, sub-district government, village government, villagers, village head, customary head, Forestry office, regional government customary head, village head, village officials, Tuai Rumah, villagers Monitoring compliance village staff, government, villagers, king, village police, Forestry Office, Kewang, head of development affairs office, forest rangers, customary head, neighboring villagers, village head customary head, village head, village officials, Tuai Rumah, villagers, Resolving conflicts village government, king, police, Forestry Office, village head, Babinsa (non-commissioned officers for village control), customary leaders, government, village officials, religious leaders, the police customary head, tumenggung, village head, sub-district head, Tuai Rumah Providing leadership/organization Sub-village head, customary institutions, village government, villagers, King, members of the village youth organization, village head, Forestry officers, village officials, farm groups, government village head, hamlet head, customary head, Tuai Rumah Assessing fines/sanctions sub-village head, customary institutions, King, villagers, police, Forestry Office, government, forest rangers, village government No responses recorded
  • 12. Findings: rights and access Shared village forests • Cultivate, harvest, manage • Responsibility to protect • Withdrawal and management rights (making them “claimants” according to Schlager’s and Ostrom’s bundle of rights, 1992). Land parcels for cultivation Inheritance through families across generations Customary rules Seram: land rights are allocated by the clan and authorized by the village government (men); land certificates
  • 13. THINKING beyond the canopy Rights and access (contd) Source of rights -customary nature of rights to forests -geographical proximity -members of the clan -generally unaware of state laws regarding the use of non-state forests (save for concessions) -villagers in close proximity to National Parks or protected forests knowledgeable
  • 14. Findings: tenure security Perceptions of tenure security  Will continue to have access to land and forest resources in the following 5 years  Enjoy easy access to forests under functioning customary rights  Families have their own plots for cultivation  Forests in their areas still vast and customary restrictions on opening up forest  Threats : oil palm plantations; mining; national park/PAs; illegal logging;  Opportunities: stricter rules on use and who can use; reforestation; delineating borders between household land and forests; infrastructure and market access; involve more stakeholders
  • 15. Concluding remarks  Multiple uses: subsistence, income, environmental  Customary authority and some interaction with officials in Seram  Overall secure per villagers’ perceptions  Disconnect between perceptions & realities around them. Does it matter, really?