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social project...IX standard


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social project...IX standard

  1. 1. Presented By S.Thanusha Reddy
  2. 2. Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Natural Vegetation and Animal Wild Life depend on climate, relief & soil. The diversity of India’s climate & relief have made natural vegetation & Animal Wild Life interdependent on each other & the form of single ecosystem. This ecosystem has evolved through thousands of years.
  3. 3. Natural Vegetation
  4. 4. Contents(part-1) • What is Natural Vegetation? • Tropical Evergreen Forests • Tropical Deciduous Forests(Monsoon Forests) • Tropical Thorn and Shrub Forests • Desert Vegetation • Mangrove Forests • Himalayan or Alpine Vegetation • Importance of Forests
  5. 5. What Is Natural Vegetation? India has a wide variety of Natural Vegetation ranging from Tropical Evergreen Forests to Desert Vegetation. The Natural Vegetation of India can be divided into six main type. They are:1. Tropical Evergreen Forests 2. Tropical Deciduous Forests(Monsoon Forests) 3. Tropical Thorn and Shrub Forests 4. Desert Vegetation 5. Mangrove Forests 6. Himalayan Vegetation
  6. 6. Tropical inEvergreen Forests This type of vegetation is found areas where rainfall is above 250cms and temperature ranges between 250oC and 270oC. Since the trees are always green they are called Rain Forests. The heavy rainfall, high temperature and humidity are responsible for the growth of these dense forests. The trees grow about 60 meters high. The branches of trees form a canopy and prevent the sun’s rays from reaching the ground. In India, most of these forests are found on the western side of the Western Ghats, in the NorthEastern hills and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. The Semi Evergreen Forests are found in the lower rainfall areas of the Western Ghats, Orissa and West Bengal. Ebony, Mahogany, rosewood and rubber are the Important trees. Bamboo bushes are also
  7. 7. Tropical Deciduous Forests(Monsoon Forests) These forests are also called Monsoon Forests. They cover a greater part of India. They are found in regions where the rainfall is between 75cms, and 250cms. These forests are found on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Jammu, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Bihar and Jharkhand. In these forests, the trees are fewer and shorter. Bamboos and Canes are also grown here. The trees shed their leaves at the beginning of Summer. The important trees of these forests are Teak, Sal and Sandal-Wood. They have great commercial value. The Deciduous Forests of Karnataka have Sandal-Wood trees. Wherever these forests are cut down or burnt, bushes and grass have taken their place.
  8. 8. Tropical Thorn and Shrub Forests These forests are found in the central parts of the Deccan Plateau, southern parts of the Maharashtra, Bellary of Karnataka, Cuddapha & Kurnool of Andhra Pradesh, where the annual rainfall is between 60 &75cms.These forests have short stemmed trees like Babul and Kasavi trees & Coarse grass. Palms & Kikar trees are also found here.
  9. 9. Desert Vegetation This type of vegetation is found in regions where the annual rainfall is less than 50cms. Rajasthan’s Thar Desert, the borders of Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat have this type vegetation. The trees, which grow here have deep roots, thick leaves and thorns. Date Palms are common near
  10. 10. Mangrove Forests These forests are formed due to tides. They are formed along the Deltas and estuaries of rivers that are subjected to tides. Pendent roots(like those of Banyan tree) are the characteristics of Mangrove Forests. The Deltas of rivers Ganges, Godavari, Mahanadi and Krishna have these forests. In the Ganges delta, there are plenty of Sundari trees and the forests
  11. 11. Himalayan or Alpine Different types ofVegetation vegetation are found in the Himalayan Mountains. The vegetation changes with altitude & rainfall. The lower regions of the Himalayas have Tropical Evergreen Forests up to 1,500mts. Teak, Sal & Rose-Wood are the important trees. Temperate forests are found between 1,500 to 3,650mts. They are also called Coniferous Forests. The important trees of this vegetation are Silver Fir, Oak, Spruce, Laurels, Chestnut etc. Grasslands are found in
  12. 12. Importance of Forests Forests are a very important Natural Resource. They provide raw materials to industries such as Timber, Bamboo, Cane, Gum, Medicinal Plants, Shrubs, etc. They provide fodder to cattle. In addition to these benefits, there are advantages which are of great importance. They are as follows:1. Forests provide moisture and lower the temperature. 2. They prevent soil erosion and preserve the fertility of the soil. 3. Forests provide home for many animals and birds, thus preserving bio-diversity. 4. Forests help to preserve the ecological balance. Forests are depleted due to large-scale cutting of trees due to industrial development, Cultivation of crops, over-grazing by cattle, construction of railways and roadways, irrigation and
  13. 13. Conservation of forests Forests are a natural gift to humankind. Human beings first lived in forests. Destruction of forests result in Soil Erosion, Floods, Drought, etc. Hence, realizing the importance of forests, the Central Government has formed a National Forest Policy in 1952. It has a three fold plan namely: 1. Nationalism of Forest Operations. 2. Protection and Operation of Wildlife and Environment &Social Forestry. 3. Commercialization of Industrial Forest Operation. Social Forestry aims at not only providing
  14. 14. Wildlife
  15. 15. Contents(Part-2) • What is Wildlife? • Where it can be found? • Influence of various factors on wildlife. • Wild Life maintaining the balance in the Ecosystem • Species included in wild life. • Bird life of India • Evil Human • Measures to protect Wild Life
  16. 16. What is Wildlife? Wildlife traditionally refers to non-Domesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi and other organisms which grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Domesticating wild plant & animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative.
  17. 17. Where it can be found? Wildlife can be found in all Ecosystems. Deserts, forests, rain forests, plains, grasslands, other areas including the most developed urban sites, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around is affected by human activities.
  18. 18. Influence of various factors on wildlife. Humans have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal, social, & moral sense. Some animals, however, have adapted to suburban environments. This includes such animals as domesticated cats, dogs, mice, & gerbils. Religions have often declared certain animals to be sacred, & in modern times concern for the natural environment has provoked activists to protest the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment.
  19. 19. Wild Life maintaining the balance in the Ecosystem Wild Life includes animals, birds, insects as well as the aquatic life forms. They provide us milk, meat, hides & wool. Insects like bees provide us honey, help in pollination, of flowers & have an important role to play as decomposers in the ecosystem. The birds fed on Insects & act as decomposers as well. Vulture due to its ability to feed on dead livestock is a scavenger & considered a vital cleanser of the environment. So animals big or small, all integral to maintaining balance in the ecosystem.
  20. 20. Species included in wild life. India has a variety of wildlife because of its varied relief features such as climate & natural vegetation. There are about 80,000 species of wild animals, birds & fishes. India has some rare animals which are not found in any other part of the world. Eg:- Swamp Deer, Chausinga(four-horn antelope),Kashmir stag, Black Buck & Neelgai. The stopped deer of India is very beautiful. Horned Rhinoceros is found only in India and Nepal. Some of the Carnivores animals such as lions, tigers and leopards are found in our forests. The Gir Forests of Saurashtra is the natural habitat of Lions. The famous Bengal Tiger is found in theSunderbans. The national animal of India is the Tiger. The Himalayas are the home of several interesting animals like the Wild Sheep, Yak, the Mountain Goats, the Ibex, the Shrew, the Tapu, the Panda & the Snow-Leopard. Of the many species of monkeys, the languar is the most common.
  21. 21. Birdlife India has a variety of Bird Life. The Falcon(hawk), Geese, Mynahs, Parrots, Pigeons, Cranes, Hornbills, Sunbirds & Kingfishers are found in forests & marshy lands. The Peacock is our national bird. Birds are very beautiful to see and various bird sanctuaries are full crowded with tourists and these bird sanctuaries help India in foreign exchange.
  22. 22. Evil Human Forests are our wealth. Plants give shelter to the animals & together they maintain the ecosystem. Changes of climate & human interferences can cause the loss of natural habitats for the plants & animals. Many species have become vulnerable or endangered & some are on the verge of extinction. Deforestation, Soil Erosion, Constructional Activities, Forest Fires, Tsunami & Landslides are some of the human & natural factors which accelerate the process of extinction of these resources. One of the major concerns is the poaching which result in a sharp decline in the number of particular species. The animals are poached for collection & illegal trade of hides, skins, nails, teeth, horns as well as feathers. Some of these animals are Tigers, Loin, Elephant, Deer, Black Buck, Crocodile, Rhinoceros, Snow Leopard, Ostrich & Peacock. These can be conserved by increasing awareness. Humans are adversely using Wild Life & its uses. So, we have to protect our Animal Life &Bird Life. That means there is a need protect our Wide Wild Life.
  23. 23. Measures to protect Wild Life Special efforts are made to protect the endangered species of Wild Life. National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries have been opened in order to preserve Wildlife. There are 73 National Parks, 447 Wild Life Sanctuaries and 17 Tiger
  24. 24. Conservation of Wild Life National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves are made to protect our Natural Vegetation and Wild Life. Conservation of Creeks, Lakes, and Wetlands is necessary to save the precious resource from depletion. There is a balance in the environment if the relative number of species is not disturbed. Human Activities in several parts of the world have disturbed the natural habitats of many species. Due to indiscriminate killings, several birds and animals have either become extinct or are on the verge of extinction. Awareness Programmes like Social Forestry & Vanamohatasava should be encouraged at the regional and community level. School children should be encouraged to bird watch and visit nature camps so that they appreciate the habitat of varied species. Many countries have passed laws against the trade as well as killing of birds and animals. In India, killing Lions, Tigers, Dears, Great Indian Bustards & Peacocks is illegal. An International Convention CITES* has been established that lists several species of animals and birds in which trade is prohibited. Conservation of Plants and Animals is an ethical duty of every citizen.