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Malayan sun bear


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Malayan sun bear

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is the smallest bear species in the world and one of the least studied.  Malayan  They inhibit the tropical forest of South East Asia, ranging from the eastern tip of India, through Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo.
  3. 3. PROBLEM STATEMENTS  Lack of information on Malayan Sun Bear especially in Malaysia.  Lack of conservation awareness of the Malayan Sun Bear.  The habitat for the Malayan Sun Bear decreasing (deforestation).
  4. 4. Conservation goal  Identify critical habitat for Malayan Sun Bear.  Ensure and improve understanding of nature, distribution and the disturbance from human activities.  Develop effective conservation and management plans.  Raise awareness of Malayan Sun Bear and their conservation needs from the publics.
  5. 5. BACKGROUND IUCN Red List Category & Criteria :Vulnerable
  6. 6.  Distribution : Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo in Asia, Indonesia, Eastern India, South China, Tropical and lowland Forest, Bangladesh, Brunei, Myanmar, Singapore (extinct).
  7. 7. Sun bear distribution map for Malaysia and Indonesia
  8. 8.  Habitat : Dense tropical, subtropical forest, mangrove swamp,  Diet : Omnivorous – small vertebrates, insects, saps, honey, fruits, grubs, shoots and others.  Physical characteristics :  The smallest of the world’s eight bear species  The shortest and sleekest coat  Color-black to grey  Length : ~4 and half feet ( 1.2 m)  Weight : < 100 pounds ( 30-60kg)  A very long, slender tongue (8-10 inches)
  9. 9. • • Has large paws with naked soles and sickle-shape claws The short-haired, deep black or brown-black fur on the chest by a pale orange-yellow horseshoeshaped marking. (rising sun)
  10. 10. Six-month-old sun bear Full grown sun bear
  11. 11.  Behaviour : - does not hibernate - nocturnal - an adept climber - resting or sunbathing during the day - bad-tempered  Reproduction and growth : -gestation is usually 96 days. - can reproduce year-round - gestation period of 96 days - sexual maturity after 3-4 years - can produce 1-2 cubs per year - may live up to 30 years in captivity
  12. 12.  Predators: the humans are the only predators  Population Trend (IUCN) Redlist 2012 : - reliable estimates are lacking -declining trend - only 600-1000 left in Burma, Thailand, Sumatra and Malaysia
  13. 13. Habitat requirement  Natural vegetation and tropical forests, including tropical evergreen rainforest, montane forest and swamp habitat.
  14. 14. Major Threats  Two major threats such as habitat loss, and commercial hunting.  Mainly threatened by the loss of forest habitat and forest habitat and forest degradation arising from: clear-cutting for plantation development, unsustainable logging practices (Augeri 2005, Meijaard et al. 2005, Tumbelaka & Fredriksson 2006, Wong 2006), illegal logging both within and outside protected areas (Fuller et al. 2004), and forest fires (Fredriksson et al. 2006b).
  15. 15.  Commercial poaching of bears for the wildlife trade is a considerable threat in most countries (Meijaard, 1999), and is the main threat where deforestation is currently negligible ( for example in Thailand where nearly all remaining forest is within protected areas; Vinitporsawan et al. 2006).  In Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam, sun bears are commonly poached for their gall bladder and bear paws; the former is used as a traditional Chinese Medicine.
  16. 16. The island of Borneo, the location of the reported threats to sun bear survival and sun bear distribution (Meijaard in Press) 1994-97. the cross hatched areas indicate officially protected areas of Borneo (from world conservation monitoring Centre and author’s data) no data on sun bear presence are available for Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei
  17. 17.  Killing bears is illegal in all range countries because to preventing damage to crops (Fredriksson 2005), subsistence use, fear of bears near villages and capture of cubs for pets (the mother being killed in the process).
  18. 18. Conservation site…..
  19. 19. ZOO NEGARA      An oasis amidst a concrete jungle which animal enclosures are located Opened to public in 1963 400 species of Malaysian and exotic mammals, reptiles and birds Malaysia most endangered species have found a home in Zoo Negara :  Tiger (Panthera tigris)  The Sumatran Rhino  Orang Utans  Clouded Leopard  (Neofelis nebulosa)  Storm Stork (Ciconia stormi)  Gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii)  Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) 8 sun bears are available
  20. 20. SAMBOJA LESTARI  Located on East Coast of Borneo, Kalimantan  Orangutan Reintroduction Program that established 6 Orangutan Islands covering 6.52 ha.  The Sun Bear Sanctuary covers a total area of 58 ha  Is home to 52 sun bears - confiscated from the illegal pet trade or rescued from deforested areas from all over Indonesia
  21. 21. Conservation Criteria  For the conservation plan whether the in-situ or ex-situ conservation.  Management of a protected area should be in accordance with the objectives set for it.  Target viable population should be identified.  Diversity of the target species and the status of the species should also be identified.  The target species should be determined and also the naturalness of the target species.  The area of the human interference, their habitat and the threat of the human interference of the target species.
  22. 22.  Conservation Action o o o o o o o o : Killing of sun bears – strictly prohibited under national wildlife protection laws throughout their range Protection of remaining forest from conversion to other land-uses Eliminating unsustainable logging practices Anti-poaching efforts Establishment of new and effectively management of captive and rehabilitation programmes Captive breeding management The Perth zoo is making homes at the zoo for them. The Aza has a species survival plan for sun bears.
  23. 23. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT  Conduct a distribution mapping and status survey: a nationwide distribution survey on the presence absence of sun bear in remaining forest patches. The survey should also identify : a) important habitat blocks for the long term survival of sun bear and their identification as Sun Bear Conservation Units (SBCU);  b) conservation status in each SBCU;  c) population and density estimates in each SBCU; and  d) conservation activities in each SBCU. 
  24. 24.  Conduct a survey on trade of bear parts and captive sun bears:   Research:   collaborate with NGOs (e.g., TRAFFIC-Southeast Asia) to conduct a nationwide survey on trade of sun bears and its body parts, consumption, and identify the status of captive sun bears in the country. conduct ecological research in various habitats types (including logged forest) on life history, reproductive biology, population genetics, and the identification of resources critical to the sun bear’s survival. Improve logging practices and safeguard remaining forested areas: promote environmentally friendly logging practices such as reduced impact logging (RIL),  protect keystone resources in sun bear habitat (e.g., mature fig trees, oak tree patches, and trees with cavities) from logging. The most ideal situation would be to halt logging activities and conversion of the tropical into plantation. 
  25. 25.  Education: promote sun bear conservation awareness to the general public and student,  and promote the legal status of the sun bear to local people who utilize bears, through the development of presentation, posters, brochures and websites.   Strengthen law enforcement: increase penalties for offenders and poachers who commit wildlife crimes.  Increase the frequency of patrolling by qualified and wellarmed law enforcement personnel in protected areas and popular hunting grounds. 
  26. 26. CONCLUSION  According to this survey we were identified 4 factors affecting the survival of sun bear such as : hunting, trade in bears and bear parts, habitat destruction, establishment of plantations (land conversion).  Due to neglect and ignorance, the sun bear is facing a threat of extinction.  However, the international agencies, governments and conservationists are trying their best to protect the sun bear. As a result, one may hope that the population of this rare species would increase significantly in future.
  27. 27. REFERENCE
  28. 28. Thank you