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HYPOTHESIS
Presented by:
K.RAJU
MALLAREDDY MED COLLEGE
DEFNITIONS:
• Hypothesis is considered as an intelligent
guess or prediction, that gives directional to
the researcher to answer the research
question.
• Hypothesis or Hypotheses are defined as the
formal statement of the tentative or expected
prediction or explanation of the relationship
between two or more variables in a specified
population
• A hypothesis is a formal tentative statement of
the expected relationship between two or
more variables under study.
• • A hypothesis helps to translate the research
problem and objective into a clear explanation
or prediction of the expected results or
outcomes of the study.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF HYPOTHESIS
It provides clarity to the research problem and research objectives.
• It describes, explains or predicts the expected results or outcome
of the research.
• It indicates the type of research design.
• It directs the research study process.
It identifies the population of the research study that is to be
investigated or examined.
It facilitates data collection, data analysis and data interpretation
FUNCTIONS
• It enables an investigator to start his research
work.
• It may lead to formulations of another
hypothesis.
• It leads to interpret results drawing
conclusions related to original purpose.
TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
• Simple
• Complex
• Empirical
• Null
• Alternative
• Logical
• statistical
SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS
• Simple hypothesis is that one in which there
exits relationship between two variables one
is called independent variable or cause and
the other is dependent variable or effect.
• Ex. Smoking leads to cancer
• The higher ratio of unemployment leads to
crimes.
COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS
• Complex hypothesis is that one in which as relationship
among variables exists.
• In this type dependent and independent variables are
more than two
• Ex. Smoking and other drugs leads to cancer, tension,
chest infections etc.
• The higher ration of unemployment poverty illiteracy
leads to crimes like dacoit etc.
EMPIRICAL HYPOTHESIS
• Empirical which means it is based on
evidence.
• In scientific method the word "empirical"
refers to the use of working hypothesis that
can be tested using observation and
experiment.
• Empirical data is produced by experiment and
observation.
QUESTION FORM OF HYPOTHESIS
• It Is the simplest form of empirical hypothesis.
• In simple case of investigation and research
are adequately implemented by resuming a
question.
• Ex. how is the ability of 9th class students in
learning moral values?
NULL HYPOTHESIS
• Null the hypothesis that there is no significant
difference between specified populations, any
observed difference being due to sampling or
experimental error.
• It is denoted by H0
ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS
• The alternative hypothesis, denoted by H1 or
Ha,
• Is the hypothesis that sample observations
are influenced by some non-random cause.
STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS
• A hypothesis which can be verified statistically
called statistical hypothesis.
• The statement would be logical or illogical but
if statistic verifies it, it will be statistical
hypothesis..
DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS
• Directional Hypothesis predicts the direction
of the relationship between the independent
and dependent variable.
• Example- High quality of nursing education
will lead to high quality of nursing practice
skills.
• Girls ability of learning moral science is better
than boys.
NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS
• Non -directional Hypothesis predicts the
relationship between the independent
variable and the dependent variable but does
not specific the directional of the relationship.
• Example- teacher student relationship
influence student’s learning.
• There is no significant difference between 9th
class boys and girls abilities of learning moral
values.
CASUAL HYPOTHESIS
• Causal Hypothesis predicts a cause and effects
relationship or interaction between the
independent variable and dependent variable.
• This hypothesis predicts the effect of the
independent variable on the dependent
variable
ASSOCIATIVE HYPOTHESIS
• Associative Hypothesis predicts an associative
relationship between the independent
variable and the dependent variable.
• When there is a change in any one of the
variables, changes also occurs in the other
variable
CHARACTERISTICS
A Hypothesis must be Capable of Verification.
A Hypothesis must be Related to the Existing
Body of Knowledge.
A Hypothesis Needs to be Precise, Simple and
Specific
REFERENCES
• John w for research methodology
• Reseach methodology methods and
techniques –Dr kapoor ,ms pooja saigal

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Hypothesis and its types

  • 2. DEFNITIONS: • Hypothesis is considered as an intelligent guess or prediction, that gives directional to the researcher to answer the research question. • Hypothesis or Hypotheses are defined as the formal statement of the tentative or expected prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables in a specified population
  • 3. • A hypothesis is a formal tentative statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables under study. • • A hypothesis helps to translate the research problem and objective into a clear explanation or prediction of the expected results or outcomes of the study.
  • 4. CONTRIBUTIONS OF HYPOTHESIS It provides clarity to the research problem and research objectives. • It describes, explains or predicts the expected results or outcome of the research. • It indicates the type of research design. • It directs the research study process. It identifies the population of the research study that is to be investigated or examined. It facilitates data collection, data analysis and data interpretation
  • 5. FUNCTIONS • It enables an investigator to start his research work. • It may lead to formulations of another hypothesis. • It leads to interpret results drawing conclusions related to original purpose.
  • 6. TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS • Simple • Complex • Empirical • Null • Alternative • Logical • statistical
  • 7. SIMPLE HYPOTHESIS • Simple hypothesis is that one in which there exits relationship between two variables one is called independent variable or cause and the other is dependent variable or effect. • Ex. Smoking leads to cancer • The higher ratio of unemployment leads to crimes.
  • 8. COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS • Complex hypothesis is that one in which as relationship among variables exists. • In this type dependent and independent variables are more than two • Ex. Smoking and other drugs leads to cancer, tension, chest infections etc. • The higher ration of unemployment poverty illiteracy leads to crimes like dacoit etc.
  • 9. EMPIRICAL HYPOTHESIS • Empirical which means it is based on evidence. • In scientific method the word "empirical" refers to the use of working hypothesis that can be tested using observation and experiment. • Empirical data is produced by experiment and observation.
  • 10. QUESTION FORM OF HYPOTHESIS • It Is the simplest form of empirical hypothesis. • In simple case of investigation and research are adequately implemented by resuming a question. • Ex. how is the ability of 9th class students in learning moral values?
  • 11. NULL HYPOTHESIS • Null the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between specified populations, any observed difference being due to sampling or experimental error. • It is denoted by H0
  • 12. ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS • The alternative hypothesis, denoted by H1 or Ha, • Is the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by some non-random cause.
  • 13. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS • A hypothesis which can be verified statistically called statistical hypothesis. • The statement would be logical or illogical but if statistic verifies it, it will be statistical hypothesis..
  • 14. DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS • Directional Hypothesis predicts the direction of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. • Example- High quality of nursing education will lead to high quality of nursing practice skills. • Girls ability of learning moral science is better than boys.
  • 15. NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS • Non -directional Hypothesis predicts the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable but does not specific the directional of the relationship. • Example- teacher student relationship influence student’s learning. • There is no significant difference between 9th class boys and girls abilities of learning moral values.
  • 16. CASUAL HYPOTHESIS • Causal Hypothesis predicts a cause and effects relationship or interaction between the independent variable and dependent variable. • This hypothesis predicts the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
  • 17. ASSOCIATIVE HYPOTHESIS • Associative Hypothesis predicts an associative relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. • When there is a change in any one of the variables, changes also occurs in the other variable
  • 18. CHARACTERISTICS A Hypothesis must be Capable of Verification. A Hypothesis must be Related to the Existing Body of Knowledge. A Hypothesis Needs to be Precise, Simple and Specific
  • 19. REFERENCES • John w for research methodology • Reseach methodology methods and techniques –Dr kapoor ,ms pooja saigal