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HISTORY OF
ARCHITECTURE
ODISSA TEMPLES
Kalinga temple style is broadly classified into three main categories, namely Rekha, Pidha and
Khakhara.
The Orissa style is believed to showcase the nagara style in all its purity. The nagara was among the three styles of
Hindu temple architecture in India and prevailed in northern India, while in the south, the dravida style predominated
and in central and eastern India, it was the vesara style. These styles can be distinguished by how features such as
ground plan and elevation were represented visually.
ELEMENTS OF
THE TEMPLE
SUN TEMPLE
KONARK
It is very unusual for an entire temple to be built in the
form of a grand, ornamented chariot.
‘
Konark’ is widely believed to be a combination of two
words, ‘kona’ (corner or angle) and ‘arka’ (sun ,
probably due to its geographical position as the place
where sun appears to be rising at an angle, which
makes the site even more sacred.)
Konark Sun Temple dates back to 1250 AD. The
construction of the temple is credited to King
Narasimhadeva I.
This giant temple was built near an old temple
dedicated to Surya, the Sun God. Inscriptions dating
back to the era indicate that the sculpture in that older
temple was re-consecrated into the new temple.
It is believed that this elaborately carved temple was
built over a period of 12 years and with the help of
12,000 artisans.
The Sun Temple in Konark exhibits the traditional Odisha style of architecture,
also known as Kalinga architecture, on a grand scale.The temple is built with
such a fine slant towards the east that the first rays of the rising sun illuminate
the main entrance. This main entrance is ornamented with two huge stone lions
standing on both sides. Both these lions are shown as trampling an elephant
and a man beneath.
The temple complex spreads over 26 acres of land. Three kinds of stones were
used in its construction, namely Chlorite, Laterite, and Khondalite rocks.
PLAN OF THE KONARK SUN
TEMPLE
VIEW OF THE TEMPLE
The temple complex has several structures and architectural
figures they are as follows :
The main existing temple structure.
The giant carved wheels, each of which is a sundial.
Mayadevi Temple, which is believed to be the ancient Sun
Temple that was incorporated when this new temple was built.
Vaishnava Temple that contains the sculptures of various Hindu
deities like Varaha, Balarama, and Vamana-Trivikrama.
Bhoga Mandapa or the kitchen containing water cisterns, cooking
floor, ovens, and demarcated areas for grinding grains and spices
Nata Mandir or the dancing hall, full of carved images of dancers
and musicians
The Nava Graha or Nine Planets Temple
Intricately carved figures of elephants, horses, and lions at the
entranceVarious images of mythical creatures, musicians,
dancers, and erotic sculptures
Well
Nata Mandir
Bhoga Mandapa
Mayadevi
Temple,
Vaishnava
Temple
This main entrance is ornamented with two huge stone
lions standing on both sides. Both these lions are
shown as trampling an elephant and a man beneath.
Nata Mandir or the dancing
hall, full of carved images of
dancers and musicians
Bhoga Mandapa or the
kitchen containing water
cisterns, cooking floor, ovens,
and demarcated areas for
grinding grains and spices
Well – This monument is located
north of the kitchen, towards its
eastern flank, was probably built to
supply water to the community kitchen
and bhoga mandapa. Near the well
are a pillared mandapa and five
structures, some with semi-circular
steps
It is very unusual for an entire temple to be built in
the form of a grand, ornamented chariot. It is
designed as a massive chariot mounted on 12
pairs of intricately carved giant stone wheels that
are drawn by a set of seven mighty stone horses
to symbolize the passage of time, which is
assumed to be governed by the Sun God. The set
of horses is meant to represent the seven days of
the week, while the 12 pairs of wheels reference
the 12 months of the year.
Between the chariot wheels, the plinth of the temple
is decorated with detailed reliefs of animals,
musicians and dancers, and erotic figures. Carved
figures, human and mythical, images of gods and
goddesses, cult icons, motifs and designs cover the
exterior walls, from top to bottom
Legend has it that the temple's plans were so
accurate that the first rays of the rising sun fell on
the image of surya enshrined within the garbha
griha or sanctum sanctorum of the main tem
MAIN TEMPLE
The sun god is seen wearing a short lower garment
(antariya) in the drawer style (one end of the garment
drawn between the legs and tucked in the waist at the
back) and many ornaments. These include a girdle at
the waist, a necklace of five beaded strings with a
central clasp, armlets, ear-rings and a crown. These
have been carved with such intricacy that each bead
and motif is clearly visible. The hair is worn in a bun
on the crown of the head. A halo is seen around the
head, with tongues of flames protruding outwards. He
holds lotus stalks in both his hands and is surrounded
by several attendant figures, including celestial
dancers and the king offering obeisance along with
his family priest.
A colossal idol of Surya in the southern niche of the sanctuary is
a characteristic sculpture of this temple.
The entire sculpture stands on a chlorite pedestal and is made
from a single piece. It is 3.38 metres high, 1.8 metres wide and
71 cm thick.
The original temple consisted of the main sanctuary, called Bada
Deul or Rekha Deul, which was surrounded by other smaller
structures. In front of the main sanctuary stood another smaller
sanctum called the Bhadra Deul or the assembly hall of the
people. It is believed that the main sanctuary had a height of
around 225 feet,
This sanctum is celebrated for its intricate artwork, themes, and
iconography that include erotic depictions as well, much like the
Khajuraho Temple in Madhya Pradesh.
It has four doorways on its four sides.
The western one leads to the antarala (inner sanctum), whereas
the others lead to the porches outside.
The interior is left unadorned excepting a five feet (1.5 metre)
wide ornamental chlorite block on the sides and top of the
door-way of the inner sanctum, like those fixed over the entrances
to the Jagamohana.
Pairs of animals were also made to guard the three staircases of
the porch in different directions, and are regarded as
masterpieces of the sculptural art of the Odisha region. These
include two rampant lions standing on crouching elephants in the
east, gaily decorated and harnessed elephants to the north and
two beautifully caparisoned warhorses to the south.
REKHA DEUL:BIG SANCTUM
The Sun Temple is a wonderful
culmination of all the defining elements
of Kalinga architecture and includes a
jaganmohan (audience hall), shikhara
(crown), vimana (tower), and natmandir
(dance hall)
The elephants and horses have since been re-installed on new pedestals, only a few
metres distant from the original locations, and now face the porch. The
lions-on-elephants now lie to the front of the eastern stairs of the bhoga-mandapa.
Though covered with plaster, the original colour of these sculptures was dark red
patches of which are still visible.
Mayadevi Temple – Located westi .It consists of a
sanctuary, a mandapa and, before it, an open platform. It
is dedicated to Surya's wife and thus named the
Mayadevi Temple.
This temple also has numerous carvings and a square
mandapa is overlain by a sapta-ratha. The sanctum of
this Surya temple features a Nataraja. Other deities in
the interior include a damaged Surya holding a lotus,
along with Agni, Varuna, Vishnu, and Vayu.
Vaishnava Temple that contains the sculptures of various
Hindu deities like Varaha, Balarama, and
Vamana-Trivikrama.

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history of architecture oddisa

  • 2. Kalinga temple style is broadly classified into three main categories, namely Rekha, Pidha and Khakhara. The Orissa style is believed to showcase the nagara style in all its purity. The nagara was among the three styles of Hindu temple architecture in India and prevailed in northern India, while in the south, the dravida style predominated and in central and eastern India, it was the vesara style. These styles can be distinguished by how features such as ground plan and elevation were represented visually.
  • 5. It is very unusual for an entire temple to be built in the form of a grand, ornamented chariot. ‘ Konark’ is widely believed to be a combination of two words, ‘kona’ (corner or angle) and ‘arka’ (sun , probably due to its geographical position as the place where sun appears to be rising at an angle, which makes the site even more sacred.) Konark Sun Temple dates back to 1250 AD. The construction of the temple is credited to King Narasimhadeva I. This giant temple was built near an old temple dedicated to Surya, the Sun God. Inscriptions dating back to the era indicate that the sculpture in that older temple was re-consecrated into the new temple. It is believed that this elaborately carved temple was built over a period of 12 years and with the help of 12,000 artisans.
  • 6. The Sun Temple in Konark exhibits the traditional Odisha style of architecture, also known as Kalinga architecture, on a grand scale.The temple is built with such a fine slant towards the east that the first rays of the rising sun illuminate the main entrance. This main entrance is ornamented with two huge stone lions standing on both sides. Both these lions are shown as trampling an elephant and a man beneath. The temple complex spreads over 26 acres of land. Three kinds of stones were used in its construction, namely Chlorite, Laterite, and Khondalite rocks.
  • 7. PLAN OF THE KONARK SUN TEMPLE VIEW OF THE TEMPLE
  • 8. The temple complex has several structures and architectural figures they are as follows : The main existing temple structure. The giant carved wheels, each of which is a sundial. Mayadevi Temple, which is believed to be the ancient Sun Temple that was incorporated when this new temple was built. Vaishnava Temple that contains the sculptures of various Hindu deities like Varaha, Balarama, and Vamana-Trivikrama. Bhoga Mandapa or the kitchen containing water cisterns, cooking floor, ovens, and demarcated areas for grinding grains and spices Nata Mandir or the dancing hall, full of carved images of dancers and musicians The Nava Graha or Nine Planets Temple Intricately carved figures of elephants, horses, and lions at the entranceVarious images of mythical creatures, musicians, dancers, and erotic sculptures
  • 10. This main entrance is ornamented with two huge stone lions standing on both sides. Both these lions are shown as trampling an elephant and a man beneath.
  • 11. Nata Mandir or the dancing hall, full of carved images of dancers and musicians Bhoga Mandapa or the kitchen containing water cisterns, cooking floor, ovens, and demarcated areas for grinding grains and spices Well – This monument is located north of the kitchen, towards its eastern flank, was probably built to supply water to the community kitchen and bhoga mandapa. Near the well are a pillared mandapa and five structures, some with semi-circular steps
  • 12. It is very unusual for an entire temple to be built in the form of a grand, ornamented chariot. It is designed as a massive chariot mounted on 12 pairs of intricately carved giant stone wheels that are drawn by a set of seven mighty stone horses to symbolize the passage of time, which is assumed to be governed by the Sun God. The set of horses is meant to represent the seven days of the week, while the 12 pairs of wheels reference the 12 months of the year. Between the chariot wheels, the plinth of the temple is decorated with detailed reliefs of animals, musicians and dancers, and erotic figures. Carved figures, human and mythical, images of gods and goddesses, cult icons, motifs and designs cover the exterior walls, from top to bottom Legend has it that the temple's plans were so accurate that the first rays of the rising sun fell on the image of surya enshrined within the garbha griha or sanctum sanctorum of the main tem MAIN TEMPLE
  • 13. The sun god is seen wearing a short lower garment (antariya) in the drawer style (one end of the garment drawn between the legs and tucked in the waist at the back) and many ornaments. These include a girdle at the waist, a necklace of five beaded strings with a central clasp, armlets, ear-rings and a crown. These have been carved with such intricacy that each bead and motif is clearly visible. The hair is worn in a bun on the crown of the head. A halo is seen around the head, with tongues of flames protruding outwards. He holds lotus stalks in both his hands and is surrounded by several attendant figures, including celestial dancers and the king offering obeisance along with his family priest. A colossal idol of Surya in the southern niche of the sanctuary is a characteristic sculpture of this temple. The entire sculpture stands on a chlorite pedestal and is made from a single piece. It is 3.38 metres high, 1.8 metres wide and 71 cm thick.
  • 14. The original temple consisted of the main sanctuary, called Bada Deul or Rekha Deul, which was surrounded by other smaller structures. In front of the main sanctuary stood another smaller sanctum called the Bhadra Deul or the assembly hall of the people. It is believed that the main sanctuary had a height of around 225 feet, This sanctum is celebrated for its intricate artwork, themes, and iconography that include erotic depictions as well, much like the Khajuraho Temple in Madhya Pradesh. It has four doorways on its four sides. The western one leads to the antarala (inner sanctum), whereas the others lead to the porches outside. The interior is left unadorned excepting a five feet (1.5 metre) wide ornamental chlorite block on the sides and top of the door-way of the inner sanctum, like those fixed over the entrances to the Jagamohana. Pairs of animals were also made to guard the three staircases of the porch in different directions, and are regarded as masterpieces of the sculptural art of the Odisha region. These include two rampant lions standing on crouching elephants in the east, gaily decorated and harnessed elephants to the north and two beautifully caparisoned warhorses to the south. REKHA DEUL:BIG SANCTUM The Sun Temple is a wonderful culmination of all the defining elements of Kalinga architecture and includes a jaganmohan (audience hall), shikhara (crown), vimana (tower), and natmandir (dance hall)
  • 15. The elephants and horses have since been re-installed on new pedestals, only a few metres distant from the original locations, and now face the porch. The lions-on-elephants now lie to the front of the eastern stairs of the bhoga-mandapa. Though covered with plaster, the original colour of these sculptures was dark red patches of which are still visible.
  • 16. Mayadevi Temple – Located westi .It consists of a sanctuary, a mandapa and, before it, an open platform. It is dedicated to Surya's wife and thus named the Mayadevi Temple. This temple also has numerous carvings and a square mandapa is overlain by a sapta-ratha. The sanctum of this Surya temple features a Nataraja. Other deities in the interior include a damaged Surya holding a lotus, along with Agni, Varuna, Vishnu, and Vayu. Vaishnava Temple that contains the sculptures of various Hindu deities like Varaha, Balarama, and Vamana-Trivikrama.