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19261AA001-VASAVI
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ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
INTRODUCTION
● Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced by and for Islamic patrons and purposes.
Despite an initial Arab presence in Sindh, the development of Indo-Islamic architecture began in earnest with the establishment of
Delhi as the capital of the Ghurid dynasty in 1193.
● Succeeding the Ghurids was the Delhi Sultanate, a series of Central Asian dynasties that consolidated much of North India, and
later the Mughal Empire by the 15th century. Both of these dynasties introduced Persianate, Turkic and Islamicate architecture and
art styles from Western Eurasia into the Indian subcontinent.
● Architecturally the mosque is wholly visible and intelligible while the temple is not infrequent Introspective ,complex and
indeterminate
GHURIDS
The representation of natural forms is prohibited by islamicUsage,whereas the walls of temples pulsate imageary And
their interiors have decorative lettering attained itsHighest form in sculptured texts in muslim spaces of worship
the Hindus being bound by a code of hieratic and conventional rules, while the Muslims built up around an
academic tradition order, as all spaces were spanned by means of beams laid horizontally; as distinct from this the
Mohammedan builders had adopted the arch as a method of bridging a space, so that their style was arcuate The
appearance of the arch in the building conStruction of Islam may be traced to the contact of the early
Mohammedans with the architectural development of the post-Roman period, as they were quick to see the
scientific advantages of this feature, and appropriated it accordingly. although in a different form.
There was the effect of appearance over the face of the country as a whole. hitherto the "sky-line" of the buildings
took the form of flat or low pointed roofs and the spire or sikhara.With the mohommedans came an entirely new
shape the dome ,so that there was a change from the pyramidaI to the ovoid. and before long the characteristic
architectural feature of many of the cities and towns ..and even
the villages was the White bulbous dome.
This was a cementing agent in the form of mortar, and so we find for the first time mortar-masonry figuring freely in Indian building
construction. Instead of the simple and primitive method of placing one stone on the other, in a position that the pressure was
vertical and directly downwards, involving no structural problems.
The employment of the latter and less permanent materials was resorted to in the nature of an expedient, owing to a demand for the
part of the earlier Moslems in the realization of their plans.
by the time the movement reached India. and the invaders were accordingly able to take advantage of the more deliberate '
method of the indigenous workmen.
Islamic architecture
Two factors were largely responsible for this brilliant exposition of the style in India, firstly its relatively late
development.and secondly the remarkable genius of the indigenous Craftsmen.
The real excellence of Indo-Islamic architecture was due to the second of these factors-the living knowledge and
skill possessed by the Indian craftsmen,particularly in the art of working stone, in which they were unequalled.
This perfection had been achieved through centuries of experience in temple-building. The manipulation of stone in
all parts of the country had been practised on a scale that most of the Islamic architecture in India is composed of
masonry form ~ stone is significant as Mohammedan buildings in other countries, with certain exceptions, were
largely constructed of brick, plaster, and rubble.
● Unlike the Architecture of the Hindus, which as may be seen was confined almost entirely to temples ,
Mohammedan architecture in india is represented by many different types of buildings , which however may be
referred to the conventional divisions of (A) Religious and (b) Secular.
● Those of a religious nature consist of two kinds only- the mosque and thy tomb.
● On the other hand the secular buildings are of a miscellaneous order , as among them may be included those
intended for public and civic purposes , such as houses, pavilions, town gates , wells, gardens etc., bedsides the
large imperial schemes of palace fronts and even the entire cities
● Taking the religious structures first, the mosque, or ...... literally "the place of prostration" as already shown , is
not only the all-important building of the faith but it is also the key-note of the style.
● The original intention was to-provide no specific structUre for devotional purposes , as_ prayer cOuld be
performed in the open air With nothing between the devotee and his God.
● This began with a rectangular open space or sahn, the four sides being enclosed by pillared cloisters with a
fountain or tank hi the centre for ~ abulations ,and ceremony described as "the half of faith and the key of
prayer
An elevated platform from which the muezzin summons the faithful to prayer is also a necessity, and usually takes the
form of a high tower or minaret. In almost every city and large town, there is one mosque known as the Jamma Masjid.
DEMOLITION AND REUSE OF MATERIALS
The historian quoted above mentions that much of the demolition was affected by elephant power, these animals being
employed to push the beams and pillars out of position, gather them up, and carry them to their new situation, much as
they now stack timber, or haul teak wood logs for commercial ~. It was during this phase that the temple buildings
suffered most, as whenever any fresh territory was annexed, and the founding of a capital city contemplated, these
structures became the quarries from which supplies of cut stone were extracted. This accounts for considerable areas in
Upper India being almost entirely denuded of any records of Hindu architecture, notably around such early Islamic centres
as Delhi and Ajmer. The spoils of these temples, however, had to be supplemented in places by a certain amount of new
and original masonry, as may be seen in mosques of the early type, so that the materials were obtained from two sources
and, as tersely described by the chronicler" the stones were dug out from the hills, and the temples of the infidels were
demolished to furnish a supply."
TRUE ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
Finally. there was the third phase, when the :Muslims having become firmly established in various parts
of the country, found themselves in a position to p1an and create building compositions constructed of
masonry , not re-conditioned, but each stone prepared specially for its purpose. It was in the latter'
circumstances that Islamic architecture in India arrived at its true character and achieved its greatest
splendour.
SOURCES OF
ISLAMIC
ARCHITECTURE
● With the establishment of their capital at delhi,towards the end of the
twelth century, the architectural ideals of islam,as visualised by the
Muhammadan invaders,began to be introduced in India.
● Two instances of penetration by the muslims are recorded in which building
according to islamic needs were erected,but of these no actual traces
remain,although traditions still survive.
● Intruders introduced the glazed tile decoration imported from the
Babylonian cities of the plains.
● Old punjab capital are relics of ancient brick and Timbered structures
● Ornamental elements persisted and were Incorporated not infrequently in
the islamic Art which developed shortly afterward.
● Under the vigorous rule of the founder of the Slave dynasty,
Qutb-ud-din Aibak. (dec. 1210) important building schemes were
initiated, prefiguring a notable movement in the sphere of
architectural design and in its methods of construction.
● This ruler's first effort was the creation of the Qutb Mosque in
II95. erected on the spacious substructure of a Hindu temple. and
consisting solely of spoils ravaged from existing temples in this
area.
● Such a compilation had little architectural significance. it was
merely an assortment of pillars and other temple components
arranged in columned aisles to produce the necessary mosque
enclosure.
● The Structure being entirely original work may be regarded as the
first example remaining of a definite Islamic order erected on
Indian soil.
Detail on facade , Qutb mosque
Qutub minar
Balcony details of qutub minar
● The Qutb Minar, a monumental tower to form part of the Qutb Mosque scheme and of
such proportIons that it took several years to complete.
● This was followed by the construction of a Mosque at Ajmer, known as the Adhai-Din
-Ka Jhonpra, the general plan of which carried out the same system as the Mosque at
Delhi.
● These three buildings form a group, executed approximately between the rears 1195
to 1205. thus representing a decade of archItectural effort of marked portent. and
during which were laid the foundations of Islamic building art in India.
● A cultural and creative current was finding its way to Delhi, providing the experience
and knowledge.
Adhai-din-ka-jhonpra
● Adopting Konia, the ancient city of "Iconium" as their capital ,they began to
embellish the country as their homeland with an architecture style that was
richly decorated and well-constructed,as the palaces,mosques,colleges etc.
● These relatively Uncivilized desert people were able to develop a building art
of such excellence in the course of a short period by concurrence of
circumstances of unusual nature.
● Their architectural compositions appear to have been largely self originated
,expressive of a community unfettered by previous conventions.
● Their nature was such that they infused a freshness and inventiveness into
the older older procedure,investing it with a new vigour.
● Equally sound was Their constructional usage and choice of materials.Their
masonry as a whole showing marked technical experience.
● The character of the building art ,as this developed under the Saljuqs up to the 13th century maybe
traced to a synthesis of two contrasting conditions:
The imaginative vision of the Asiatic
The scientific ingenuity of the Latin
● To the former it owes its rich decorative treatment obtained by a blending of white marble and red
sandstone carved in patterns of subtle curves,intricate,geometrical designs.
● From the latter,by adopting the herodian system of stone bonding,their masons were enabled to
erect the solid walling,towering pointed arches,utilized with such impressiveness the interior halls
of saljuq palace-Sarais.
● It is significant that these colonnades of massives piers imposing pointed arches are contemporary
with vaulted aisles of the Gothic cathedrals to which they bear a strange resemblance
TYPES OF ARCHES
VARIETIES OF SQUINCH
● From such a catastrophic episode as the Mongol invasion,in the course of which countries were
obliterated,civilizations destroyed,and whole populations exterminated ,this was the forced
dispersal,re-distribution and re-allocation of specialized knowledge.
● Among those refugees who survived this wide-spread holocaust were certain individuals learned in the arts
and sciences.
● These people,by some means evaded the chaos ,and eventually succeeded in making their way to those
countries which lay, outside the regions devastated by these barbaric hordes,to seek safety and security.
● Before this stage however was reached it will have become evident that the influence of
the national art of Persia was intrinsically increasiog in the style of buildings being erected
in the Delhi region, due on the one hand, to tlie marked strengthening of tl:is adjacent and
on the other to the corresponding weakening of the rule of the Delhi Sultanate.
● As regards the former it has been remarked that the Cenius of the Persian craftsman is of
a special order, and lies in his ability for sustained effort in handling tractile media, as
proved by his marvellous textiles and lustrous earthenware, while in the sphere of
architecture he obtains his effects by the facile manipulation of plastic materials, such as
brick and glazed tiles, so much so that his arts tend to aim at lavish and brilliant colour
rather than at structural form.
PERSIAN EARTHENWARE AND TEXTILES
● Handicrafts of this kind made little appeal to the Indian master-mason, who in his
building schemes had all along been accus-tomed to treat architecture as what may be
termed, a heavy industry, its fabric being composed of blocks of solid stone, won by hard
labour in the quarry, and its enrichment brought by the forceful application of the hammer
and chisel.
● It will be seen, therefore, that inspiration from a people possessing a similar applicability
and following and anloogous technical procedure-an instance of stone calling to stone,-
would find readier acceptance, so that in due course the richly moulded surfaces and
accentuated planes of the more substantial art of the Saljuqs took precedence over the
brilliantly coloured but less solid productions of the Timurids.
● But it was not long .before those elements characteristic of
Islamic architecture. the vault and the dome as put into
practice by the Persian builders. were accepted by the
masons working in India. adapted however in their technical
treatment to conform With the change brought about by the
use of other materials and methods.
● As the control of the country passed into the hands of the
Kughuls. the "Persianization" of all cultural pursuits became
more pronounced. although during the reign of the Emperor
Akbar (1556-1605). under this forceful monarch's
individualistic inspiration, for a time a return was made. in
the fiekl of the building arts. to the more indigenous styles
of India as may be seen within the Fort at Agra, and the city
of Fatehpur Sikri. but even in these immense imperial
undertakings a Persian undercurrent runs throughout
merged with regional modes readily distinguishable.
Later, under the direct patronage of Shah Jahan (1621-58). whose
sumptuous building schemes culminated in the world-renowned Taj Mahal, the structural
productions of his time, show in their general appearance; that the glued brick double domes and
recessed arcades of the Safevid period, enriching such cities as Ispahan and Tabriz. were to a
certain extent, reproduced in tangible form, but without their brilliant surface colouring, in the
sandstone masonry and white marble overlay of the Mughuls.

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Islamic architecture

  • 2. INTRODUCTION ● Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced by and for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an initial Arab presence in Sindh, the development of Indo-Islamic architecture began in earnest with the establishment of Delhi as the capital of the Ghurid dynasty in 1193. ● Succeeding the Ghurids was the Delhi Sultanate, a series of Central Asian dynasties that consolidated much of North India, and later the Mughal Empire by the 15th century. Both of these dynasties introduced Persianate, Turkic and Islamicate architecture and art styles from Western Eurasia into the Indian subcontinent. ● Architecturally the mosque is wholly visible and intelligible while the temple is not infrequent Introspective ,complex and indeterminate GHURIDS
  • 3. The representation of natural forms is prohibited by islamicUsage,whereas the walls of temples pulsate imageary And their interiors have decorative lettering attained itsHighest form in sculptured texts in muslim spaces of worship the Hindus being bound by a code of hieratic and conventional rules, while the Muslims built up around an academic tradition order, as all spaces were spanned by means of beams laid horizontally; as distinct from this the Mohammedan builders had adopted the arch as a method of bridging a space, so that their style was arcuate The appearance of the arch in the building conStruction of Islam may be traced to the contact of the early Mohammedans with the architectural development of the post-Roman period, as they were quick to see the scientific advantages of this feature, and appropriated it accordingly. although in a different form. There was the effect of appearance over the face of the country as a whole. hitherto the "sky-line" of the buildings took the form of flat or low pointed roofs and the spire or sikhara.With the mohommedans came an entirely new shape the dome ,so that there was a change from the pyramidaI to the ovoid. and before long the characteristic architectural feature of many of the cities and towns ..and even the villages was the White bulbous dome.
  • 4. This was a cementing agent in the form of mortar, and so we find for the first time mortar-masonry figuring freely in Indian building construction. Instead of the simple and primitive method of placing one stone on the other, in a position that the pressure was vertical and directly downwards, involving no structural problems. The employment of the latter and less permanent materials was resorted to in the nature of an expedient, owing to a demand for the part of the earlier Moslems in the realization of their plans. by the time the movement reached India. and the invaders were accordingly able to take advantage of the more deliberate ' method of the indigenous workmen.
  • 6. Two factors were largely responsible for this brilliant exposition of the style in India, firstly its relatively late development.and secondly the remarkable genius of the indigenous Craftsmen. The real excellence of Indo-Islamic architecture was due to the second of these factors-the living knowledge and skill possessed by the Indian craftsmen,particularly in the art of working stone, in which they were unequalled. This perfection had been achieved through centuries of experience in temple-building. The manipulation of stone in all parts of the country had been practised on a scale that most of the Islamic architecture in India is composed of masonry form ~ stone is significant as Mohammedan buildings in other countries, with certain exceptions, were largely constructed of brick, plaster, and rubble.
  • 7. ● Unlike the Architecture of the Hindus, which as may be seen was confined almost entirely to temples , Mohammedan architecture in india is represented by many different types of buildings , which however may be referred to the conventional divisions of (A) Religious and (b) Secular. ● Those of a religious nature consist of two kinds only- the mosque and thy tomb. ● On the other hand the secular buildings are of a miscellaneous order , as among them may be included those intended for public and civic purposes , such as houses, pavilions, town gates , wells, gardens etc., bedsides the large imperial schemes of palace fronts and even the entire cities ● Taking the religious structures first, the mosque, or ...... literally "the place of prostration" as already shown , is not only the all-important building of the faith but it is also the key-note of the style. ● The original intention was to-provide no specific structUre for devotional purposes , as_ prayer cOuld be performed in the open air With nothing between the devotee and his God. ● This began with a rectangular open space or sahn, the four sides being enclosed by pillared cloisters with a fountain or tank hi the centre for ~ abulations ,and ceremony described as "the half of faith and the key of prayer
  • 8. An elevated platform from which the muezzin summons the faithful to prayer is also a necessity, and usually takes the form of a high tower or minaret. In almost every city and large town, there is one mosque known as the Jamma Masjid.
  • 9. DEMOLITION AND REUSE OF MATERIALS The historian quoted above mentions that much of the demolition was affected by elephant power, these animals being employed to push the beams and pillars out of position, gather them up, and carry them to their new situation, much as they now stack timber, or haul teak wood logs for commercial ~. It was during this phase that the temple buildings suffered most, as whenever any fresh territory was annexed, and the founding of a capital city contemplated, these structures became the quarries from which supplies of cut stone were extracted. This accounts for considerable areas in Upper India being almost entirely denuded of any records of Hindu architecture, notably around such early Islamic centres as Delhi and Ajmer. The spoils of these temples, however, had to be supplemented in places by a certain amount of new and original masonry, as may be seen in mosques of the early type, so that the materials were obtained from two sources and, as tersely described by the chronicler" the stones were dug out from the hills, and the temples of the infidels were demolished to furnish a supply."
  • 10. TRUE ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Finally. there was the third phase, when the :Muslims having become firmly established in various parts of the country, found themselves in a position to p1an and create building compositions constructed of masonry , not re-conditioned, but each stone prepared specially for its purpose. It was in the latter' circumstances that Islamic architecture in India arrived at its true character and achieved its greatest splendour.
  • 12. ● With the establishment of their capital at delhi,towards the end of the twelth century, the architectural ideals of islam,as visualised by the Muhammadan invaders,began to be introduced in India. ● Two instances of penetration by the muslims are recorded in which building according to islamic needs were erected,but of these no actual traces remain,although traditions still survive. ● Intruders introduced the glazed tile decoration imported from the Babylonian cities of the plains. ● Old punjab capital are relics of ancient brick and Timbered structures ● Ornamental elements persisted and were Incorporated not infrequently in the islamic Art which developed shortly afterward.
  • 13. ● Under the vigorous rule of the founder of the Slave dynasty, Qutb-ud-din Aibak. (dec. 1210) important building schemes were initiated, prefiguring a notable movement in the sphere of architectural design and in its methods of construction. ● This ruler's first effort was the creation of the Qutb Mosque in II95. erected on the spacious substructure of a Hindu temple. and consisting solely of spoils ravaged from existing temples in this area. ● Such a compilation had little architectural significance. it was merely an assortment of pillars and other temple components arranged in columned aisles to produce the necessary mosque enclosure. ● The Structure being entirely original work may be regarded as the first example remaining of a definite Islamic order erected on Indian soil.
  • 14. Detail on facade , Qutb mosque
  • 15. Qutub minar Balcony details of qutub minar
  • 16. ● The Qutb Minar, a monumental tower to form part of the Qutb Mosque scheme and of such proportIons that it took several years to complete. ● This was followed by the construction of a Mosque at Ajmer, known as the Adhai-Din -Ka Jhonpra, the general plan of which carried out the same system as the Mosque at Delhi. ● These three buildings form a group, executed approximately between the rears 1195 to 1205. thus representing a decade of archItectural effort of marked portent. and during which were laid the foundations of Islamic building art in India. ● A cultural and creative current was finding its way to Delhi, providing the experience and knowledge.
  • 18. ● Adopting Konia, the ancient city of "Iconium" as their capital ,they began to embellish the country as their homeland with an architecture style that was richly decorated and well-constructed,as the palaces,mosques,colleges etc. ● These relatively Uncivilized desert people were able to develop a building art of such excellence in the course of a short period by concurrence of circumstances of unusual nature. ● Their architectural compositions appear to have been largely self originated ,expressive of a community unfettered by previous conventions. ● Their nature was such that they infused a freshness and inventiveness into the older older procedure,investing it with a new vigour. ● Equally sound was Their constructional usage and choice of materials.Their masonry as a whole showing marked technical experience.
  • 19. ● The character of the building art ,as this developed under the Saljuqs up to the 13th century maybe traced to a synthesis of two contrasting conditions: The imaginative vision of the Asiatic The scientific ingenuity of the Latin ● To the former it owes its rich decorative treatment obtained by a blending of white marble and red sandstone carved in patterns of subtle curves,intricate,geometrical designs. ● From the latter,by adopting the herodian system of stone bonding,their masons were enabled to erect the solid walling,towering pointed arches,utilized with such impressiveness the interior halls of saljuq palace-Sarais. ● It is significant that these colonnades of massives piers imposing pointed arches are contemporary with vaulted aisles of the Gothic cathedrals to which they bear a strange resemblance
  • 22. ● From such a catastrophic episode as the Mongol invasion,in the course of which countries were obliterated,civilizations destroyed,and whole populations exterminated ,this was the forced dispersal,re-distribution and re-allocation of specialized knowledge. ● Among those refugees who survived this wide-spread holocaust were certain individuals learned in the arts and sciences. ● These people,by some means evaded the chaos ,and eventually succeeded in making their way to those countries which lay, outside the regions devastated by these barbaric hordes,to seek safety and security.
  • 23. ● Before this stage however was reached it will have become evident that the influence of the national art of Persia was intrinsically increasiog in the style of buildings being erected in the Delhi region, due on the one hand, to tlie marked strengthening of tl:is adjacent and on the other to the corresponding weakening of the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. ● As regards the former it has been remarked that the Cenius of the Persian craftsman is of a special order, and lies in his ability for sustained effort in handling tractile media, as proved by his marvellous textiles and lustrous earthenware, while in the sphere of architecture he obtains his effects by the facile manipulation of plastic materials, such as brick and glazed tiles, so much so that his arts tend to aim at lavish and brilliant colour rather than at structural form.
  • 25. ● Handicrafts of this kind made little appeal to the Indian master-mason, who in his building schemes had all along been accus-tomed to treat architecture as what may be termed, a heavy industry, its fabric being composed of blocks of solid stone, won by hard labour in the quarry, and its enrichment brought by the forceful application of the hammer and chisel. ● It will be seen, therefore, that inspiration from a people possessing a similar applicability and following and anloogous technical procedure-an instance of stone calling to stone,- would find readier acceptance, so that in due course the richly moulded surfaces and accentuated planes of the more substantial art of the Saljuqs took precedence over the brilliantly coloured but less solid productions of the Timurids.
  • 26. ● But it was not long .before those elements characteristic of Islamic architecture. the vault and the dome as put into practice by the Persian builders. were accepted by the masons working in India. adapted however in their technical treatment to conform With the change brought about by the use of other materials and methods. ● As the control of the country passed into the hands of the Kughuls. the "Persianization" of all cultural pursuits became more pronounced. although during the reign of the Emperor Akbar (1556-1605). under this forceful monarch's individualistic inspiration, for a time a return was made. in the fiekl of the building arts. to the more indigenous styles of India as may be seen within the Fort at Agra, and the city of Fatehpur Sikri. but even in these immense imperial undertakings a Persian undercurrent runs throughout merged with regional modes readily distinguishable.
  • 27. Later, under the direct patronage of Shah Jahan (1621-58). whose sumptuous building schemes culminated in the world-renowned Taj Mahal, the structural productions of his time, show in their general appearance; that the glued brick double domes and recessed arcades of the Safevid period, enriching such cities as Ispahan and Tabriz. were to a certain extent, reproduced in tangible form, but without their brilliant surface colouring, in the sandstone masonry and white marble overlay of the Mughuls.