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Greek Civilization
Greek Civilization
Greek Civilization
Greek Civilization
emerged in a rugged remote corner of Southeastern
Europe
gave rise to a classical civilization

Early People of Aegean
Crete - cradle of an early civilization that later
influenced Greeks

Minoan Civilization
Minos – a legendary King of Crete
Success was based on trade
Set up outposts throughout the Aegean world
Acquired ideas and technology from Egypt and
Mesopotamia
Rulers lived at Knossos
Rooms for royal families, religious shrines,
banquet halls and working areas for artisans.

A Civilization Disappears
Volcanic eruption
Earthquake followed by tidal waves
Invasion of Mycenaeans

Mycenaean
Indo- Europian people
Sea traders
Learned may skills including the art of writing
Lived in a separate city-states
A warrior King built a thick walled fortress
Greek Civilization
Economic rivalry between Mycenaeans and Troy
Troy controlled the passages that connect
Meditteranean and Black Seas
Greek legend contributes the war to a romantic
cause.

The Age of Homer
Mycenaean civilization crumbled under the attack of
sea raiders
Dorian invasion from the north
People abandoned the cities
2 Greek Epic Poems
Iliad

Chief source of information about Trojan
Story involves Gods, Goddesses and even a
talking horse
Story of Achilles, the mightiest warrior
Odyssey
Struggles of Odysseus
The ancient Greeks absorbed many ideas and
beliefs from Mesopotamia and Egypt
Developed unique ideas about how best to govern
city-states

Mountains and Valleys
Greece – part of Balkan Peninsula which extends
southward into the Eastern Mediterranean sea
Mountains divide the peninsula into valleys
Hundreds of rocky islands spread toward the horizon
Greeks built a small city-states, cut off from one
another by land or water
Endless rivalry led to frequent wars
Mediterranean and Aegean seas
Provided a vital link to the world
Coastlines provided safe harbor for ships
Greeks become skilled sailors
Carried cargoes of olive oil, wine and marble
Sailed to Egypt, the Middle East and Asia Minor
Returned with grains, metals and ideas
Greeks expanded the Phoenician alphabet
Greeks alphabet became the basis for all Western
alphabets

Rapid population growth forced Greeks to leave
Wherever they traveled, Greek settlers and traders
carried their ideas and culture.
Unique version of city-states
Acropolis – high city with great marble temples
Flatter ground – marketplace, theater, public
buildings and homes

Early Governments
King – ruler of polis
Monarchy – central power
Aristocracy - power shifted to a class of noble
landowners
Oligarchy – power is in the hands of small, powerful
elite from business class (merchants, farmers,,
artisans)
Increased power of the middle class
Iron weapons and tools
New method of fighting emerged
Phalanx – massive formation of a heavily armed foot
soldiers
Two most influencial city-states, Sparta and Athens

SPARTA: A NATION OF SOLDIERS
Spartans were Dorians
Spartan Government
Two Kings
Council of elders
Five Ephors
Children were prepared to be part of the military
Age 7, boys began training
Age 20, man could marry
Age 30, after specialized training, took his place in
the assembly

Sparta and Its Neighbors
Spartans isolated themselves
They were admired by their military skills
Suffered from its rigid ways
Warrior class shrank
Its power declined
Located in Attica, north of Peloponnesus
From monarchy to aristocracy
Nobles judged major cases and dominated the
assembly

Demands for Change
Athenian wealth and power grew under
aristocracy
Merchants and soldiers wanted more rights
Farmers demanded change
Moves slowly towards democracy
Solon – wise and trusted leader
Appointed as archon or chief official
Outlawed debt slavery
Opened high offices
Granted citizenship to foreigners
Gave the Athenians more say in important decisions
Introduced economic reforms
Encouraged export of wine and olive oil
Only the wealthy landowners could serve in many
positions
Rise of tyrants – people who gained power by force
Word tyrant has come to mean a vicious and brutal
ruler
Athenian tyrant Pisistratus seized power
Helped farmers by giving them loans
Land taken from nobles
New building projects gave jobs to the poor
Weakened the aristocracy
Cleisthenes – another reformer
Broadened the role of the ordinary citizens
Set up the council of 500 whose members were
chosen by citizens
Law making body (legislature)
Supervised the day to day work
All male citizens over 30 were members of the
assembly
Democracy was quite limited
Only male citizens could participate
Tens of thousands of Athenians were slaves
Without political or personal freedom

Education for Democracy
Girls – received little or no formal education
Boys – attended school
Studied music and memorized poetry
Young men received military training
Explore many areas of knowledge
Polytheistic
Gods lived in Mount Olympus
 Zeus – most powerful
Hera – goddess of marriage
Poseidon – god of sea
Aphrodite – goddess of love
Ares – god of war
Athena – god of wisdom

View of Non – Greeks
Barbaroi or barbarian
People who did not speak Greek
Phoenicians and Egyptians
When the Persians threatened the Greeks, they put
aside their differences to defend their freedom

The Persian Wars
Athens sent ships to help Ionian Greeks in a war
against Persian rule.

Victory at Marathon
Persian crushed the rebel cities
Landed to Marathon but overwhelmed by the fury of
the Athenians
Themistocles urged the Athenians to built a fleet of
warships and prepare other defenses
Xerxes (Darius’ son) sent larger force
Athens and Sparta joined forces
Small Spartan force led by King Leonidas defeated
the Persians
Persians marched to Athens but were also
defeated
Unity saved themselves from Persian threat

Results
Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state
Organized Delian League – alliance with other citystates
Golden age for Athens
Pericles – statesman
Economy thrived
Government become more democratic
Wise and skillful leadership

Political Life
All men should take part in the government
Salaries for men who held public office
Enabled poor men served the government
Direct democracy
Pericles hired the best architect
Rebuilt acropolis
Magnificent temples
Creating jobs for the artisans and workers
Asphasia – helped Pericles turn the Athens into a
cultural center of Greece

GREEK AGAINST GREEK
Resented Athenian dominations
Formed the Peloponnesian League
Sparta encouraged oligarchy
Warfare broke out between Athens and Sparta on
431 BC.
Spartans allied itself with Persia and captured
Athens

The Aftermath of War
Peloponnesian war ended Athens’ greatness
Sparta soon defeated by Thebes, another Greek
city-state
A new power rose in Macedonia, a kingdom to
the north
The ruler conquers the quarrelsome city-state
Plato – emphasized the importance of reason
Set up an academy
Divided the society into 3 classes
 Workers – to produce the necessities of life
 Soldiers – defend the state
 Philosophers – to rule

Talented women should be educated and put to use by
the state

Aristotle
Plato’s most famous student
Promoted reason as the guiding force for learning
Set up a school, the Lyceum
He left writings on politics, ethics, logic, biology,
literature, physics and many others
Greek Civilization
Statue of Athena
Athletes in motion
Carved gods, goddesses, athletes and famous men
Plays to honor Dionysus, god of fertility and wine
Actors wore costumes and masks
Dramas were based on myths and legends

Tragedy
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides were the greatest
Athenian playwrights
Stories of suffering

Comedy
Humorous plays
Written by Aristophanes

ALEAXANDER AND THE HELLENISTIC AGE
Phillip II, the ambitious King of Macedonia, was
gradually bringing Greece under his control
King Phillip gained alliances with many Greek citystates through threats, bribery and diplomacy
He dreamed to conquer the Persian empire
He was murdered at his daughter’s wedding feast
Phillip’s wife, Olympias, put her son Alexander to the
throne

The Legacy of Alexander
Most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek
culture
Founded many new cities and named after him
Blending of eastern and western cultures occurred
Adopted Persian customs including Persian dress
After his death Hellenistic civilization emerged
Alexander at 20, was already an experienced
soldier
Saw himself as 2nd Achilles
Earned the title Alexander the Great
His punishment was swift and brutal
Ordered the city to be burned and inhabitants to
be killed or sold into slavery

Conquest of Persia
Alexander won his first victory at Granicus River
Victory through Asia Minor to Palestine and to
Egypt and then Babylon
Greek Civilization
Sudden Death (Dowfall )
Alexander fell victim of a sudden fever and died
After years of disorder, three Generals divided
up the empire
Macedonia and Greece, Egypt and Persia

Alexandria
Located on the sea lanes between Europe and
Asia
Built enormous Lighthouse Pharos, among the 7
Wonders of the World
Built museums, laboratories, lecture halls, zoo,
and library
Learned to read and write
Held considerable power
In Egypt, Cleopatra came to rule

HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION
Employed armies of architects and artists

Mathematics and Sciences
Pythagorean by Pythagoras
The Elements wrote by Euclid, basis for modern
geometry
Aristarchus, the astronomer who argued that the
earth rotated on its axis and orbited around the sun
Archimedes, most famous scientist

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Greek Civilization

  • 4. Greek Civilization emerged in a rugged remote corner of Southeastern Europe gave rise to a classical civilization Early People of Aegean Crete - cradle of an early civilization that later influenced Greeks Minoan Civilization Minos – a legendary King of Crete Success was based on trade Set up outposts throughout the Aegean world Acquired ideas and technology from Egypt and Mesopotamia
  • 5. Rulers lived at Knossos Rooms for royal families, religious shrines, banquet halls and working areas for artisans. A Civilization Disappears Volcanic eruption Earthquake followed by tidal waves Invasion of Mycenaeans Mycenaean Indo- Europian people Sea traders Learned may skills including the art of writing Lived in a separate city-states A warrior King built a thick walled fortress
  • 7. Economic rivalry between Mycenaeans and Troy Troy controlled the passages that connect Meditteranean and Black Seas Greek legend contributes the war to a romantic cause. The Age of Homer Mycenaean civilization crumbled under the attack of sea raiders Dorian invasion from the north People abandoned the cities
  • 8. 2 Greek Epic Poems Iliad Chief source of information about Trojan Story involves Gods, Goddesses and even a talking horse Story of Achilles, the mightiest warrior Odyssey Struggles of Odysseus
  • 9. The ancient Greeks absorbed many ideas and beliefs from Mesopotamia and Egypt Developed unique ideas about how best to govern city-states Mountains and Valleys Greece – part of Balkan Peninsula which extends southward into the Eastern Mediterranean sea Mountains divide the peninsula into valleys Hundreds of rocky islands spread toward the horizon Greeks built a small city-states, cut off from one another by land or water Endless rivalry led to frequent wars
  • 10. Mediterranean and Aegean seas Provided a vital link to the world Coastlines provided safe harbor for ships Greeks become skilled sailors Carried cargoes of olive oil, wine and marble Sailed to Egypt, the Middle East and Asia Minor Returned with grains, metals and ideas Greeks expanded the Phoenician alphabet Greeks alphabet became the basis for all Western alphabets Rapid population growth forced Greeks to leave Wherever they traveled, Greek settlers and traders carried their ideas and culture.
  • 11. Unique version of city-states Acropolis – high city with great marble temples Flatter ground – marketplace, theater, public buildings and homes Early Governments King – ruler of polis Monarchy – central power Aristocracy - power shifted to a class of noble landowners Oligarchy – power is in the hands of small, powerful elite from business class (merchants, farmers,, artisans)
  • 12. Increased power of the middle class Iron weapons and tools New method of fighting emerged Phalanx – massive formation of a heavily armed foot soldiers Two most influencial city-states, Sparta and Athens SPARTA: A NATION OF SOLDIERS Spartans were Dorians Spartan Government Two Kings Council of elders Five Ephors
  • 13. Children were prepared to be part of the military Age 7, boys began training Age 20, man could marry Age 30, after specialized training, took his place in the assembly Sparta and Its Neighbors Spartans isolated themselves They were admired by their military skills Suffered from its rigid ways Warrior class shrank Its power declined
  • 14. Located in Attica, north of Peloponnesus From monarchy to aristocracy Nobles judged major cases and dominated the assembly Demands for Change Athenian wealth and power grew under aristocracy Merchants and soldiers wanted more rights Farmers demanded change Moves slowly towards democracy
  • 15. Solon – wise and trusted leader Appointed as archon or chief official Outlawed debt slavery Opened high offices Granted citizenship to foreigners Gave the Athenians more say in important decisions Introduced economic reforms Encouraged export of wine and olive oil Only the wealthy landowners could serve in many positions Rise of tyrants – people who gained power by force Word tyrant has come to mean a vicious and brutal ruler
  • 16. Athenian tyrant Pisistratus seized power Helped farmers by giving them loans Land taken from nobles New building projects gave jobs to the poor Weakened the aristocracy Cleisthenes – another reformer Broadened the role of the ordinary citizens Set up the council of 500 whose members were chosen by citizens Law making body (legislature) Supervised the day to day work All male citizens over 30 were members of the assembly
  • 17. Democracy was quite limited Only male citizens could participate Tens of thousands of Athenians were slaves Without political or personal freedom Education for Democracy Girls – received little or no formal education Boys – attended school Studied music and memorized poetry Young men received military training Explore many areas of knowledge
  • 18. Polytheistic Gods lived in Mount Olympus  Zeus – most powerful Hera – goddess of marriage Poseidon – god of sea Aphrodite – goddess of love Ares – god of war Athena – god of wisdom View of Non – Greeks Barbaroi or barbarian People who did not speak Greek Phoenicians and Egyptians
  • 19. When the Persians threatened the Greeks, they put aside their differences to defend their freedom The Persian Wars Athens sent ships to help Ionian Greeks in a war against Persian rule. Victory at Marathon Persian crushed the rebel cities Landed to Marathon but overwhelmed by the fury of the Athenians Themistocles urged the Athenians to built a fleet of warships and prepare other defenses
  • 20. Xerxes (Darius’ son) sent larger force Athens and Sparta joined forces Small Spartan force led by King Leonidas defeated the Persians Persians marched to Athens but were also defeated Unity saved themselves from Persian threat Results Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state Organized Delian League – alliance with other citystates
  • 21. Golden age for Athens Pericles – statesman Economy thrived Government become more democratic Wise and skillful leadership Political Life All men should take part in the government Salaries for men who held public office Enabled poor men served the government Direct democracy
  • 22. Pericles hired the best architect Rebuilt acropolis Magnificent temples Creating jobs for the artisans and workers Asphasia – helped Pericles turn the Athens into a cultural center of Greece GREEK AGAINST GREEK Resented Athenian dominations Formed the Peloponnesian League Sparta encouraged oligarchy Warfare broke out between Athens and Sparta on 431 BC.
  • 23. Spartans allied itself with Persia and captured Athens The Aftermath of War Peloponnesian war ended Athens’ greatness Sparta soon defeated by Thebes, another Greek city-state A new power rose in Macedonia, a kingdom to the north The ruler conquers the quarrelsome city-state
  • 24. Plato – emphasized the importance of reason Set up an academy Divided the society into 3 classes  Workers – to produce the necessities of life  Soldiers – defend the state  Philosophers – to rule Talented women should be educated and put to use by the state Aristotle Plato’s most famous student Promoted reason as the guiding force for learning Set up a school, the Lyceum He left writings on politics, ethics, logic, biology, literature, physics and many others
  • 26. Statue of Athena Athletes in motion Carved gods, goddesses, athletes and famous men
  • 27. Plays to honor Dionysus, god of fertility and wine Actors wore costumes and masks Dramas were based on myths and legends Tragedy Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides were the greatest Athenian playwrights Stories of suffering Comedy Humorous plays Written by Aristophanes ALEAXANDER AND THE HELLENISTIC AGE Phillip II, the ambitious King of Macedonia, was gradually bringing Greece under his control
  • 28. King Phillip gained alliances with many Greek citystates through threats, bribery and diplomacy He dreamed to conquer the Persian empire He was murdered at his daughter’s wedding feast Phillip’s wife, Olympias, put her son Alexander to the throne The Legacy of Alexander Most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture Founded many new cities and named after him Blending of eastern and western cultures occurred Adopted Persian customs including Persian dress After his death Hellenistic civilization emerged
  • 29. Alexander at 20, was already an experienced soldier Saw himself as 2nd Achilles Earned the title Alexander the Great His punishment was swift and brutal Ordered the city to be burned and inhabitants to be killed or sold into slavery Conquest of Persia Alexander won his first victory at Granicus River Victory through Asia Minor to Palestine and to Egypt and then Babylon
  • 31. Sudden Death (Dowfall ) Alexander fell victim of a sudden fever and died After years of disorder, three Generals divided up the empire Macedonia and Greece, Egypt and Persia Alexandria Located on the sea lanes between Europe and Asia Built enormous Lighthouse Pharos, among the 7 Wonders of the World Built museums, laboratories, lecture halls, zoo, and library
  • 32. Learned to read and write Held considerable power In Egypt, Cleopatra came to rule HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION Employed armies of architects and artists Mathematics and Sciences Pythagorean by Pythagoras The Elements wrote by Euclid, basis for modern geometry Aristarchus, the astronomer who argued that the earth rotated on its axis and orbited around the sun Archimedes, most famous scientist