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Andrea Kuszewski @AndreaKuszewski
The Science of
When andWhy the Rules Don’t (always)Work
June 12th, 2014
Persuasion, Motivation,
& Behavior
The Science of Behavior
Principles of Human Behavior
Identity/Ideology
Context/Environment
Personality
= =B
The Science of Behavior
Ingroup/Outgroup Identity
(ideology)
The Science of Behavior
=
Ingroup/Outgroup Identity (ideology)
BX
The Science of Behavior
Cognitive Dissonance
When we feel our identity is being threatened by the outside world,
we are strongly motivated to resolve that.
Challenging a strongly-held belief is a threat to our identity ....
especially when challenged by the OUTGROUP.
Result? Cling to false beliefs eventighter
Backfire Effect
The Science of Behavior
The Science of Behavior
Context or Environment
The Science of Behavior
= =
Context or Environment
B BX
The Science of Behavior
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic
Like
Passion
Self-Growth
Fulfillment
Meaning/Purpose
Incentives
Rewards
Grades/Ratings
Threats of Punishment
Extrinsic
Internal motivation to act =
Always present
Long-lasting, sustainable over time Short-term solution
Comes from outside individual =
May go away at any time
The Science of Behavior
Incentivizing Creativity
The Science of Behavior
Incentivizing Creativity
Financial incentives REDUCE creative output
Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value
The Science of Behavior
Incentivizing Creativity
Financial incentives REDUCE creative output
Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value
Best way to increase creative output: Autonomy
The Science of Behavior
Incentivizing Creativity
Financial incentives REDUCE creative output
Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value
Best way to increase creative output: Autonomy
How to incentivize? Let creativity happen!
The Science of Behavior
It’s hard!
The Science of Behavior
Individual Differences
(personality)
The Science of Behavior
“People tend to seek pleasure
and avoid pain.”
General Principle of Behaviorism
The Science of Behavior
???=
Individual Differences (personality)
B
The Science of Behavior
Approach vs Avoidance (BIS/BAS)
Jeffrey Alan Gray: Biopsychological Theory of Psychology
BAS: Behavioral Activation System
BIS: Behavioral Inhibition System
* sensitive to punishment
* sensitive to reward
Activated by threat and Avoidance Motivation
Behavior that brings a person closer to some reinforcer; Approach Motivation
The Science of Behavior
Approach vs Avoidance (BIS/BAS)
Jeffrey Alan Gray: Biopsychological Theory of Psychology
BAS: Behavioral Activation System
BIS: Behavioral Inhibition System
Avoidance
Approach Pursue and achieve goals
Positive emotions (elation, happiness, hope)
Dopamine!!
Avoid negative events
Negative emotions (fear, anxiety, boredom, frustration, sadness)
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior
-Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted
behavior
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior
-Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted
behavior
-Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior
-Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted
behavior
-Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS
AND.... in that stubborn cohort, doesn’t work AT ALL!
The Science of Behavior
Does Punishment Work?
-Short-term solution
-Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior
-Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted
behavior
-Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS
AND.... in that stubborn cohort, doesn’t work AT ALL!
The Science of Behavior
Happiness
Meaningor
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
MM HH
Mh/Hm
Primary driver for approach behavior
(for significant task)
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
- incentives +incentives
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
- incentives
Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning
+incentives
“Feel good now”
(short-term satisfaction)
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
- incentives
Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning
Self-sustaining
+incentives
“Feel good now”
(short-term satisfaction)
Less loyalty
The Science of Behavior
Meaning vs Happiness
Meaningful
Masochists Hedonists
Happy
- incentives
Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning
Self-sustaining
Punishment NOT a motivator!
+incentives
“Feel good now”
(short-term satisfaction)
Less loyalty
“Pain builds character!”
The Science of Behavior
The onlyway to guarantee LONG-TERM
sustainable behavior change:
make them WANTto change their behavior.
The Science of Behavior
Feed their inner masochist. Make it meaningful.
The Science of Behavior
Thank you!
@AndreaKuszewski
Feed their inner masochist. Make it meaningful.

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Persuasion, Motivation, and Behavior: The Science of When and Why the Rules Don't (always) Work

  • 1. Andrea Kuszewski @AndreaKuszewski The Science of When andWhy the Rules Don’t (always)Work June 12th, 2014 Persuasion, Motivation, & Behavior
  • 2. The Science of Behavior Principles of Human Behavior Identity/Ideology Context/Environment Personality = =B
  • 3. The Science of Behavior Ingroup/Outgroup Identity (ideology)
  • 4. The Science of Behavior = Ingroup/Outgroup Identity (ideology) BX
  • 5. The Science of Behavior Cognitive Dissonance When we feel our identity is being threatened by the outside world, we are strongly motivated to resolve that. Challenging a strongly-held belief is a threat to our identity .... especially when challenged by the OUTGROUP. Result? Cling to false beliefs eventighter Backfire Effect
  • 6. The Science of Behavior
  • 7. The Science of Behavior Context or Environment
  • 8. The Science of Behavior = = Context or Environment B BX
  • 9. The Science of Behavior Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Like Passion Self-Growth Fulfillment Meaning/Purpose Incentives Rewards Grades/Ratings Threats of Punishment Extrinsic Internal motivation to act = Always present Long-lasting, sustainable over time Short-term solution Comes from outside individual = May go away at any time
  • 10. The Science of Behavior Incentivizing Creativity
  • 11. The Science of Behavior Incentivizing Creativity Financial incentives REDUCE creative output Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value
  • 12. The Science of Behavior Incentivizing Creativity Financial incentives REDUCE creative output Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value Best way to increase creative output: Autonomy
  • 13. The Science of Behavior Incentivizing Creativity Financial incentives REDUCE creative output Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value Best way to increase creative output: Autonomy How to incentivize? Let creativity happen!
  • 14. The Science of Behavior It’s hard!
  • 15. The Science of Behavior Individual Differences (personality)
  • 16. The Science of Behavior “People tend to seek pleasure and avoid pain.” General Principle of Behaviorism
  • 17. The Science of Behavior ???= Individual Differences (personality) B
  • 18. The Science of Behavior Approach vs Avoidance (BIS/BAS) Jeffrey Alan Gray: Biopsychological Theory of Psychology BAS: Behavioral Activation System BIS: Behavioral Inhibition System * sensitive to punishment * sensitive to reward Activated by threat and Avoidance Motivation Behavior that brings a person closer to some reinforcer; Approach Motivation
  • 19. The Science of Behavior Approach vs Avoidance (BIS/BAS) Jeffrey Alan Gray: Biopsychological Theory of Psychology BAS: Behavioral Activation System BIS: Behavioral Inhibition System Avoidance Approach Pursue and achieve goals Positive emotions (elation, happiness, hope) Dopamine!! Avoid negative events Negative emotions (fear, anxiety, boredom, frustration, sadness)
  • 20. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior
  • 21. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior -Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted behavior
  • 22. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior -Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted behavior -Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS
  • 23. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior -Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted behavior -Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS AND.... in that stubborn cohort, doesn’t work AT ALL!
  • 24. The Science of Behavior Does Punishment Work? -Short-term solution -Threats of punishment increase the INTRINSIC value of the unwanted behavior -Once you remove the threat, person may be more likely to engage in unwanted behavior -Activates the BIS (Avoidance) = STRESS, ANXIETY, & BAD FEELINGS AND.... in that stubborn cohort, doesn’t work AT ALL!
  • 25. The Science of Behavior Happiness Meaningor
  • 26. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness MM HH Mh/Hm Primary driver for approach behavior (for significant task) Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy
  • 27. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy - incentives +incentives
  • 28. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy - incentives Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning +incentives “Feel good now” (short-term satisfaction)
  • 29. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy - incentives Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning Self-sustaining +incentives “Feel good now” (short-term satisfaction) Less loyalty
  • 30. The Science of Behavior Meaning vs Happiness Meaningful Masochists Hedonists Happy - incentives Will sacrifice happiness for Meaning Self-sustaining Punishment NOT a motivator! +incentives “Feel good now” (short-term satisfaction) Less loyalty “Pain builds character!”
  • 31. The Science of Behavior The onlyway to guarantee LONG-TERM sustainable behavior change: make them WANTto change their behavior.
  • 32. The Science of Behavior Feed their inner masochist. Make it meaningful.
  • 33. The Science of Behavior Thank you! @AndreaKuszewski Feed their inner masochist. Make it meaningful.