INTRODUCTION:In psychology ,as well as other social sciences, aggressionrefers to behavior between members of the same species thatis intended to cause pain or harm.Aggression takes variety of forms among humans and canbe: Physical Mental VerbalAssertiveness (which is used interchangeably amonglaypeople)
DEFINITION:BERKOWITZ(1981)-When people define someone as aggressive; they might besaying that he frequently attempts to hurt others , or, that heis often unfriendly, or, in a quite different sense: that he is typically very forceful and tries to get his ownway in his dealings with others , or, maybe that he assertively stands up for his beliefs , or, perhaps that he usually attempts to solve the problemsfacing him.It can be classified as a:BehaviorHarm or Injury
TYPES OF AGGRESSION EXAMPLESPHYSICAL-ACTIVE -DIRECT PUNCHING..PHYSICAL-ACTIVE-INDIRECT HIRING AN ASSASIN TO KILL A PERSONPHYSICAL-PASSIVE-DIRECT PERFORMING A DESIRED ACTPHYSICAL-PASSIVE-INDIRECT REFUSIN TO PERFORM NECESSARY TASKVERBAL-ACTIVE-DIRECT INSULTINGVERBAL-ACTIVE-INDIRECT GOSSIPINGVERBAL-PASSIVE-DIRECT REFUSING TO SPEAKVERBAL-PASSIVE-INDIRECT FAILURE TO SPEAK FOR SOMEONE’S DEFENSE
AGGRESSION INVOLVES AN AVOIDANCE-MOTIVATEDRECIPIENTThere are 2 broad categories of aggression:• HOSTILE AGGRESSION: is to do something aggressive andget some sort of satisfaction from it.• INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION: it is basically to do act inan aggressive way to preserve some kind of environmentalreward out of it.Aggression in humans ranges through :FEAR INDUCED AGGRESSIONPARENTAL DISCIPLINARY AGGRESSIONMATERNAL AGGRESSIONSEXUAL AGGRESSION
THEORIES OF AGGRESSIONFrustration- Aggression Theory Social Learning TheoryInstinctive-Aggression TheoryExcitation Transfer TheoryCue Arousal TheoryDeindividuation
CAUSES OF AGGRESSIONUnfulfilled human needs anddesiresNeurosisDesperationEnvyGreedCollectivismSituational factorsCultural factor
THE STRESSORS OF ENVIRONMENTALAGGRESSIONTemperatureNoiseOvercrowdingMedia effect
PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF AGGRESSION Asking questions. The aggressor may simply wantattention, which he or she interprets as respect. Offering an apology. Setting firm limits but in a calm and non-confrontationalvoice and manner. Asking the individual to leave the grounds.
TIPS TO CONTROL AGGRESSION Soothe yourself by practicing deep breathing exercises,listening music and visualizing relaxing scenes. Count to 10 before reacting or leave the situation all together. Think carefully before you say anything. Try to work out solutions with the person who made you angry Try to defuse your anger by using humor.
CONCLUSIONAggression is a behavioral characteristic that refers to forcefulactions or procedures with intentions to dominate or master.It tends to be hostile, injurious, or destructive, and is oftenmotivated by frustration. For an individual, aggressivebehavior is considered understandable and normal underappropriate circumstances, but when it is frequent, intense,lasting, and pervasive, it is more likely to be a symptom of amental disorder.Aggression between groups, can be in the form of healthycompetition, but can become harmful when unfair or unjustdisadvantage or frustration is perceived, leading to hostility.