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Awesome week 1 guidance ppt


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Everything influences behavior according to Sarason & Sarason (2005). What do you think?

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Awesome week 1 guidance ppt

  1. 1. PSY 303 Abnormal Psychology Week 1 Guidance Dr. Erica King Everything Influences Behavior
  2. 2. Welcome! <ul><li>This week we will discuss, </li></ul><ul><li>the historical background of abnormal psychology, </li></ul><ul><li>how we identify and diagnose abnormal behavior, </li></ul><ul><li>the different theoretical perspectives we use to understand maladaptive behaviors </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Abnormal Psychology? <ul><li>Abnormal psychology focuses on what causes maladaptive behavior, it’s symptoms, and treatment options </li></ul><ul><li>It also explores how it feels to be different, how we define being different, and how society deals with people who are different </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>It’s important to know how adaptive, maladaptive, and deviant behaviors are defined because that determines how it’s studied. </li></ul><ul><li>This ultimately effects how these behaviors are treated. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Do Maladaptive Behaviors Start? <ul><li>When people experience problems with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rational and logical thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coping with stress and life’s challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their ability to demonstrate emotional stability and growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… they may begin to feel different. </li></ul><ul><li>If the person does not get help, their mental health can begin to deteriorate. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>When mental health deteriorates the following behaviors and emotions may occur: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-regard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorted reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced competence (unable to work or complete daily activities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heightened physical reactivity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bad Parenting & Emotional Weakness <ul><li>One of the biggest challenges for the field of abnormal psychology is to shift the public’s misperceptions on what abnormal behavior is and what it isn’t. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by bad parenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not due to emotional weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People living with mental health challenges often need compassion, not judgment or blame. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Historical Concerns… <ul><li>Throughout the ages people have always been concerned with 3 things: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their physical well being </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their place in the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Although our world is constantly changing, our need to adapt to these changes is important. Adaptation is our ability to adjust to life’s changes or even facilitate change when it is required. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Which Perspective is Best? <ul><li>There are six theoretical perspectives used to examine maladaptive behaviors. These perspectives are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanistic-Existential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-Cultural </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. When viewed as six perspectives exploring human behavior, it’s easier to see them as part of the same pie…
  11. 11. Biological Perspective <ul><li>Believes there are biological causes (genetic, physiological, neurological, or hereditary) for physical and mental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging techniques like the CT Scan or MRI for example, are used to look at how the brain works without using invasive procedures or surgery </li></ul><ul><li>The biological perspective doesn’t view mind and body as separate; both work together: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind refers to thoughts, feelings and attitudes. Body refers to bones, brain, organs and muscles </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Believes thoughts and emotions contribute to behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The past influences the present; our unconscious mind influences who we are </li></ul><ul><li>Freud (pictured above with that cool cigar), dissatisfied with the limitations of the biological perspective, used his clinical work with clients as the basis for his theories. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Behavioral Perspective <ul><li>Deterministic (every event that happens is based on something that happened before) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is determined by a stimulus and response (classical or operant conditioning) </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors can be changed by reinforcement, modeling behavior and role playing </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral therapists, dissatisfied with the limitations of Freud’s work, developed this perspective to be easier to understand and easier to test </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cognitive Perspective <ul><li>Concerned with how we take in and process information </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive therapists believe that maladaptive thoughts cause maladaptive behaviors; they also believe that these thoughts can be changed with cognitive therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is how phobias and other anxiety disorders are treated. Some phobias are often eliminated. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cognitive Treatments <ul><li>Cognitive treatments are believed to do 3 things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These treatments have an effect on behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be measured, evaluated and shifted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change behavior by changing how we think and what we think about </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Humanistic Existential Perspective: What’s The Meaning of Life? <ul><li>This perspective integrates philosophy, religion, spirituality and human nature to understand maladaptive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic therapists are thought to be more optimistic </li></ul><ul><li>Existential therapists are thought to be more reality based </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes self actualization (being all I can be) and self-determination (the ability to find meaning in life regardless of our circumstances) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Carl Rogers split with Freud in this area. Rogers believed people were more rational and interactive. Freud viewed people as more irrational. </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers considered healthy people to be those who could “move away from roles created by the expectations of others” (Sarason & Sarason, 2005, p. 75). </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers developed client-centered therapy </li></ul>
  18. 18. Community Cultural Perspective: Prevention & Support <ul><li>Considers stress to be the cause of maladaptive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Sees the lack of social support systems as the blame for maladaptive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes strong social support </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to intervene before something happens </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Interactional Approach: Bringing It All Together <ul><li>The authors in this book take an interactional approach to covering abnormal psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach says that all, EVERYTHING influences behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the factors and variables used to describe these perspectives also influence and affect each other. </li></ul><ul><li>By viewing them as parts of a whole we can provide better diagnosis, treatment, information, and preventative tools for society and those of us who live within it. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Brief Case Study: Winning? <ul><li>Charlie Sheen has made a lot of news recently. Some may consider his actions to be maladaptive. Others may see them as a form of entertainment. For the purposes of this brief case study, let’s imagine that Mr. Sheen will be coming in for a session. Let’s look at some of his behaviors through the interactional approach… </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Perspective - Heredity may be a factor; father is in recovery for alcohol. Sheens has had challenges with drugs and alcohol. Explore family, genetic history </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Psychodynamic perspective – what is his first memory of a similar experience happening in his life? May suggest meditation or hypnosis to help identify unconscious thoughts/emotions that may be effecting current behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral perspective – What are Mr. Sheen’s short-term and long-term goals (life, work, family)? Explore what triggers (memories, events, thoughts, or actions) or maladaptive behaviors (mental patterns and actions) may be keeping him from his goals. Develop treatment goals based on responses </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective – Give him the Perceived Stress Scale during the first session and again after the fourth session (or first 30 days of treatment, whichever comes first) </li></ul><ul><li>What steps can Mr. Sheen begin taking now to move forward towards his goals? Consider having him keep a written record (or journal) of anytime he feels he is not “winning.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Humanistic-Existential Perspective – Charlie seems to have found meaning in life and he’s winning. The question is, is this really true for him? Is this an adaptive or maladaptive way of coping life’s challenges? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is he an example of Carl Roger’s view that moving away from roles placed on you by others is healthy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Cultural Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Charlie may be receiving social support through social media and connecting with fans. It may be necessary for him to identify who is really in his immediate support system (friends, family, siblings, etc.). </li></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>The first two chapters give an overview of the historical and theoretical elements of abnormal psychology . How we classify and explain abnormal behavior has come a long way. </li></ul><ul><li>We still have much more to learn in this field. We also have more to learn as therapists, members of our community, and society as a whole when it comes to how we view the mentally ill . </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding human nature through the six perspectives of maladaptive behaviors and the interactional approach, gives us a strong foundation to begin our journey through abnormal psychology! </li></ul>
  24. 24. Reference <ul><li>Derschowitz, J. (2011, February 27). I’m on a drug. It’s called Charlie Sheen. CBSNews Entertainmnent. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Sarason, I., & Sarason, B. (2005).  Abnormal psychology: The problem of maladaptive behavior.  (11th ed.).  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.  ISBN: 0536306044. </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks for reading through this entire presentation! I really appreciate it  </li></ul>