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Dr Bernard Vallat
                                   Director General
          World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)


    Global Animal Health Challenges:
                    the Health Pillar


          ILRI-World Bank High Level Consultation
               on Global Livestock Agenda by 2020
                          Nairobi, 12-13 March 2012
1
• Complex relationships between wildlife, domestic
      animals, and humans co-existing in common
      ecosystems
    • Combined with changes in land use
       • animal production
       • growth and heightened urbanization of the human
         population
       • deforestation

         Altered equilibrium between humans,
2
             domestic animals, and wildlife
The growing importance of the zoonotic
potential of animal pathogens
    60% of human pathogens are
    zoonotic
    75% of emerging diseases are
    zoonotic
    80% of agents with potential
    bioterrorist use are zoonotic
    pathogens
3
Trends in animal protein consumption

 Shift from poverty to middle-class (+1 billion
  people expected)
 Increase in the number of daily meals
 More milk, eggs and meat in meals
 Intensification of production cannot be avoided
 We must be prepared to face new threats
4
OIE Approach
    • Promote the fundamental responsibilities of
      Veterinary Services and their government partners
      and relevant stakeholders to protect and improve
      animal health, including aspects related to wildlife.

    • Recognize the need to improve governance and
      capacity of all Members to conduct surveillance,
      early detection, and initiate appropriate response to
      national or international biological events and
      spread of diseases in animals, including wildlife
5
Managing the Interface
    • Wildlife and domestic populations often have
      different health status
    • Freedom from diseases is not always attainable at
      a national or regional level especially in developing
      countries
    • The goal of the OIE is to maximize animal health
      and trade benefits, while minimizing negative
      effects on other populations
    • Human, animal and environmental factors must
      therefore be taken into account
6
Updating OIE Standards and Safe Trade
            Facilitating Mechanisms
    • Promote harmonization of national regulations
      addressing the human-domestic animal-wildlife
      interfaces
       • Disease free zoning and compartmentalisation
       • Safe trade in animal origin commodities

    • Need for a multidisciplinary cooperation by
      stakeholders (including public and non-governmental
      organisations) to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes
7     within the human-domestic animal-wildlife interfaces
OIE Continues to Develop
                Science-based Standards
    • Through the work of the OIE Working Group on Wildlife
      Diseases (est. 1996)
    • Surveillance and global notification mechanisms for
      domestic and wildlife diseases (OIE WAHIS and WAHIS-
      Wild)
    • Data sharing at the international level on the collaborative
      FAO/OIE/WHO GLEWS platform
    • Capacity building (e.g. national Delegates and focal points)
    • Appropriate sampling and diagnostic expertise for domestic
      and wild animals
8
OIE Science-based Standards
             Goal: harmonise the measures
             minimizing risk in the relationships
             between wildlife, domestic animals, and
             humans
             •Reducing risk of disease transmission
             (including zoonoses) using national and global
             surveillance, prevention and control methods
             •Safeguarding biodiversity
             •Maintaining availability of high-quality protein
             for consumption
             •Supporting safe international trade

9
Need for Science-based Guidance
     • Diagnostic methods for diseases in wildlife
        • Diagnosis of diseases in wildlife
        • Testing to support safe legal movement of wild species

     • Disease surveillance and management tools relevant to
       disease in domestic and wild animals
        • Outbreak investigations when wildlife are involved
        • Vaccination of wild species

        • Cooperation with potential partners
10
Rabies in Europe
• Predominantly sylvatic
  • Wildlife account for 80% of animal
    cases (WHO)
  • Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) 80% of
    these
  • Raccoon dog in Eastern Europe
• Oral vaccine developed 25
  years ago
  • Highly effective
  • Aerial distribution
  • Many European countries now free



                                                                             11
                   From: Dr Howard Pharo,, OIE Global Conference on Wildlife Animal Health and
                   Biodiversity Paris (France) 23-25 February 2011
12
     From: Dr Howard Pharo,, OIE Global Conference on Wildlife Animal Health and
     Biodiversity Paris (France) 23-25 February 2011
The Need to Increase Transparency and
       Avoid Undue Restrictions on Trade
     • Increasing legal trade of wildlife – global movement of
       animals and animal products

     • Differentiating the identification of disease in wildlife from
       disease in domestic animals
        • clear guidance when the findings in wildlife do not have
           implications for the safe trade of domestic animals and
           products

13
Need To Adapt To The Situation
     Notification Of Diseases In Wild Animals
     Encourage countries to notify wild animal diseases while
     preventing the negative impact on trade for transparent
     countries

        • Better understanding of disease situation in both
          domestic and wild animals
        • Better risk evaluation and analysis for importing
          countries
        • Less unjustified trade barriers
14
WAHIS – Secure Access system
                         OIE Listed disease           Non OIE listed disease

     T                   New Disease / Infection   Unusual epidemiological event
                                                       Emerging disease
     R
         Early warning
                                      Immediate notification
     A
     N                                  Follow-up reports
     S
     P                                      Final report


     A                            Six-monthly report
                                                                                    WAHIS
                                                                                   Database
     R
         Monitoring




                            on OIE Listed disease / infection
                                   absent or present
     E
                                         Annual report
     N
     C
         Web interface




     Y
                         WAHID

15
           must work in parallel with WHO-IHR Agreement                                       15
Annual Wildlife report: WAHIS-Wild

 Divided in two sections:                                        Obligatory
 – OIE-listed diseases in wild species
     • Already entered in the six-monthly reports
     • Automatically transferred into the draft Annual wildlife report
     • To be checked, corrected and completed if needed by each OIE national
       focal point for wildlife
     • Changes have to be agreed by the national Delegate
     • Data will be displayed on WAHID
                                                                   Voluntary
 – Non OIE-listed wildlife diseases
     • To be processed by the focal point for wildlife
     • Data will be displayed on a specific website
     • Many new investments are on-going to capture more details in all wildlife
       disease events
16
Need for Capacity Building
• It is a fundamental responsibility of public and private components
  of Veterinary Services to protect and improve animal health,
  including issues related to wildlife and biodiversity

                            ----- and -----

• There is a need to increase the capacity of all countries worldwide
  to do surveillance, early detection, and initiate appropriate
  response to outbreaks and spread of diseases in animal including
  wildlife

17
Capacity Building
 • OIE PVS Pathway

  • OIE national focal points on wildlife
     • To know and interact with wildlife network within a
       country
     • To identify needs for capacity building
     • To provide expert advice to the OIE Delegate
     • To ensure the optimal collection of data and the
       submission of wildlife disease information
     • To provide national comments during standard setting
18     procedure
G20 Ministerial Declaration
     Meeting of G20 Agriculture Ministers, June 2011 Action Plan
               on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture

     (25.) As far as public health, animal health and plant health
     are concerned, we stress the importance of strengthening
     international and regional networks, international standard
     setting taking into account national and regional differences,
     information, surveillance and traceability systems, good
     governance and official services, since they ensure an
     early detection and a rapid response to biological threats,
     facilitate trade flows and contribute to global food
     security (…)

19
G20 Ministerial Declaration
     Meeting of G20 Agriculture Ministers, June 2011 Action Plan
               on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture
     (…)
     We encourage international organizations, especially FAO,
     the World Health Organization (WHO), the World
     Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex
     Alimentarius Commission (Codex), the International Plant
     Protection Convention (IPPC) and WTO to continue their
     efforts towards enhancing interagency cooperation.



20

                                                                 20
Organisation mondiale
                de la santé animale
                                         World Organisation
                                         for Animal Health
                                                                  Organización Mundial
                                                                  de Sanidad Animal




21
     12 rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France - www.oie.int – oie@oie.int

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Global animal health challenges: The health pillar

  • 1. Dr Bernard Vallat Director General World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Global Animal Health Challenges: the Health Pillar ILRI-World Bank High Level Consultation on Global Livestock Agenda by 2020 Nairobi, 12-13 March 2012 1
  • 2. • Complex relationships between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans co-existing in common ecosystems • Combined with changes in land use • animal production • growth and heightened urbanization of the human population • deforestation  Altered equilibrium between humans, 2 domestic animals, and wildlife
  • 3. The growing importance of the zoonotic potential of animal pathogens 60% of human pathogens are zoonotic 75% of emerging diseases are zoonotic 80% of agents with potential bioterrorist use are zoonotic pathogens 3
  • 4. Trends in animal protein consumption  Shift from poverty to middle-class (+1 billion people expected)  Increase in the number of daily meals  More milk, eggs and meat in meals  Intensification of production cannot be avoided  We must be prepared to face new threats 4
  • 5. OIE Approach • Promote the fundamental responsibilities of Veterinary Services and their government partners and relevant stakeholders to protect and improve animal health, including aspects related to wildlife. • Recognize the need to improve governance and capacity of all Members to conduct surveillance, early detection, and initiate appropriate response to national or international biological events and spread of diseases in animals, including wildlife 5
  • 6. Managing the Interface • Wildlife and domestic populations often have different health status • Freedom from diseases is not always attainable at a national or regional level especially in developing countries • The goal of the OIE is to maximize animal health and trade benefits, while minimizing negative effects on other populations • Human, animal and environmental factors must therefore be taken into account 6
  • 7. Updating OIE Standards and Safe Trade Facilitating Mechanisms • Promote harmonization of national regulations addressing the human-domestic animal-wildlife interfaces • Disease free zoning and compartmentalisation • Safe trade in animal origin commodities • Need for a multidisciplinary cooperation by stakeholders (including public and non-governmental organisations) to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes 7 within the human-domestic animal-wildlife interfaces
  • 8. OIE Continues to Develop Science-based Standards • Through the work of the OIE Working Group on Wildlife Diseases (est. 1996) • Surveillance and global notification mechanisms for domestic and wildlife diseases (OIE WAHIS and WAHIS- Wild) • Data sharing at the international level on the collaborative FAO/OIE/WHO GLEWS platform • Capacity building (e.g. national Delegates and focal points) • Appropriate sampling and diagnostic expertise for domestic and wild animals 8
  • 9. OIE Science-based Standards Goal: harmonise the measures minimizing risk in the relationships between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans •Reducing risk of disease transmission (including zoonoses) using national and global surveillance, prevention and control methods •Safeguarding biodiversity •Maintaining availability of high-quality protein for consumption •Supporting safe international trade 9
  • 10. Need for Science-based Guidance • Diagnostic methods for diseases in wildlife • Diagnosis of diseases in wildlife • Testing to support safe legal movement of wild species • Disease surveillance and management tools relevant to disease in domestic and wild animals • Outbreak investigations when wildlife are involved • Vaccination of wild species • Cooperation with potential partners 10
  • 11. Rabies in Europe • Predominantly sylvatic • Wildlife account for 80% of animal cases (WHO) • Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) 80% of these • Raccoon dog in Eastern Europe • Oral vaccine developed 25 years ago • Highly effective • Aerial distribution • Many European countries now free 11 From: Dr Howard Pharo,, OIE Global Conference on Wildlife Animal Health and Biodiversity Paris (France) 23-25 February 2011
  • 12. 12 From: Dr Howard Pharo,, OIE Global Conference on Wildlife Animal Health and Biodiversity Paris (France) 23-25 February 2011
  • 13. The Need to Increase Transparency and Avoid Undue Restrictions on Trade • Increasing legal trade of wildlife – global movement of animals and animal products • Differentiating the identification of disease in wildlife from disease in domestic animals • clear guidance when the findings in wildlife do not have implications for the safe trade of domestic animals and products 13
  • 14. Need To Adapt To The Situation Notification Of Diseases In Wild Animals Encourage countries to notify wild animal diseases while preventing the negative impact on trade for transparent countries • Better understanding of disease situation in both domestic and wild animals • Better risk evaluation and analysis for importing countries • Less unjustified trade barriers 14
  • 15. WAHIS – Secure Access system OIE Listed disease Non OIE listed disease T New Disease / Infection Unusual epidemiological event Emerging disease R Early warning Immediate notification A N Follow-up reports S P Final report A Six-monthly report WAHIS Database R Monitoring on OIE Listed disease / infection absent or present E Annual report N C Web interface Y WAHID 15 must work in parallel with WHO-IHR Agreement 15
  • 16. Annual Wildlife report: WAHIS-Wild Divided in two sections: Obligatory – OIE-listed diseases in wild species • Already entered in the six-monthly reports • Automatically transferred into the draft Annual wildlife report • To be checked, corrected and completed if needed by each OIE national focal point for wildlife • Changes have to be agreed by the national Delegate • Data will be displayed on WAHID Voluntary – Non OIE-listed wildlife diseases • To be processed by the focal point for wildlife • Data will be displayed on a specific website • Many new investments are on-going to capture more details in all wildlife disease events 16
  • 17. Need for Capacity Building • It is a fundamental responsibility of public and private components of Veterinary Services to protect and improve animal health, including issues related to wildlife and biodiversity ----- and ----- • There is a need to increase the capacity of all countries worldwide to do surveillance, early detection, and initiate appropriate response to outbreaks and spread of diseases in animal including wildlife 17
  • 18. Capacity Building • OIE PVS Pathway • OIE national focal points on wildlife • To know and interact with wildlife network within a country • To identify needs for capacity building • To provide expert advice to the OIE Delegate • To ensure the optimal collection of data and the submission of wildlife disease information • To provide national comments during standard setting 18 procedure
  • 19. G20 Ministerial Declaration Meeting of G20 Agriculture Ministers, June 2011 Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture (25.) As far as public health, animal health and plant health are concerned, we stress the importance of strengthening international and regional networks, international standard setting taking into account national and regional differences, information, surveillance and traceability systems, good governance and official services, since they ensure an early detection and a rapid response to biological threats, facilitate trade flows and contribute to global food security (…) 19
  • 20. G20 Ministerial Declaration Meeting of G20 Agriculture Ministers, June 2011 Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture (…) We encourage international organizations, especially FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and WTO to continue their efforts towards enhancing interagency cooperation. 20 20
  • 21. Organisation mondiale de la santé animale World Organisation for Animal Health Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal 21 12 rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France - www.oie.int – oie@oie.int

Editor's Notes

  1. Traditional control of disease outbreaks challenged by involvement of wildlife 1) Provisions in the code – bridging needs of wildlife and livestock situation Risk based and aimed at trade facilitiating measures Surv guidelines Zoningcompartmentalisation *** if in place before an outbreak, then more acceptable to trade partners then if applied during an OB Example of ASF Must accept the challenges Classical control measures not always effective/an option
  2. Note – this is from the OIE website, but if it is decided to keep, it may be worth verifying with Howard that it is OK to use them.
  3. Note – this is from the OIE website, but if it is decided to keep, it may be worth verifying with Howard that it is OK to use them.