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Training for Adaptation
 Evaluating Adaptation:
Avoiding Maladaptation
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation




Avoiding Maladaptation

This module provides a more detailed look at the issue of maladaptation and includes the following:
• The links and conflicts between mitigation and adaptation
• Adaptation and sustainable development
• How to identify and avoid maladaptation
• The potential for mal-mitigation

      Climate Adaptation
                                                                                               D.Davies 2012
 Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Defining Maladaptation
       Attempts to define and find measures of successful adaptation imply that adaptation can be
unsuccessful…given the spatial and temporal complexity of climate change problems and responses,
  it is likely that actions that are judged by one group to be successful adaptations will be judged by
                           groups in other places and times as being unsuccessful.
Yet unsuccessful adaptation need not mean that adaptation has significantly increased vulnerability—
 it may simply mean an action did not work. There is, however, the possibility that adaptation actions
do positively increase the vulnerability of other groups and sectors in the future. Such outcomes have
                                      been referred to as ‘maladptations’.

                           Barnett, J., & O'Neill, S. (2010). Environmental Management. Environmental Management, 20(2), 211-213.




     Climate Adaptation
                                                                                                                      D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Defining Maladaptation
Maladaptation occurs when adaptation measures do not increase resilience/ adaptive capacity
or reduce vulnerability.
Barnet and O’Neill identify five pathways to maladaptation (2010) - these occur in any adaptation
project that involves one or more of the following:
      1)Increased greenhouse gas emissions- thus conflicting with mitigation measures
      2)Disproportionately burden the most vulnerable
      3)High opportunity costs
      4)Reduced incentives to adapt
      5)Set paths that limit the choices available to future generations -
                             Barnett, J., & O'Neill, S. (2010). Environmental Management. Environmental Management, 20(2), 211-213.


Maladaptations can also be defined as those actions which are:
• inappropriate, not proportionate or cost-ineffective solutions;
• environmentally unsustainable;
• in conflict with other long term policy objectives.

     Climate Adaptation
                                                                                                                       D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Maladaptation
The following case study example has been taken from Jon Barnett’s analysis of a new pipeline
and desalinisation plant in Melbourne, Australia. Developed in response to record low rainfall in
the region, Barnett considers the project in terms of it’s potential pathways to mal-adaptation,
and reveals the following:

Potential increase in greenhouse emissions




                                                                            Barnett, J. (May 20, 2011). The Limits to Adaptation and
                                                                     Maladaptation [Adaptation Masterclass]. Retrieved from CAKE:
                                                                         http://www.cakex.org/virtual-library/limits-adaptation-and-
                                                                                                                       maladaptation
     Climate Adaptation
                                                                                                               D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Maladaptation
Potentially reduced incentives to adapt




Potentially reduced options for future adaptation




                                                           Barnett, J. (May 20, 2011). The Limits to Adaptation and
                                                    Maladaptation [Adaptation Masterclass]. Retrieved from CAKE:
                                                        http://www.cakex.org/virtual-library/limits-adaptation-and-
                                                                                                      maladaptation
     Climate Adaptation
                                                                                              D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Links and Conflicts Between Mitigation and Adaptation
The level of climate-change impacts, is determined by both adaptation and mitigation efforts (Smith
et al., 2001). However, only recently have policy-makers expressed an interest in exploring inter-
relationships between adaptation and mitigation. Recognising the dual need for adaptation and
mitigation, as well as the need to explore trade-offs and synergies between the two responses, we
are faced with an array of questions:

•   How much adaptation and mitigation would be optimal, when, and in which combination?
•   Who would decide, and based on what criteria?
•   Are adaptation and mitigation substitutes or are they complementary to one another?
•   When and where is it best to invest in adaptation, and when and where in mitigation?
•   What is the potential for creating synergies between the two responses?
•   How do their costs and effectiveness vary over time?
•   How do the two responses affect, and how are they affected by, development pathways?

These questions led the IPCC to include a chapter on the inter-relationships between adaptation and
mitigation in its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).

                                                 http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch18s18-1-1.html




     Climate Adaptation
                                                                                                           D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
                           Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts,
                                     Adaptation and Vulnerability
                           A schematic overview of inter-relationships between
                                  adaptation, mitigation and impacts


                                    based on Holdridge’s life-zone classification scheme (Holdridge,
                                                 1947, 1967; M.L. Parry, personal communication)
                             http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch18s18-1-1.html




     Climate Adaptation
                                                                                      D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Links and Conflicts Between Mitigation and Adaptation
Although the research on adaptation
and mitigation has been rather
unconnected to date, it is clear that
both the responses are equally
important and can help reduce the risks
of climate change to natural and human
systems.

For example, mitigation will have global
benefits, whereas adaptation benefits
are from local to regional in scale.

However, adaptation benefits can be
immediately visible as compared to
mitigation, where the effects may not be
noticeable until around the middle of
the 21st century.




     Climate Adaptation
                                                       D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Links and Conflicts Between Mitigation and Adaptation

     Adaptation alone cannot eliminate climate-related
                   risks completely.


Even with all the possible protective measures, climate
change will impose additional economic, social, and
ecological costs.

In addition to adaptation measures taken privately and
publicly, global communities should cooperate with
mitigating greenhouse gases through an efficient and
effective policy tool.




     Climate Adaptation
                                                          D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Avoiding Maladaptation

To avoid maladaptation both climatic and socio-
economic factors of vulnerabilities have to be
considered when developing policy responses.

When planning adaptation measures, consider if it
may lead to one of the following

    -An increase in greenhouse-gas emissions
    -An increased pressure on biodiversity
    -An increase in other climate related vulnerabilities

If so, reconsider the measure.




     Climate Adaptation
                                                            D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Linkages between adaptation and mitigation, in the context of
sustainable development
                                                                        Example Mal-adaptations




                                        Source: Cohen, S. and Waddell, M., 2009. Climate Change in the 21st Century:
                                                                            McGill Queens University Press, Montreal.


     Climate Adaptation
                                                                                            C. Aall & D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Interconnection between climate change and biodiversity

Climate change affects biodiversity and…
       Changes in biodiversity affects climate change



• Conserving and sustainably managing biodiversity
  is critical to addressing climate change


• Adaptation strategies that reduce the resilience of
  biodiversity to climate change are maladaptations.




     Climate Adaptation
                                                          C. Aall & D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
No-regret and co-benefit measures


No-regret measures:-Adaptation measures that can
be justified under all plausible future scenarios.

• Adaptation measures that produce other benefits.
• Adaptation measures that are flexible

Example:

Measures that address both climate change and
biodiversity loss and ecosystem service degradation
in an integrated manner and achieve mutually
supportive outcomes.




     Climate Adaptation
                                                      C. Aall & D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource
Process Stage 4
Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
Final key points

• To avoid maladaptation both climatic and socio-
  economic factors of vulnerabilities have to be
  considered when developing policy responses.

• When planning adaptation measures, consider if it
  may lead to one of the following

  -An increase in greenhouse-gas emissions
  -An increased pressure on biodiversity
  -An increase in other climate related vulnerabilities

• If so, reconsider the measure.




     Climate Adaptation
                                                          C. Aall & D.Davies 2012
Online Training Resource

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Evaluating adaptation - Avoiding maladaptation- training for adaptation

  • 1. Training for Adaptation Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation
  • 2. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Avoiding Maladaptation This module provides a more detailed look at the issue of maladaptation and includes the following: • The links and conflicts between mitigation and adaptation • Adaptation and sustainable development • How to identify and avoid maladaptation • The potential for mal-mitigation Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 3. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Defining Maladaptation Attempts to define and find measures of successful adaptation imply that adaptation can be unsuccessful…given the spatial and temporal complexity of climate change problems and responses, it is likely that actions that are judged by one group to be successful adaptations will be judged by groups in other places and times as being unsuccessful. Yet unsuccessful adaptation need not mean that adaptation has significantly increased vulnerability— it may simply mean an action did not work. There is, however, the possibility that adaptation actions do positively increase the vulnerability of other groups and sectors in the future. Such outcomes have been referred to as ‘maladptations’. Barnett, J., & O'Neill, S. (2010). Environmental Management. Environmental Management, 20(2), 211-213. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 4. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Defining Maladaptation Maladaptation occurs when adaptation measures do not increase resilience/ adaptive capacity or reduce vulnerability. Barnet and O’Neill identify five pathways to maladaptation (2010) - these occur in any adaptation project that involves one or more of the following: 1)Increased greenhouse gas emissions- thus conflicting with mitigation measures 2)Disproportionately burden the most vulnerable 3)High opportunity costs 4)Reduced incentives to adapt 5)Set paths that limit the choices available to future generations - Barnett, J., & O'Neill, S. (2010). Environmental Management. Environmental Management, 20(2), 211-213. Maladaptations can also be defined as those actions which are: • inappropriate, not proportionate or cost-ineffective solutions; • environmentally unsustainable; • in conflict with other long term policy objectives. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 5. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Maladaptation The following case study example has been taken from Jon Barnett’s analysis of a new pipeline and desalinisation plant in Melbourne, Australia. Developed in response to record low rainfall in the region, Barnett considers the project in terms of it’s potential pathways to mal-adaptation, and reveals the following: Potential increase in greenhouse emissions Barnett, J. (May 20, 2011). The Limits to Adaptation and Maladaptation [Adaptation Masterclass]. Retrieved from CAKE: http://www.cakex.org/virtual-library/limits-adaptation-and- maladaptation Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 6. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Maladaptation Potentially reduced incentives to adapt Potentially reduced options for future adaptation Barnett, J. (May 20, 2011). The Limits to Adaptation and Maladaptation [Adaptation Masterclass]. Retrieved from CAKE: http://www.cakex.org/virtual-library/limits-adaptation-and- maladaptation Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 7. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Links and Conflicts Between Mitigation and Adaptation The level of climate-change impacts, is determined by both adaptation and mitigation efforts (Smith et al., 2001). However, only recently have policy-makers expressed an interest in exploring inter- relationships between adaptation and mitigation. Recognising the dual need for adaptation and mitigation, as well as the need to explore trade-offs and synergies between the two responses, we are faced with an array of questions: • How much adaptation and mitigation would be optimal, when, and in which combination? • Who would decide, and based on what criteria? • Are adaptation and mitigation substitutes or are they complementary to one another? • When and where is it best to invest in adaptation, and when and where in mitigation? • What is the potential for creating synergies between the two responses? • How do their costs and effectiveness vary over time? • How do the two responses affect, and how are they affected by, development pathways? These questions led the IPCC to include a chapter on the inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation in its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch18s18-1-1.html Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 8. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability A schematic overview of inter-relationships between adaptation, mitigation and impacts based on Holdridge’s life-zone classification scheme (Holdridge, 1947, 1967; M.L. Parry, personal communication) http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch18s18-1-1.html Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 9. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Links and Conflicts Between Mitigation and Adaptation Although the research on adaptation and mitigation has been rather unconnected to date, it is clear that both the responses are equally important and can help reduce the risks of climate change to natural and human systems. For example, mitigation will have global benefits, whereas adaptation benefits are from local to regional in scale. However, adaptation benefits can be immediately visible as compared to mitigation, where the effects may not be noticeable until around the middle of the 21st century. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 10. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Links and Conflicts Between Mitigation and Adaptation Adaptation alone cannot eliminate climate-related risks completely. Even with all the possible protective measures, climate change will impose additional economic, social, and ecological costs. In addition to adaptation measures taken privately and publicly, global communities should cooperate with mitigating greenhouse gases through an efficient and effective policy tool. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 11. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Avoiding Maladaptation To avoid maladaptation both climatic and socio- economic factors of vulnerabilities have to be considered when developing policy responses. When planning adaptation measures, consider if it may lead to one of the following -An increase in greenhouse-gas emissions -An increased pressure on biodiversity -An increase in other climate related vulnerabilities If so, reconsider the measure. Climate Adaptation D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 12. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Linkages between adaptation and mitigation, in the context of sustainable development Example Mal-adaptations Source: Cohen, S. and Waddell, M., 2009. Climate Change in the 21st Century: McGill Queens University Press, Montreal. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 13. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Interconnection between climate change and biodiversity Climate change affects biodiversity and… Changes in biodiversity affects climate change • Conserving and sustainably managing biodiversity is critical to addressing climate change • Adaptation strategies that reduce the resilience of biodiversity to climate change are maladaptations. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 14. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation No-regret and co-benefit measures No-regret measures:-Adaptation measures that can be justified under all plausible future scenarios. • Adaptation measures that produce other benefits. • Adaptation measures that are flexible Example: Measures that address both climate change and biodiversity loss and ecosystem service degradation in an integrated manner and achieve mutually supportive outcomes. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource
  • 15. Process Stage 4 Evaluating Adaptation: Avoiding Maladaptation Final key points • To avoid maladaptation both climatic and socio- economic factors of vulnerabilities have to be considered when developing policy responses. • When planning adaptation measures, consider if it may lead to one of the following -An increase in greenhouse-gas emissions -An increased pressure on biodiversity -An increase in other climate related vulnerabilities • If so, reconsider the measure. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D.Davies 2012 Online Training Resource

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