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Loyola School of Management, September 15, 2012




                                     Dr. Harry CD
                          harrycd2011@gmail.com
                        Research Interests include
                        Globally distributed teams / Virtual teams
                        Behavioral patterns of distributed teams
                        Software teams (WGX, TMX, LMX)
                        Cross culture
Part 1-The world in its form – Global Management

Part 2-Trends in Management




                                Emerging Trends in Management
                                -2012 by Dr.Harry CD
                                                                2
World on the edge




                    Emerging Trends in Management -
                    2012 by Dr.Harry CD               3
In recent times, a series of mass protests
are gripping notably UK, Spain, Italy,
Greece, Egypt, Israel, India and numerous
other countries around the world.



           My considered opinion is that this is the outcome of
           accumulated anger stoked up by perennial poverty, deprivation,
           disparity, exclusion and marginalization in societies.

           The outburst is overtly directed against the persons in power for
           their misrule, corruption, nepotism, arrogance and denial to
           provide for the minimum.

           The unprecedented riots across England are found to be
           caused by the "social selfishness" of the "insulated haves... and
           their regular denigration of the poor."

                                                    Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                    2012 by Dr.Harry CD               4
Changing Management Scenario

Current trends include managers that manage the work and not
the people.

Work is more predictable than people.

Rather than trying to manage people so strictly, managers are
living in the light and kindness with employees as they are real
people; their own neighbors.




                                            Emerging Trends in Management -
                                            2012 by Dr.Harry CD               5
Contemporary Management styles
  1. Micro and Macro management
  2. Virtual and Open source management
  3. Globally distributed management
  4. Global and International Management
  5. Business ecosystems –Networked Management
  6. Green Management
  7. Smart Management
  8. Sustainability management           Green management measures such as
                                               certified environmental management
International and Global Management is         systems (EMS) or tools like life cycle
concerned with the techniques and              assessment activities are considered to
                                               improve     corporate     environmental
practices that are involved in directing and
                                               performance directly by mandating
controlling international organisations.       companies to introduce environmental
                                               goals and management structures as
                                               well as programs to achieve them
                                               2(Coglianese     and    Nash,     2001;
                                               Johnstone, 2001)

                                                          Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                          2012 by Dr.Harry CD               6
S.M.A.R.T.      Management         includes
(specific, measurable, achievable, realistic,
and       time-based.)     methods         of
implementation




                               Sustainable management takes the
                               concepts    from     sustainability and
                               synthesizes them with the concepts of
                               management. Sustainability has three
                               branches: the environment, the needs of
                               present and future generations, and the
                               economy




                                                   Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                   2012 by Dr.Harry CD               7
The micro-manager keeps you under scrutiny, questioning your moves.
S/he gives advice on your work whether or not you think it's necessary. At
times you don't feel trusted. You may appreciate his/her concerns when
needed, but also think s/he doubts your capabilities when you're doing a
capable job.

Pro: They're there when you don't need them
Con: They're there when you do need them

                           They engage the lowest frequency emotion,
                           FEAR, in the workplace. Fear ----> frustration -
                           ---->     Depression    ---->Sabotage       ---->
                           Accidents ----->or Lack of Productivity. Too
                           much micromanagement can cost a company
                           its best and brightest.



                                                    Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                    2012 by Dr.Harry CD               8
The macro-manager is the opposite: S/he may be absent often, leaving
you to make all/most of the decisions, s/he isn't abundant with advice, but
expects a certain level of competency, whether or not the few directions
given are completely understood.

His/her absenteeism be a relief for awhile, but his/her lack of direction can
come across as detached and apathetic, and may be frustrating when
you're left with even the responsibilities s/he should be making.

Pro: They aren't there when you don't need them
Con: They aren't there when you do need them




                                                        Emerging Trends in Management -   9
                                                        2012 by Dr.Harry CD
New trend in management propose the presence of three
psychological states that could result in a highly motivated and
productive worker.

The worker must experience:
1. Meaningfulness or significance of their job
2. Responsibility for outcomes
3. Feedback on the work performed

Wise management never underestimates people's pride and
dignity for work. Recognition goes a long way. When the
environment is happy, work translates to play. Money matters but
that's not all there is.


                                             Emerging Trends in Management -
                                             2012 by Dr.Harry CD               10
Information on Technology Companies
                                                                                                       Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                                                                       2012 by Dr.Harry CD
    Name of                  Total                Employees             Geographical               Overall
  Organization            revenue FY               strength              locations                number of
                            2010 (In                                                               offices
                          USD-Billion)                                    (Countries)


         TCS                    8.26                 198000                     42                     200

       Infosys                  6.35                 133560                     30                      63

        Wipro                    6.0                 100000                     70                     100

       HCL                       5.9                  80000                     31                      60
   Technologies

         IBM                     100                 426751                    170                     ___

    Gap Gemini                    ---                110000                     40                     136

        Ness                     0.5                   6900                     18                      36



  Source:
  Harry CD, 2012, OCB of distributed teams: A study on the mediating effect of organizational justice in software organizations
                                                                                                                                  11
Electronics   Countries Operating
Companies     in
Flextronics   30
Sony          183
Canon         44
LG            40
Samsung       100


Automobile    Countries Operating
Companies     in
Ford          70
GM            157
Toyota        28
Benz & BMW    35 & 150 respectively
                            Emerging Trends in Management -
                            2012 by Dr.Harry CD               12
Trends in Management




                   Emerging Trends in Management -
                   2012 by Dr.Harry CD               13
The 5 Most Prominent Management Trends of the 21st century –
Working Knowledge - the Harvard Business School publication


Globalization

The melting of barriers among nations and their increasing
interconnectedness, accelerated by technology, has led to a change in
the world order that has had a profound impact on global business. The
emergence of nations such as India and China has replaced the era of
unquestioned dominance of the Western countries or any one particular
region, paving the way for a flattened business arena where developments
in one part of the other are certain to have a spiraling impact. Perhaps the
best evidence of this is the recent financial crisis.

Technology

If the current wave of globalization has been the driving force behind the
most far-reaching and powerful changes in business, then information
technology has indisputably been the facilitator.
                                                              Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                              2012 by Dr.Harry CD               14
Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility

For business to be sustainable, and even profitable, our planet has to be
sustainable - this realization has hit businesses perhaps the hardest in
recent times. HBS Dean Nitin Nohria feels that in the coming decade, we
are likely to see a lot of focus directed towards applying management
principles to solutions of complex social issues such as environmental
sustainability, energy security, access to healthcare etc. This will also
underline the need for increased interdisciplinary interaction and influence
on business management.

The Study of Psychology

Speaking of interdisciplinary influences on business, the study of human
psychology - probing into cognition, motivation, behavior and
performance - has become a key pillar of organizational management.
From employee management to customer satisfaction and social
engagement, satisfaction of business objectives requires effective analysis
of both individual and institutional psychology.   Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                         2012 by Dr.Harry CD         15
Business Ecosystems

Professor Carlyss Y. Baldwin feels that one of the most notable trends in
management has been the rise of business ecosystems - defined as
groups of firms which together provide complex products and related
services to meet end-to- end requirements of users across the value
chain. The integration between media, technology and telecommunication
firms would be an apt contemporary example.




                                                   Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                   2012 by Dr.Harry CD               16
The Latest Trends in Business
                                                 “Unless you are networking, you will soon be
                                                 not working” Dr Denis Waitley
1. Shareholder Value as a Strategy.
2. IT as a Utility. The cloud.
3. The Customer Chorus. Brought to you by
    social networking.
4. Enterprise Risk Management. None too
    soon.
5. The Creative Organization. Innovation
    matters.
6. Open Source. Community resources
    beyond software.
7. Going Private. SOX workaround.
8. Behavioral Economics. Freakonomics,
    anyone?
9. High Potentials. Nurture, nurture, nurture.
10. Competing on Analytics. Well beyond the
    gut level.
11. Reverse Innovation. R&D closer to global
    markets.
12. Sustainability. Green is good.                             Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                               2012 by Dr.Harry CD               17
ENABLERS

Challenges at work
Environment conducive to continuous learning
Recognition for work done
High degree of autonomy
Free flow of information / Communication
Timely feedback
Opportunities to exercise initiative and
creativity
Opportunities for expansion of sphere of
expertise                                                           ♦    Core competency
High pay and perks, ESOPs                                           ♦    Innate goodness
Creating a ‘Communal Culture’ – Striking
                                                                    ♦    Adapting to changes rapidly
balance between an individualistic task focus
and a social club.                                                  ♦    Positive Attitude
                                                                    ♦    Enhanced quality of work
                                                   Performance      ♦    Team Spirit and teamwork



Sub contract and fragmented projects
Insecurities and threats due to rapid pace of
change in area of expertise                                         ♦    Alienation and burnout
Ambiguity and uncertainty in software                               ♦    Attrition
organisation.                                                       ♦    Selfishness
Role of Politics.
                                                                    ♦    Unaccountability
Difficulty to have face to face contact with the
customer to clarify project requirements.                           ♦    Loss of trust
Lack of human touch and care
Dearth of management expertise at middle and
top management level



          INHIBITORS




Some Enablers and Inhibitors affecting Performance in Indian Software Industry




                                                                  Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                                  2012 by Dr.Harry CD                  18
Red tapeism / Protectionism


 - Is viewing the world solely through one’s own eyes and
 perspectives.

 –Is not recognizing that others have different ways of living
 and working.

 –Is a significant obstacle for managers working in a global
 business world.
 –Is falling into the trap of ignoring others’ values and
 customs and rigidly applying an attitude of “ours is better
           than theirs” to foreign cultures.



                                                Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                2012 by Dr.Harry CD               19
Emerging challenges

•   Coping with the sudden appearance of new competitors
•   Acknowledging cultural, political, and economic differences
•   Dealing with increased uncertainty, fear, and anxiety
•   Adapting to changes in the global environment
•   Avoiding parochialism

                                   Adopting a Global Perspective
               Ethnocentric Attitude
               The parochialistic belief that the best work approaches and
               practices are those of the home country.
               Polycentric Attitude
               The view that the managers in the host country know the best
               work approaches and practices for running their business.
               Geocentric Attitude
               A world-oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches
               and people from around the globe

                                                    Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                    2012 by Dr.Harry CD               20
Political Regrouping for Business

The European Union (EU) A unified economic and trade entity
Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Finland, and Sweden

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Eliminated barriers to free trade
(tariffs, import licensing requirements, and customs user fees) United States, Canada,
and Mexico

U.S.-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) Free Trade Area of the Americas

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian
Nations

African Union

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SARRC)

                                                              Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                              2012 by Dr.Harry CD               21
World Trade Organization (WTO)

• Evolved from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
   in 1995.
• Functions as the only global organization dealing with the rules
   of trade among nations.
• Has 149 member nations and 32 observer governments.
• Monitors and promotes world trade




                                                        Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                        2012 by Dr.Harry CD               22
The way IT industry is identified




                                    Emerging Trends in Management -
                                    2012 by Dr.Harry CD               23
Managing in a Global Environment

The Legal Environment
 Stability or instability of legal and political systems
 Legal procedures are established and followed
 Fair and honest elections held on a regular basis
 Differences in the laws of various nations
 Effects on business activities
 Effects on delivery of products and services

The Economic Environment
- Economic Systems
- Free market economy - An economy in which resources are primarily owned
and controlled by the private sector.
- Planned economy - An economy in which all economic decisions are planned
by a central government.
- Monetary and Financial Factors
•Currency exchange rates
•Inflation rates
•Diverse tax policies                                Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                            2012 by Dr.Harry CD        24
The Cultural Environment – Localisation of culture

Is the values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that
        shape their behavior and their beliefs about what is important.
May have more influence on an organization than the organization culture.



Challenges and Risks
•Giving in to a culture of collaboration
•Avoiding protectionism
•Openness associated race, colour and culture
•Accepting leadership styles and management approaches

Risks
  Loss of investments in unstable economic environment
  Increased terrorism
  Economic interdependence
                                                         Emerging Trends in Management -
                                                         2012 by Dr.Harry CD               25
What Are Americans Like

         Americans are very informal.
         Americans are direct.
         Americans are competitive.
         Americans are achievers.
         Americans are independent and individualistic.
         Americans are questioners.
         Americans dislike silence.
         Americans value punctuality.
         Americans value cleanliness.
Sources: Based on M. Ernest (ed.), Predeparture Orientation Handbook: For Foreign Students and Scholars Planning to Study in the
United States (Washington, DC: U.S. Information Agency, Bureau of Cultural Affairs, 1984), pp. 103–05; A. Bennett, “American Culture Is
Often a Puzzle for Foreign Managers in the U.S.,” Wall Street Journal, February 12, 1986, p. 29; “Don’t Think Our Way’s the Only Way,”
The Pryor Report, February 1988, p. 9; and B.J. Wattenberg, “The Attitudes behind American Exceptionalism,” U.S. News & World
Report, August 7, 1989, p. 25.
Thank you

Contacts:
harrycd2011@gmail.com
+91 9845713736


                        Emerging Trends in Management -
                        2012 by Dr.Harry CD               27

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Emerging trends in management [compatibility mode]

  • 1. Loyola School of Management, September 15, 2012 Dr. Harry CD harrycd2011@gmail.com Research Interests include Globally distributed teams / Virtual teams Behavioral patterns of distributed teams Software teams (WGX, TMX, LMX) Cross culture
  • 2. Part 1-The world in its form – Global Management Part 2-Trends in Management Emerging Trends in Management -2012 by Dr.Harry CD 2
  • 3. World on the edge Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 3
  • 4. In recent times, a series of mass protests are gripping notably UK, Spain, Italy, Greece, Egypt, Israel, India and numerous other countries around the world. My considered opinion is that this is the outcome of accumulated anger stoked up by perennial poverty, deprivation, disparity, exclusion and marginalization in societies. The outburst is overtly directed against the persons in power for their misrule, corruption, nepotism, arrogance and denial to provide for the minimum. The unprecedented riots across England are found to be caused by the "social selfishness" of the "insulated haves... and their regular denigration of the poor." Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 4
  • 5. Changing Management Scenario Current trends include managers that manage the work and not the people. Work is more predictable than people. Rather than trying to manage people so strictly, managers are living in the light and kindness with employees as they are real people; their own neighbors. Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 5
  • 6. Contemporary Management styles 1. Micro and Macro management 2. Virtual and Open source management 3. Globally distributed management 4. Global and International Management 5. Business ecosystems –Networked Management 6. Green Management 7. Smart Management 8. Sustainability management Green management measures such as certified environmental management International and Global Management is systems (EMS) or tools like life cycle concerned with the techniques and assessment activities are considered to improve corporate environmental practices that are involved in directing and performance directly by mandating controlling international organisations. companies to introduce environmental goals and management structures as well as programs to achieve them 2(Coglianese and Nash, 2001; Johnstone, 2001) Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 6
  • 7. S.M.A.R.T. Management includes (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-based.) methods of implementation Sustainable management takes the concepts from sustainability and synthesizes them with the concepts of management. Sustainability has three branches: the environment, the needs of present and future generations, and the economy Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 7
  • 8. The micro-manager keeps you under scrutiny, questioning your moves. S/he gives advice on your work whether or not you think it's necessary. At times you don't feel trusted. You may appreciate his/her concerns when needed, but also think s/he doubts your capabilities when you're doing a capable job. Pro: They're there when you don't need them Con: They're there when you do need them They engage the lowest frequency emotion, FEAR, in the workplace. Fear ----> frustration - ----> Depression ---->Sabotage ----> Accidents ----->or Lack of Productivity. Too much micromanagement can cost a company its best and brightest. Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 8
  • 9. The macro-manager is the opposite: S/he may be absent often, leaving you to make all/most of the decisions, s/he isn't abundant with advice, but expects a certain level of competency, whether or not the few directions given are completely understood. His/her absenteeism be a relief for awhile, but his/her lack of direction can come across as detached and apathetic, and may be frustrating when you're left with even the responsibilities s/he should be making. Pro: They aren't there when you don't need them Con: They aren't there when you do need them Emerging Trends in Management - 9 2012 by Dr.Harry CD
  • 10. New trend in management propose the presence of three psychological states that could result in a highly motivated and productive worker. The worker must experience: 1. Meaningfulness or significance of their job 2. Responsibility for outcomes 3. Feedback on the work performed Wise management never underestimates people's pride and dignity for work. Recognition goes a long way. When the environment is happy, work translates to play. Money matters but that's not all there is. Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 10
  • 11. Information on Technology Companies Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD Name of Total Employees Geographical Overall Organization revenue FY strength locations number of 2010 (In offices USD-Billion) (Countries) TCS 8.26 198000 42 200 Infosys 6.35 133560 30 63 Wipro 6.0 100000 70 100 HCL 5.9 80000 31 60 Technologies IBM 100 426751 170 ___ Gap Gemini --- 110000 40 136 Ness 0.5 6900 18 36 Source: Harry CD, 2012, OCB of distributed teams: A study on the mediating effect of organizational justice in software organizations 11
  • 12. Electronics Countries Operating Companies in Flextronics 30 Sony 183 Canon 44 LG 40 Samsung 100 Automobile Countries Operating Companies in Ford 70 GM 157 Toyota 28 Benz & BMW 35 & 150 respectively Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 12
  • 13. Trends in Management Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 13
  • 14. The 5 Most Prominent Management Trends of the 21st century – Working Knowledge - the Harvard Business School publication Globalization The melting of barriers among nations and their increasing interconnectedness, accelerated by technology, has led to a change in the world order that has had a profound impact on global business. The emergence of nations such as India and China has replaced the era of unquestioned dominance of the Western countries or any one particular region, paving the way for a flattened business arena where developments in one part of the other are certain to have a spiraling impact. Perhaps the best evidence of this is the recent financial crisis. Technology If the current wave of globalization has been the driving force behind the most far-reaching and powerful changes in business, then information technology has indisputably been the facilitator. Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 14
  • 15. Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility For business to be sustainable, and even profitable, our planet has to be sustainable - this realization has hit businesses perhaps the hardest in recent times. HBS Dean Nitin Nohria feels that in the coming decade, we are likely to see a lot of focus directed towards applying management principles to solutions of complex social issues such as environmental sustainability, energy security, access to healthcare etc. This will also underline the need for increased interdisciplinary interaction and influence on business management. The Study of Psychology Speaking of interdisciplinary influences on business, the study of human psychology - probing into cognition, motivation, behavior and performance - has become a key pillar of organizational management. From employee management to customer satisfaction and social engagement, satisfaction of business objectives requires effective analysis of both individual and institutional psychology. Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 15
  • 16. Business Ecosystems Professor Carlyss Y. Baldwin feels that one of the most notable trends in management has been the rise of business ecosystems - defined as groups of firms which together provide complex products and related services to meet end-to- end requirements of users across the value chain. The integration between media, technology and telecommunication firms would be an apt contemporary example. Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 16
  • 17. The Latest Trends in Business “Unless you are networking, you will soon be not working” Dr Denis Waitley 1. Shareholder Value as a Strategy. 2. IT as a Utility. The cloud. 3. The Customer Chorus. Brought to you by social networking. 4. Enterprise Risk Management. None too soon. 5. The Creative Organization. Innovation matters. 6. Open Source. Community resources beyond software. 7. Going Private. SOX workaround. 8. Behavioral Economics. Freakonomics, anyone? 9. High Potentials. Nurture, nurture, nurture. 10. Competing on Analytics. Well beyond the gut level. 11. Reverse Innovation. R&D closer to global markets. 12. Sustainability. Green is good. Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 17
  • 18. ENABLERS Challenges at work Environment conducive to continuous learning Recognition for work done High degree of autonomy Free flow of information / Communication Timely feedback Opportunities to exercise initiative and creativity Opportunities for expansion of sphere of expertise ♦ Core competency High pay and perks, ESOPs ♦ Innate goodness Creating a ‘Communal Culture’ – Striking ♦ Adapting to changes rapidly balance between an individualistic task focus and a social club. ♦ Positive Attitude ♦ Enhanced quality of work Performance ♦ Team Spirit and teamwork Sub contract and fragmented projects Insecurities and threats due to rapid pace of change in area of expertise ♦ Alienation and burnout Ambiguity and uncertainty in software ♦ Attrition organisation. ♦ Selfishness Role of Politics. ♦ Unaccountability Difficulty to have face to face contact with the customer to clarify project requirements. ♦ Loss of trust Lack of human touch and care Dearth of management expertise at middle and top management level INHIBITORS Some Enablers and Inhibitors affecting Performance in Indian Software Industry Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 18
  • 19. Red tapeism / Protectionism - Is viewing the world solely through one’s own eyes and perspectives. –Is not recognizing that others have different ways of living and working. –Is a significant obstacle for managers working in a global business world. –Is falling into the trap of ignoring others’ values and customs and rigidly applying an attitude of “ours is better than theirs” to foreign cultures. Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 19
  • 20. Emerging challenges • Coping with the sudden appearance of new competitors • Acknowledging cultural, political, and economic differences • Dealing with increased uncertainty, fear, and anxiety • Adapting to changes in the global environment • Avoiding parochialism Adopting a Global Perspective Ethnocentric Attitude The parochialistic belief that the best work approaches and practices are those of the home country. Polycentric Attitude The view that the managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their business. Geocentric Attitude A world-oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 20
  • 21. Political Regrouping for Business The European Union (EU) A unified economic and trade entity Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Finland, and Sweden North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Eliminated barriers to free trade (tariffs, import licensing requirements, and customs user fees) United States, Canada, and Mexico U.S.-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) Free Trade Area of the Americas Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian Nations African Union South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SARRC) Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 21
  • 22. World Trade Organization (WTO) • Evolved from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1995. • Functions as the only global organization dealing with the rules of trade among nations. • Has 149 member nations and 32 observer governments. • Monitors and promotes world trade Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 22
  • 23. The way IT industry is identified Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 23
  • 24. Managing in a Global Environment The Legal Environment Stability or instability of legal and political systems Legal procedures are established and followed Fair and honest elections held on a regular basis Differences in the laws of various nations Effects on business activities Effects on delivery of products and services The Economic Environment - Economic Systems - Free market economy - An economy in which resources are primarily owned and controlled by the private sector. - Planned economy - An economy in which all economic decisions are planned by a central government. - Monetary and Financial Factors •Currency exchange rates •Inflation rates •Diverse tax policies Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 24
  • 25. The Cultural Environment – Localisation of culture Is the values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and their beliefs about what is important. May have more influence on an organization than the organization culture. Challenges and Risks •Giving in to a culture of collaboration •Avoiding protectionism •Openness associated race, colour and culture •Accepting leadership styles and management approaches Risks Loss of investments in unstable economic environment Increased terrorism Economic interdependence Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 25
  • 26. What Are Americans Like Americans are very informal. Americans are direct. Americans are competitive. Americans are achievers. Americans are independent and individualistic. Americans are questioners. Americans dislike silence. Americans value punctuality. Americans value cleanliness. Sources: Based on M. Ernest (ed.), Predeparture Orientation Handbook: For Foreign Students and Scholars Planning to Study in the United States (Washington, DC: U.S. Information Agency, Bureau of Cultural Affairs, 1984), pp. 103–05; A. Bennett, “American Culture Is Often a Puzzle for Foreign Managers in the U.S.,” Wall Street Journal, February 12, 1986, p. 29; “Don’t Think Our Way’s the Only Way,” The Pryor Report, February 1988, p. 9; and B.J. Wattenberg, “The Attitudes behind American Exceptionalism,” U.S. News & World Report, August 7, 1989, p. 25.
  • 27. Thank you Contacts: harrycd2011@gmail.com +91 9845713736 Emerging Trends in Management - 2012 by Dr.Harry CD 27