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Jain University, August 19, 2012

                              Dr. Harry CD
                   harrycd2011@gmail.com


                Research Interests include
                Globally distributed teams / Virtual teams
                Behavioral patterns of distributed teams
                Software teams (WGX, TMX, LMX)
                Cross culture
Part 1- Research in contemporary HRM

Part 2-Theory building in HRM Research

Part 3- Critical terms in HRM research




                                  Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                  research in contemporary HRM",
                                  2012
Information on Technology Companies
                                                                                                       Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                                                                       research in contemporary HRM",
                                                                                                       2012
    Name of                  Total                Employees             Geographical               Overall
  Organization            revenue FY               strength              locations                number of
                            2010 (In                                                               offices
                          USD-Billion)                                    (Countries)


         TCS                    8.26                 198000                     42                     200

       Infosys                  6.35                 133560                     30                      63

        Wipro                    6.0                 100000                     70                     100

       HCL                       5.9                  80000                     31                      60
   Technologies

         IBM                     100                 426751                    170                     ___

    Gap Gemini                    ---                110000                     40                     136

        Ness                     0.5                   6900                     18                      36



  Source:
  Harry CD, 2012, OCB of distributed teams: A study on the mediating effect of organizational justice in software organizations
Electronics   Countries Operating
Companies     in
Flextronics   30
Sony          183
Canon         44
LG            40
Samsung       100


Automobile    Countries Operating
Companies     in
Ford          70
GM            157
Toyota        28
Benz & BMW    35 & 150 respectively
                            Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                            research in contemporary HRM",
                            2012
The Latest Trends in Business
                                “Unless you are networking, you will soon
                                be not working” Dr Denis Waitley
Social media –the obvious choice
Global reach
Outsource anything
No business is a bad business
A bigger role for government
Management as a science
Shifting consumption patterns
Asia rising
Industries taking new shape
Innovation marching on
Price stability in question



                                                  Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                  research in contemporary HRM",
                                                  2012
Macro and Micro context of Contemporary HRM

   Dynamically changing global scenario
   Belief in people processes has superseded other organizational processes
   Changing from borrowed to indigenized
   Administrator to strategist and change agent
   Increase technology driven jobs while low skilled jobs decrease
   Highest global mobility- helps global alignment
   Centralized to distributed approach
   World at your feet tendency
   People are no more just resources
   Process on sensitivity to sensitivity on processes
   Hiring through social media
   Localized compensation
   HR policies based on trust, openness, equity and consensus
   Better working conditions – Fun place to work
   Encourage zeal, initiative, innovation and entrepreneurship; make people
   feel like winners
   Sensitivity to relationships-Internal and external
                                                      Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
   Equitably reward and integrate aspirations with corporate goals.
                                                      research in contemporary HRM",
                                                        2012
Organizations in every domain all over the world are
confronted with growing complexity due to changing
forms of organization.


Apart from relationships with competitors, customers,
and suppliers becoming more complicated and
involved, internally, many companies have complex
processes, diverse business units, matrix structures and
a diverse employee base as organizations become
globally distributed.


                                       Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                       research in contemporary HRM",
                                       2012
Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
research in contemporary HRM",
2012
Perception of organizational complexity is related to their
process of understanding and appreciating the changing
forms of organization.
High-Performance Organizations (HPO) such as GE,
Becton Dickinson, Campbell Soup, IBM, and ASDA etc.,
has systematically developed their research capabilities
(RC) over time.
Successful Indian multinational organizations such as
Infosys, Wipro, Cognizant and TCS has worked on their
people processes, competency building, performance
management, compensation systems based on inputs
obtained from their initiative or outsourced research.of
                                          Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective
                                                research in contemporary HRM",
                                                2012
Chatterjee, S. R. (2007). Human Resource Management in India: ‘Where From’ and
‘Where To?’, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 15(2), 92-
103.
                                                                Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                                research in contemporary HRM",
                                                                2012
Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
research in contemporary HRM",
2012
There are five core areas where optimizing the use of research outcome in an
organization can provide additional value and ammunition for fighting
competition.



Structure and design
Research capabilities can play an integral role in eliminating redundancy or
unnecessary layers in an organizational structure by streamlining processes,
minimizing management layers, facilitating communication and improving
monitoring. Continuous research can help create more agile and flexible
organizational structures.


Specific experience of roles, interaction and exchanges, treatments, benefits,
culture, communication and brand status of an organization provide sufficient
space for research.

                                                     Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                     research in contemporary HRM",
                                                     2012
For example:
   •   Backward and forward integration
   •   Merger and acquisition
   •   Collaborations and joint ventures
   •   Outsourcing and in sourcing
   •   Virtual and open source approaches
   •   Grouping and regrouping of businesses
   •   Private or public participation
   •   Single or multiple products and services
   •   Collocated or distributed location
   •   Size and depth of the business
                                        Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                        research in contemporary HRM",
                                        2012
Processes and policies
Organizations are continually looking at ways to make their processes more competitive,
effective and efficient.

HRM processes include

     • Employment and engagement
     • Performance management
     • Competency building
     • Learning and development
     • HR auditing, assessment centers and Balanced score card
     • High performance culture
     • Career progression and succession
     • Deployment and redeployment
     • Rehabilitation
     • Local, national and global HRM practices
     • Culture sensitivity
     • Innovative people practices
     • Compensation and benefits
     • Attraction and retention etc.,
Stakeholders dynamically compare and ascertain their worth Harry CD -"A perspectivedetermine
                                                           Dr. instantly and          of
                                                           research in contemporary HRM",
procedure for an effective move ahead.                     2012
People practices
Organizations can also optimize people resources by investing in research
capabilities. With the right people, technology and processes, companies can
reduce the number of people needed to achieve the same desired business
results.
    •   Domestic versus overseas assignments, transfers and deputations
    •   Exchange within and between teams
    •   Interaction between collocated and distributed teams
    •   Gaps in beliefs and practices between core and non-core teams
    •   Differential treatment in work location
    •   Differential treatment between expatriates and domestic employees
        Cultural gaps and related problems
    • Work life balance
    • Inter dependence between employees



                                                    Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                    research in contemporary HRM",
                                                    2012
• Knowledge transfer and sharing
• Role efficacy experiences
• Rewards and recognitions related behaviours
• Perceived organizational support
• In-role and extra role behaviour (ERB or OCB)
• Organizational retaliatory behaviour (ORB)
• Justice Perceptions
• Decision participation
• Employee ambassadorship
• Withdrawal symptoms and organizational problems
• Organizational politic
• Differential treatment between contract / consultants versus direct
  employees
• Relationship between employees and customers / clients, between one
  unit to other units
• Performance assessment – Domestic and onsite Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                Dr.
• Cross culture experiences                     research in contemporary HRM",
                                                2012
Innovative HR practices
Contemporary research has been concentrating on HR transformation

  Developing business acumen
  Giving importance to EQ and SQ
  Human capital
  Intellectual capital
  Changing Trends in the area of Training and Development
  Transforming training delivery mechanisms
  Assessment centres
  Localization of culture
  HR branding
  Emotional / psychological approach
  Competency and capability developemnt
  Change management
  Balanced score card
  Career progression and succession plan
  Stay interview
  Flexi working                                  Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
  High performance culture                       research in contemporary HRM",
                                                           2012
International management / HR alignment

      Globally distributed team
      Cross culture
      Expatriates and in-patriates
      Virtual teams
      Contract resource management
      Global compensation




                                     Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                     research in contemporary HRM",
                                     2012
Part 2




         Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
         research in contemporary HRM",
         2012
HRM is concerned with people practices, thus the
interaction and exchange in organizations mostly focus
on how such interaction and exchange happens then
why it happens.


A data driven analytical approach provides an in depth
understanding of every people related phenomena
across organization and offers means for reducing the
intensity of challenges.



                                      Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                      research in contemporary HRM",
                                      2012
Theory is described as “a coherent description,
explanation and representation of observed or
experienced phenomena” (Gioia & Pitre, 1990, p. 587).


Theory building is the ongoing process of producing,
confirming, applying, and adapting theory (Lynham,
2000b).

Theory is required to be of practical value (Kaplan, 1964;
Lynham, 2000b; Mott, 1996; Swanson, 1997, 1999; Van de
Ven, 1989)


                                       Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                       research in contemporary HRM",
                                       2012
Challenge and usefulness

One of the challenges of theory-building research in applied
disciplines is making the logic used to build the theory
explicit and accessible to the user of the developed
theory.
•   Theory building   contributes   to   the     existing             body       of
    knowledge

• Help bridge the gap between research and practice
• Provides growth and maturity to the discipline


                                               Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                               research in contemporary HRM",
                                               2012
False assumptions of theory building include
the following: (Susan A. Lynham, 2002)
• that theory is disconnected and removed from practice,
• that the process of theory construction happens in
  isolation of the real world,
• that those who engage in theory building or
  development are not the same as those who engage in
  practice or in the real world, and
• that usefulness and application are optional outcomes of
  theory.

                                         Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                         research in contemporary HRM",
                                         2012
Theory building is described as “the purposeful process or recurring
cycle by which coherent descriptions, explanations, and
representations of observed or experienced phenomena are
generated, verified, and refined” (Lynham, 2000b, p. 161)
Theory building include
•   Systematically collecting and interpreting new data
•   Defining gaps and problems
•   Identifying responses to new problems
•   Define practical problems
•   Evaluating solutions
•   Discerning priorities
•   Identifying new research directions
•   Developing common language
•   Defining boundaries
•   Sharing the findings and
                                                   Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                   research in contemporary HRM",
                                                   2012
The theory building process
The building of theory occurs in two major stages- The
descriptive stage and the normative stage.


Within each of these stages, theory builders process through
three steps: Observation, categorization and association.


Good theory and theory building should also reflect two
important qualities: rigor and relevance (Marsick, 1990a),
or what are also termed validity and utility (Van de Ven,
1989).
                                         Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                         research in contemporary HRM",
                                         2012
Building the research process

    Deduction Process                          Induction Process



                           Statements of
                           association
                           (Models)


                    Categorization based on
                                                                           Anomaly
                    attributes of phenomena
                         (Frameworks &
                           Typologies)

                     Observe, Describe and
                      Measure phenomena
                         (Constructs)      Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                    research in contemporary HRM",
                                                    2012
The first is one of a research-to-theory strategy,
whereas the second is one of a theory-to-research
strategy (Reynolds, 1971).

The research-to-theory strategy, also termed the
research-then-theory strategy, is related to “deriving
the laws of nature from a careful examination of all
the available data” (Reynolds, 1971, p. 140).




                                    Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                    research in contemporary HRM",
                                    2012
As described by Reynolds (1971), the essences of this research-to-
theory strategy are as follows:

1. Select a phenomenon and list all the characteristics of the
   phenomenon

2. measure all the characteristics of the phenomenon in a variety of
situations (as many as possible)

3. analyze the resulting data carefully and determine if there are any
systematic patterns among the data “worthy” of further attention, and

4. once significant patterns have been found in the data, formalization of
these patterns as theoretical statements constitutes the laws of nature
(axioms, in Bacon’s terminology).



                                                   Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                   research in contemporary HRM",
                                                   2012
The second strategy for building theory is that of theory to
research, or what Reynolds (1971) called the “theory-then-
research strategy”

Reynolds highlighted the essences of this
theory-building strategy as follows:
1. Develop an explicit theory in either axiomatic or process description
form;
2. select a statement generated by the theory for comparison with the
results of empirical research;
3. design a research project to “test” the chosen statement’s
correspondence with empirical research;
4. if the statement derived from the theory does not correspond with the
research results, make appropriate changes in the theory or the research
design and continue with the research; and
5. if the statement from the theory corresponds with the results of the
research, select further statements for testing or attempt to determine the
limitations of the theory.                            Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                           research in contemporary HRM",
                                                           2012
A useful way of conceptualizing the research method for
applied theory building is as a recursive system of five
distinct phases:


• conceptual development,
• operationalization,
• application,
• confirmation or disconfirmation, and
• continuous refinement and development (of the theory).




                                         Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                         research in contemporary HRM",
                                         2012
Popular Theories
Equity Theory
Motivational theory of Abraham Maslow, 1954
Theory X and Theory Y were developed by a management
professor Douglas McGregor at MIT Sloan School of
Management in the 1960s.
Chris Argyris (1957)- worker-structure conflict theory
Frederick Herzberg (1959)-Two factor theory (Hygiene and
motivational factors)
Douglas McGregor (1960)- Theory of management, Theory X
and Theory Y
Argyris & Schön (1974, 1996)- Model I and Model II
Role efficacy –Self efficacy theories- Uday Pareek, 1980
Co-creation model - Jason Colquitt, 2007
Sense-making and breaking-Roberson, 2008 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                     research in contemporary HRM",
                                                     2012
Part 3




         Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
         research in contemporary HRM",
         2012
Macro and micro context in HRM

The environment furnishes the macro context and the organization is
the micro unit.

The external environment is comprised of those factors which affect an
organizations human resources from outside the organization.

Important among them are: economic, social, political, governmental,
legal, technological, traditional and cultural; customers other
organizations and trade unions in other organizations.




                                               Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                               research in contemporary HRM",
                                               2012
Differentiate between deduction and induction

In deduction, we deduce generalization from universal to
particular but in induction we arrive at universal
generalizations from particular facts. Therefore, sometimes
deduction is thought to be opposite to induction.

In inductive reasoning, you try to get a result based on a
theory. Deductive reasoning you work backwards you have
the result and you try to come up with the reasoning
behind it.




                                        Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                        research in contemporary HRM",
                                        2012
Quantitative Research Confirms
Quantitative research looks at the general case and moves
toward the specific. This deductive approach to research
considers a potential cause of something and hopes to
verify its effect.


Qualitative Research Confirms
Qualitative research begins with the specific and moves
toward the general. The data collecting process in
qualitative research is personal, field-based, and iterative
or circular. As data are collected and organized during
analysis, patterns emerge.


                                         Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                         research in contemporary HRM",
                                         2012
Nonprobability and Probability Sampling

Nonprobability sampling does not involve random selection
But
Probability sampling does


Empirical and Conceptual

Empirical and conceptual are two different approaches of
research.
• While empirical is dependent upon observation and
experimentation, and produces verifiable results, it is mostly used
in scientific studies
• On the other hand, conceptual analysis is a popular method of
research in social sciences, and philosophy and psychology.
                                                Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                research in contemporary HRM",
                                                2012
The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction

 Mediating effects allow researchers to
 understand       underlying       complex
 relationships whereby the effect of an
 independent variable is transmitted to a
 dependent variable through a third variable
 (Baron and Kenny(1986)
                                            a moderator is a qualitative (e.g., sex, race,
                                            class) or quantitative (e.g., level of reward)
                                            variable that affects the direction and/or
                                            strength of the relation between an
                                            independent or predictor variable and a
                                            dependent or criterion variable.

Theorists and researchers should be aware of the importance of not using the
terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both
conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderatorsperspective of
                                                        Dr. Harry CD -"A and mediators
                                                        research in contemporary HRM",
differ                                                  2012
Validity and Reliability.

Essentially, validity entails the question, “does your
measurement process, assessment, or project actually
measure what you intend it to measure?”.


The related topic of reliability addresses whether repeated
measurements or assessments provide a consistent result
given the same initial circumstances.




                                        Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                        research in contemporary HRM",
                                        2012
Aims and Objectives

Aims are actually goals which we set for ourselves but
objectives are the measures which we undertake to
achieve our aims

Methods and Methodology

Research methods involve conduct of experiments, tests, surveys
and the like. On the other hand research methodology involves
the learning of the various techniques that can be used in the
conduct of research and in the conduct of tests, experiments,
 surveys and critical studies.

                                         Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                         research in contemporary HRM",
                                         2012
A doctoral dissertation is a serious piece of research upon
which you will spend months or years of your life.
Strangers cannot select topics for you without knowing
something about your interests and experiences.

You should not settle for a topic selected by strangers but
should be reading extensively and meeting with your
adviser at the university in order to determine a topic that
will be sufficiently original and rigorous to meet the
university's requirements while at the same time feasible
for you to pursue.




                                         Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                         research in contemporary HRM",
                                         2012
References:

1. Chatterjee, S. R. (2007). Human Resource Management in India: ‘Where
   From’ and ‘Where To?’, Research and Practice in Human Resource
   Management, 15(2), 92-103.
2. Gioia, D. A., & Pitre, E. (1990). Multiparadigm perspective on theory building.
   Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 584-602.
3. Reynolds, P. D. (1971). A primer in theory construction. New York: Macmillan
4. Reuben M. Baron and David A. Kenny, 1986, Journal of Penality and Social
   Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 6, 1173-1182
5. Susan A. Lynham, 2002, Advances in Developing Human Resources ; 4; 221
6. Van de Ven, A. H. (1989). Nothing is quite so practical as a good theory.
   Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 486-489.




                                                        Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                                                        research in contemporary HRM",
                                                        2012
Wish you a successful
  doctoral Journey
      Contacts:
      harrycd2011@gmail.com
      +91 9845713736


                              Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of
                              research in contemporary HRM",
                              2012

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A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]

  • 1. Jain University, August 19, 2012 Dr. Harry CD harrycd2011@gmail.com Research Interests include Globally distributed teams / Virtual teams Behavioral patterns of distributed teams Software teams (WGX, TMX, LMX) Cross culture
  • 2. Part 1- Research in contemporary HRM Part 2-Theory building in HRM Research Part 3- Critical terms in HRM research Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 3. Information on Technology Companies Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012 Name of Total Employees Geographical Overall Organization revenue FY strength locations number of 2010 (In offices USD-Billion) (Countries) TCS 8.26 198000 42 200 Infosys 6.35 133560 30 63 Wipro 6.0 100000 70 100 HCL 5.9 80000 31 60 Technologies IBM 100 426751 170 ___ Gap Gemini --- 110000 40 136 Ness 0.5 6900 18 36 Source: Harry CD, 2012, OCB of distributed teams: A study on the mediating effect of organizational justice in software organizations
  • 4. Electronics Countries Operating Companies in Flextronics 30 Sony 183 Canon 44 LG 40 Samsung 100 Automobile Countries Operating Companies in Ford 70 GM 157 Toyota 28 Benz & BMW 35 & 150 respectively Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 5. The Latest Trends in Business “Unless you are networking, you will soon be not working” Dr Denis Waitley Social media –the obvious choice Global reach Outsource anything No business is a bad business A bigger role for government Management as a science Shifting consumption patterns Asia rising Industries taking new shape Innovation marching on Price stability in question Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 6. Macro and Micro context of Contemporary HRM Dynamically changing global scenario Belief in people processes has superseded other organizational processes Changing from borrowed to indigenized Administrator to strategist and change agent Increase technology driven jobs while low skilled jobs decrease Highest global mobility- helps global alignment Centralized to distributed approach World at your feet tendency People are no more just resources Process on sensitivity to sensitivity on processes Hiring through social media Localized compensation HR policies based on trust, openness, equity and consensus Better working conditions – Fun place to work Encourage zeal, initiative, innovation and entrepreneurship; make people feel like winners Sensitivity to relationships-Internal and external Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of Equitably reward and integrate aspirations with corporate goals. research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 7. Organizations in every domain all over the world are confronted with growing complexity due to changing forms of organization. Apart from relationships with competitors, customers, and suppliers becoming more complicated and involved, internally, many companies have complex processes, diverse business units, matrix structures and a diverse employee base as organizations become globally distributed. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 8. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 9. Perception of organizational complexity is related to their process of understanding and appreciating the changing forms of organization. High-Performance Organizations (HPO) such as GE, Becton Dickinson, Campbell Soup, IBM, and ASDA etc., has systematically developed their research capabilities (RC) over time. Successful Indian multinational organizations such as Infosys, Wipro, Cognizant and TCS has worked on their people processes, competency building, performance management, compensation systems based on inputs obtained from their initiative or outsourced research.of Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 10. Chatterjee, S. R. (2007). Human Resource Management in India: ‘Where From’ and ‘Where To?’, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 15(2), 92- 103. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 11. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 12. There are five core areas where optimizing the use of research outcome in an organization can provide additional value and ammunition for fighting competition. Structure and design Research capabilities can play an integral role in eliminating redundancy or unnecessary layers in an organizational structure by streamlining processes, minimizing management layers, facilitating communication and improving monitoring. Continuous research can help create more agile and flexible organizational structures. Specific experience of roles, interaction and exchanges, treatments, benefits, culture, communication and brand status of an organization provide sufficient space for research. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 13. For example: • Backward and forward integration • Merger and acquisition • Collaborations and joint ventures • Outsourcing and in sourcing • Virtual and open source approaches • Grouping and regrouping of businesses • Private or public participation • Single or multiple products and services • Collocated or distributed location • Size and depth of the business Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 14. Processes and policies Organizations are continually looking at ways to make their processes more competitive, effective and efficient. HRM processes include • Employment and engagement • Performance management • Competency building • Learning and development • HR auditing, assessment centers and Balanced score card • High performance culture • Career progression and succession • Deployment and redeployment • Rehabilitation • Local, national and global HRM practices • Culture sensitivity • Innovative people practices • Compensation and benefits • Attraction and retention etc., Stakeholders dynamically compare and ascertain their worth Harry CD -"A perspectivedetermine Dr. instantly and of research in contemporary HRM", procedure for an effective move ahead. 2012
  • 15. People practices Organizations can also optimize people resources by investing in research capabilities. With the right people, technology and processes, companies can reduce the number of people needed to achieve the same desired business results. • Domestic versus overseas assignments, transfers and deputations • Exchange within and between teams • Interaction between collocated and distributed teams • Gaps in beliefs and practices between core and non-core teams • Differential treatment in work location • Differential treatment between expatriates and domestic employees Cultural gaps and related problems • Work life balance • Inter dependence between employees Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 16. • Knowledge transfer and sharing • Role efficacy experiences • Rewards and recognitions related behaviours • Perceived organizational support • In-role and extra role behaviour (ERB or OCB) • Organizational retaliatory behaviour (ORB) • Justice Perceptions • Decision participation • Employee ambassadorship • Withdrawal symptoms and organizational problems • Organizational politic • Differential treatment between contract / consultants versus direct employees • Relationship between employees and customers / clients, between one unit to other units • Performance assessment – Domestic and onsite Harry CD -"A perspective of Dr. • Cross culture experiences research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 17. Innovative HR practices Contemporary research has been concentrating on HR transformation Developing business acumen Giving importance to EQ and SQ Human capital Intellectual capital Changing Trends in the area of Training and Development Transforming training delivery mechanisms Assessment centres Localization of culture HR branding Emotional / psychological approach Competency and capability developemnt Change management Balanced score card Career progression and succession plan Stay interview Flexi working Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of High performance culture research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 18. International management / HR alignment Globally distributed team Cross culture Expatriates and in-patriates Virtual teams Contract resource management Global compensation Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 19. Part 2 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 20. HRM is concerned with people practices, thus the interaction and exchange in organizations mostly focus on how such interaction and exchange happens then why it happens. A data driven analytical approach provides an in depth understanding of every people related phenomena across organization and offers means for reducing the intensity of challenges. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 21. Theory is described as “a coherent description, explanation and representation of observed or experienced phenomena” (Gioia & Pitre, 1990, p. 587). Theory building is the ongoing process of producing, confirming, applying, and adapting theory (Lynham, 2000b). Theory is required to be of practical value (Kaplan, 1964; Lynham, 2000b; Mott, 1996; Swanson, 1997, 1999; Van de Ven, 1989) Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 22. Challenge and usefulness One of the challenges of theory-building research in applied disciplines is making the logic used to build the theory explicit and accessible to the user of the developed theory. • Theory building contributes to the existing body of knowledge • Help bridge the gap between research and practice • Provides growth and maturity to the discipline Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 23. False assumptions of theory building include the following: (Susan A. Lynham, 2002) • that theory is disconnected and removed from practice, • that the process of theory construction happens in isolation of the real world, • that those who engage in theory building or development are not the same as those who engage in practice or in the real world, and • that usefulness and application are optional outcomes of theory. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 24. Theory building is described as “the purposeful process or recurring cycle by which coherent descriptions, explanations, and representations of observed or experienced phenomena are generated, verified, and refined” (Lynham, 2000b, p. 161) Theory building include • Systematically collecting and interpreting new data • Defining gaps and problems • Identifying responses to new problems • Define practical problems • Evaluating solutions • Discerning priorities • Identifying new research directions • Developing common language • Defining boundaries • Sharing the findings and Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 25. The theory building process The building of theory occurs in two major stages- The descriptive stage and the normative stage. Within each of these stages, theory builders process through three steps: Observation, categorization and association. Good theory and theory building should also reflect two important qualities: rigor and relevance (Marsick, 1990a), or what are also termed validity and utility (Van de Ven, 1989). Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 26. Building the research process Deduction Process Induction Process Statements of association (Models) Categorization based on Anomaly attributes of phenomena (Frameworks & Typologies) Observe, Describe and Measure phenomena (Constructs) Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 27. The first is one of a research-to-theory strategy, whereas the second is one of a theory-to-research strategy (Reynolds, 1971). The research-to-theory strategy, also termed the research-then-theory strategy, is related to “deriving the laws of nature from a careful examination of all the available data” (Reynolds, 1971, p. 140). Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 28. As described by Reynolds (1971), the essences of this research-to- theory strategy are as follows: 1. Select a phenomenon and list all the characteristics of the phenomenon 2. measure all the characteristics of the phenomenon in a variety of situations (as many as possible) 3. analyze the resulting data carefully and determine if there are any systematic patterns among the data “worthy” of further attention, and 4. once significant patterns have been found in the data, formalization of these patterns as theoretical statements constitutes the laws of nature (axioms, in Bacon’s terminology). Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 29. The second strategy for building theory is that of theory to research, or what Reynolds (1971) called the “theory-then- research strategy” Reynolds highlighted the essences of this theory-building strategy as follows: 1. Develop an explicit theory in either axiomatic or process description form; 2. select a statement generated by the theory for comparison with the results of empirical research; 3. design a research project to “test” the chosen statement’s correspondence with empirical research; 4. if the statement derived from the theory does not correspond with the research results, make appropriate changes in the theory or the research design and continue with the research; and 5. if the statement from the theory corresponds with the results of the research, select further statements for testing or attempt to determine the limitations of the theory. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 30. A useful way of conceptualizing the research method for applied theory building is as a recursive system of five distinct phases: • conceptual development, • operationalization, • application, • confirmation or disconfirmation, and • continuous refinement and development (of the theory). Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 31. Popular Theories Equity Theory Motivational theory of Abraham Maslow, 1954 Theory X and Theory Y were developed by a management professor Douglas McGregor at MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s. Chris Argyris (1957)- worker-structure conflict theory Frederick Herzberg (1959)-Two factor theory (Hygiene and motivational factors) Douglas McGregor (1960)- Theory of management, Theory X and Theory Y Argyris & Schön (1974, 1996)- Model I and Model II Role efficacy –Self efficacy theories- Uday Pareek, 1980 Co-creation model - Jason Colquitt, 2007 Sense-making and breaking-Roberson, 2008 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 32. Part 3 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 33. Macro and micro context in HRM The environment furnishes the macro context and the organization is the micro unit. The external environment is comprised of those factors which affect an organizations human resources from outside the organization. Important among them are: economic, social, political, governmental, legal, technological, traditional and cultural; customers other organizations and trade unions in other organizations. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 34. Differentiate between deduction and induction In deduction, we deduce generalization from universal to particular but in induction we arrive at universal generalizations from particular facts. Therefore, sometimes deduction is thought to be opposite to induction. In inductive reasoning, you try to get a result based on a theory. Deductive reasoning you work backwards you have the result and you try to come up with the reasoning behind it. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 35. Quantitative Research Confirms Quantitative research looks at the general case and moves toward the specific. This deductive approach to research considers a potential cause of something and hopes to verify its effect. Qualitative Research Confirms Qualitative research begins with the specific and moves toward the general. The data collecting process in qualitative research is personal, field-based, and iterative or circular. As data are collected and organized during analysis, patterns emerge. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 36. Nonprobability and Probability Sampling Nonprobability sampling does not involve random selection But Probability sampling does Empirical and Conceptual Empirical and conceptual are two different approaches of research. • While empirical is dependent upon observation and experimentation, and produces verifiable results, it is mostly used in scientific studies • On the other hand, conceptual analysis is a popular method of research in social sciences, and philosophy and psychology. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 37. The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction Mediating effects allow researchers to understand underlying complex relationships whereby the effect of an independent variable is transmitted to a dependent variable through a third variable (Baron and Kenny(1986) a moderator is a qualitative (e.g., sex, race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between an independent or predictor variable and a dependent or criterion variable. Theorists and researchers should be aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderatorsperspective of Dr. Harry CD -"A and mediators research in contemporary HRM", differ 2012
  • 38. Validity and Reliability. Essentially, validity entails the question, “does your measurement process, assessment, or project actually measure what you intend it to measure?”. The related topic of reliability addresses whether repeated measurements or assessments provide a consistent result given the same initial circumstances. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 39. Aims and Objectives Aims are actually goals which we set for ourselves but objectives are the measures which we undertake to achieve our aims Methods and Methodology Research methods involve conduct of experiments, tests, surveys and the like. On the other hand research methodology involves the learning of the various techniques that can be used in the conduct of research and in the conduct of tests, experiments, surveys and critical studies. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 40. A doctoral dissertation is a serious piece of research upon which you will spend months or years of your life. Strangers cannot select topics for you without knowing something about your interests and experiences. You should not settle for a topic selected by strangers but should be reading extensively and meeting with your adviser at the university in order to determine a topic that will be sufficiently original and rigorous to meet the university's requirements while at the same time feasible for you to pursue. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 41. References: 1. Chatterjee, S. R. (2007). Human Resource Management in India: ‘Where From’ and ‘Where To?’, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 15(2), 92-103. 2. Gioia, D. A., & Pitre, E. (1990). Multiparadigm perspective on theory building. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 584-602. 3. Reynolds, P. D. (1971). A primer in theory construction. New York: Macmillan 4. Reuben M. Baron and David A. Kenny, 1986, Journal of Penality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 6, 1173-1182 5. Susan A. Lynham, 2002, Advances in Developing Human Resources ; 4; 221 6. Van de Ven, A. H. (1989). Nothing is quite so practical as a good theory. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 486-489. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  • 42. Wish you a successful doctoral Journey Contacts: harrycd2011@gmail.com +91 9845713736 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012