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EARLY
CHILDHOOD
GUIDE QUESTIONS
• What is early childhood?
• What are the physical developments of
early childhood? Cognitive? Socio –
emotional?
• How does these developments connected
to each other? In what way?
What is Early
Childhood
Development?
• Early childhood development refers to the
many skills and milestones that children are
expected to reach by the time they reach the
age of five. These milestones include learning
how to run, how to talk using simple
sentences and how to play with others.
• In most cases, this type of development
occurs naturally when parents and children
spend time playing, preparing dinner or
looking at books together.
Preschools and Head Start programs provide
activities based on early childhood
development guidelines. You can also find toys
and books for both children and parents that
promote developmental goals.
• Early childhood is a time of remarkable
physical, cognitive, social and emotional
development. Infants enter the world with a
limited range of skills and abilities. Watching a
child develop new motor, cognitive, language
and social skills is a source of wonder for
parents and caregivers.
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
I. BODY GROWRTH
A. Changes in Body Size and Proportions
1. On the average, 2 to 3 inches in height and
about 5 pounds in weight are added each year.
2. The child gradually becomes thinner; girls
retain somewhat more body fat, whereas boys
are slightly more muscular.
3. Posture and balance improve, resulting in
gains in motor coordination.
4. Individual differences in body size are even
more apparent during early childhood than in
infancy.
5. To determine if a child's atypical stature is a
sign of a growth or health problem, the
child's ethnic heritage must be considered.
B. Skeletal Growths in which cartilage
1. Between ages 2 and 6, approximately 45 epiphyses,
or new growth center hardens into
bone, emerge in various parts of the skeleton.
2. X-rays permit doctors to estimate children's skeletal
age, the best available measure of
progress toward physical maturity.
3. By the end of the preschool years, children start to
lose their primary teeth.
4. Childhood tooth decay remains high, especially
among low-SES youngsters in the United States.
C. Asynchronies in Physical Growth
1. Physical growth is an asynchronous process: different
body systems have their own
unique, carefully timed patterns of maturation.
2. The general growth curve is a curve that represents
overall changes in body size-rapid growth during
infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood,
and rapid growth once more
during adolescence.
3. Exceptions to this trend are found in the development
of the reproductive and lymph systems.
• Developmental milestones are abilities that
most children are able to perform by a certain
age. During the first year of a child’s life,
physical milestones are centered on the infant
learning to master self-movement, hold
objects and hand-to-mouth coordination.
From Birth to 3 Months
• At this age, most babies begin to:
• Use rooting, sucking and grasping reflexes
• Slightly raise the head when lying on the
stomach
• Hold head up for a few seconds with support
• Clench hands into fists
• Tug and pull on their own hands
• Repeat body movements
From 3 to 6 Months
At this age, babies begin to
develop greater agility and
strength. They also begin to:
• Roll over
• Pull their bodies forward
• Pull themselves up by
grasping the edge of the crib
• Reach for and grasp object
• Bring object they are holding
to their mouths
• Shake and play with objects
From 6 to 9 Months
• During this time, children become increasingly
mobile. They usually begin to:
• Crawl
• Grasp and pull object toward their own body
• Transfer toys and objects from one hand to
the other
From 6 to 9 Months
• During this time, children become increasingly
mobile. They usually begin to:
• Crawl
• Grasp and pull object toward their own body
• Transfer toys and objects from one hand to
the other
From 9 to 12 Months
In addition to the major milestones such as
standing up and walking, children also begin
to develop more advanced fine-motor skills. In
this window of development, most babies are
able to:
• Sit up unaided
• Stand without
assistance
• Walk without help
• Pick up and throw
objects
• Roll a ball
• Pick up objects
between their thumb
and one finger
From 1 to 2 Years
Children become increasingly independent
and this age and tasks requiring balance and
hand-eye coordination begin to emerge.
During this stage of development, most
children are able to:
• Pick things up while standing up
• Walk backwards
• Walk up and down stair without assistance
• Move and sway to music
• Color or paint by moving the entire arm
• Scribble with markers or crayons
• Turn knobs and handles
From 2 to 3 Years
Building on earlier skills, children become
increasingly adept at activities that require
coordination and speed. From one to three
years of age, most kids begin to:
From 3 to 4 Years
Physical abilities become more advanced
as children develop better movement
and balance skills. From age three to
four, most kids begin to:
• Ride a tricycle
• Go down a slide without help
• Throw and catch a ball
• Pull and steer toys
• Walk in a straight line
• Build a tall towers with toy blocks
• Manipulate clay into shapes
From 4 to 5 Years
• Jump on one foot
• Walk backwards
• Do somersaults
• Cut paper with safety scissors
• Print some letters
• Copy shapes including squares and crosses
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN
EARLY CHILDHOOD
PIAGET'S THEORY
THE PREOPERATIONAL
STAGE
A. THE PREOPERARIONAL,PIAGET’S SECOND
STAGE, IS MARKED BY RAPID GROWTH IN
REPRESENTATIONAL, OR SYMBOLIC,
MENTAL ACTIVITY.
B. ADVANCES IN MENTRAL REPRESENTATIO0N
1. Language is our most flexible means of
mental representation.
2. Piaget believed that sensorimotor activity
provides the foundation for language, just as
it under lies deferred imitation and make-
believe play.
C.MAKE-BELIEVE PLAY
1. Make-believe play increases dramatically
during early childhood.
2. Piaget believed that through pretending,
young children practice and strengthen newly
acquired representational schemes.
3. Development of Make-Believe Play
a. Over time, play becomes increasingly
detached from the real-life conditions
associated with it.
b. Make-believe play gradually becomes less
self-centred as children realize that agents
and recipients of pretend actions can be
independent of themselves.
c. Play also includes increasingly more complex
scheme combinations.
d. Sociodramatic play is the make-believe play
with peers that first appears around age 2 1/2
and increases rapidly until 4 to 5 years.
e. The emergence of sociodramatic play signals
an awareness that make-believe play is a
representational activity.
D. SPATIAL REPRESENTATION
1. Spatial understanding improves rapidly over the
third year of life. With this representational
capacity, children realize that a spatial symbol
stands for a specific state of affairs in the real world.
2. Insight into one type of symbol-real world relation,
such as that represented by a
photograph, helps preschoolers understand others,
such as simple maps.
3. Providing children with many opportunities
to learn about the functions of diverse
symbols, such as picture books, models, maps,
and drawings, enhances spatial
representation.
E.LIMITATIONS OF PREOPERATIONBAL
THOUGHT
1 . Piaget described preschool children in terms
of what they cannot, rather than can,
understand.
2. Operations are mental representations of
actions that obey logical rules.
3. In the preoperational stage, children's
thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a
situation at a time, and strongly influenced by
the way things appear at the moment
4. egocentric and animistic system
Egocentrism is the inability to distinguish
the symbolic viewpoints of others from
one's own.
Animistic thinking is the belief that inanimate
objects have lifelike qualities, such as
thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions.
5. Inability to Conserve.
Conservation refers to the idea that certain
physical characteristics of objects remain the
same, even when outward appearance
changes.
6. Transductive Reasoning.
Transductive reasoning is reasoning from
one particular event to another particular
event, instead of from general to particular or
particular to general.
7. Lack of Hierarchical Classification.
Hierarchical classification is the
organization of objects into classes and
subclasses on the basis of similarities and
differences between the groups.
EMOTIONAL
AND
PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
FAMILIES Peer
Relations
Socio-Emotional
Development
in Early Childhood
Emotional and Personality
Development
THE SELF
EMOTIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
MORAL
DEVELOPMENT
GENDER
The Self
• Initiative Versus Guilt
• Self-Understanding
INITIATIVE VS. GUILT
• Children use their perceptual, motor,
cognitive, and language skills to make things
happen.
• The governor of initiative is conscience, as
children begin to hear the inner voice of self -
observation.
• Initiative may bring rewards or punishment.
• Widespread disappointment leads to an
unleashing of guilt that lowers self-esteem.
• Leaving this stage with a sense of initiative
rather than guilt depends on parental
responses to children’s self-initiated activities.
SELF-UNDERSTANDING
• The child’s cognitive representation of self, the
substance and content of the child’s self
conceptions.
• Based on the various roles and membership
categories that define who they are.
• In early childhood, children usually conceive of
the self in physical terms.
• The active dimension is a central component
of the self, as children describe themselves in
terms of such activities as play
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
• Young Children’s Emotion Language
and Understanding
• Self-Conscious Emotions
YOUNG CHILDREN’S
EMOTION LANGUAGE AND
UNDERSTANDING
• Important changes in emotional development
are the increased use of emotion language
and the understanding of emotion.
• Between 2 and 3 years, children considerably
increase the number of terms they use to
describe emotion.
• Children also begin to learn about the causes
and consequences of feelings.
• At 4 -5 years, children show an increased
ability to reflect on emotions and a growing
awareness about controlling and managing
emotions to meet social standards.
FAMILIES
Parenting
Sibling
Relationships
and Birth
Order
The Changing
Family in a
Changing
Society
Parenting Styles
• Authoritarian Parenting
• Authoritative Parenting
• Neglectful Parenting
• Indulgent Parenting
PEER RELATIONS
Peers - children of about the same
age or maturity.
The peer group provides a source of
information and comparison about
the world outside the family.
Children receive feedback on their
abilities from peers.
Good peer relations appear to be necessary
for normal social development.
Children who are rejected by peers are at risk
for depression.
 Aggressive children are at risk for many
problems.
Group 4
• Briones, Baby Mariel
• Macariola, Jocelle
• Macalalad, Mary Jane
• Malinao, Vivian
THANK YOU!!!

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Early childhood development

  • 2. GUIDE QUESTIONS • What is early childhood? • What are the physical developments of early childhood? Cognitive? Socio – emotional? • How does these developments connected to each other? In what way?
  • 4. • Early childhood development refers to the many skills and milestones that children are expected to reach by the time they reach the age of five. These milestones include learning how to run, how to talk using simple sentences and how to play with others.
  • 5. • In most cases, this type of development occurs naturally when parents and children spend time playing, preparing dinner or looking at books together. Preschools and Head Start programs provide activities based on early childhood development guidelines. You can also find toys and books for both children and parents that promote developmental goals.
  • 6. • Early childhood is a time of remarkable physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. Infants enter the world with a limited range of skills and abilities. Watching a child develop new motor, cognitive, language and social skills is a source of wonder for parents and caregivers.
  • 8. I. BODY GROWRTH A. Changes in Body Size and Proportions 1. On the average, 2 to 3 inches in height and about 5 pounds in weight are added each year. 2. The child gradually becomes thinner; girls retain somewhat more body fat, whereas boys are slightly more muscular. 3. Posture and balance improve, resulting in gains in motor coordination.
  • 9. 4. Individual differences in body size are even more apparent during early childhood than in infancy. 5. To determine if a child's atypical stature is a sign of a growth or health problem, the child's ethnic heritage must be considered.
  • 10. B. Skeletal Growths in which cartilage 1. Between ages 2 and 6, approximately 45 epiphyses, or new growth center hardens into bone, emerge in various parts of the skeleton. 2. X-rays permit doctors to estimate children's skeletal age, the best available measure of progress toward physical maturity. 3. By the end of the preschool years, children start to lose their primary teeth. 4. Childhood tooth decay remains high, especially among low-SES youngsters in the United States.
  • 11. C. Asynchronies in Physical Growth 1. Physical growth is an asynchronous process: different body systems have their own unique, carefully timed patterns of maturation. 2. The general growth curve is a curve that represents overall changes in body size-rapid growth during infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood, and rapid growth once more during adolescence. 3. Exceptions to this trend are found in the development of the reproductive and lymph systems.
  • 12. • Developmental milestones are abilities that most children are able to perform by a certain age. During the first year of a child’s life, physical milestones are centered on the infant learning to master self-movement, hold objects and hand-to-mouth coordination.
  • 13. From Birth to 3 Months • At this age, most babies begin to: • Use rooting, sucking and grasping reflexes • Slightly raise the head when lying on the stomach • Hold head up for a few seconds with support • Clench hands into fists • Tug and pull on their own hands • Repeat body movements
  • 14. From 3 to 6 Months At this age, babies begin to develop greater agility and strength. They also begin to: • Roll over • Pull their bodies forward • Pull themselves up by grasping the edge of the crib • Reach for and grasp object • Bring object they are holding to their mouths • Shake and play with objects
  • 15. From 6 to 9 Months • During this time, children become increasingly mobile. They usually begin to: • Crawl • Grasp and pull object toward their own body • Transfer toys and objects from one hand to the other
  • 16. From 6 to 9 Months • During this time, children become increasingly mobile. They usually begin to: • Crawl • Grasp and pull object toward their own body • Transfer toys and objects from one hand to the other
  • 17. From 9 to 12 Months In addition to the major milestones such as standing up and walking, children also begin to develop more advanced fine-motor skills. In this window of development, most babies are able to:
  • 18. • Sit up unaided • Stand without assistance • Walk without help • Pick up and throw objects • Roll a ball • Pick up objects between their thumb and one finger
  • 19. From 1 to 2 Years Children become increasingly independent and this age and tasks requiring balance and hand-eye coordination begin to emerge. During this stage of development, most children are able to:
  • 20. • Pick things up while standing up • Walk backwards • Walk up and down stair without assistance • Move and sway to music • Color or paint by moving the entire arm • Scribble with markers or crayons • Turn knobs and handles
  • 21. From 2 to 3 Years Building on earlier skills, children become increasingly adept at activities that require coordination and speed. From one to three years of age, most kids begin to:
  • 22. From 3 to 4 Years Physical abilities become more advanced as children develop better movement and balance skills. From age three to four, most kids begin to:
  • 23. • Ride a tricycle • Go down a slide without help • Throw and catch a ball • Pull and steer toys • Walk in a straight line • Build a tall towers with toy blocks • Manipulate clay into shapes
  • 24. From 4 to 5 Years • Jump on one foot • Walk backwards • Do somersaults • Cut paper with safety scissors • Print some letters • Copy shapes including squares and crosses
  • 27. A. THE PREOPERARIONAL,PIAGET’S SECOND STAGE, IS MARKED BY RAPID GROWTH IN REPRESENTATIONAL, OR SYMBOLIC, MENTAL ACTIVITY. B. ADVANCES IN MENTRAL REPRESENTATIO0N 1. Language is our most flexible means of mental representation. 2. Piaget believed that sensorimotor activity provides the foundation for language, just as it under lies deferred imitation and make- believe play.
  • 28. C.MAKE-BELIEVE PLAY 1. Make-believe play increases dramatically during early childhood. 2. Piaget believed that through pretending, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes.
  • 29. 3. Development of Make-Believe Play a. Over time, play becomes increasingly detached from the real-life conditions associated with it. b. Make-believe play gradually becomes less self-centred as children realize that agents and recipients of pretend actions can be independent of themselves. c. Play also includes increasingly more complex scheme combinations.
  • 30. d. Sociodramatic play is the make-believe play with peers that first appears around age 2 1/2 and increases rapidly until 4 to 5 years. e. The emergence of sociodramatic play signals an awareness that make-believe play is a representational activity.
  • 31. D. SPATIAL REPRESENTATION 1. Spatial understanding improves rapidly over the third year of life. With this representational capacity, children realize that a spatial symbol stands for a specific state of affairs in the real world. 2. Insight into one type of symbol-real world relation, such as that represented by a photograph, helps preschoolers understand others, such as simple maps.
  • 32. 3. Providing children with many opportunities to learn about the functions of diverse symbols, such as picture books, models, maps, and drawings, enhances spatial representation.
  • 33. E.LIMITATIONS OF PREOPERATIONBAL THOUGHT 1 . Piaget described preschool children in terms of what they cannot, rather than can, understand. 2. Operations are mental representations of actions that obey logical rules.
  • 34. 3. In the preoperational stage, children's thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time, and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment 4. egocentric and animistic system Egocentrism is the inability to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own.
  • 35. Animistic thinking is the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions. 5. Inability to Conserve. Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when outward appearance changes.
  • 36. 6. Transductive Reasoning. Transductive reasoning is reasoning from one particular event to another particular event, instead of from general to particular or particular to general.
  • 37. 7. Lack of Hierarchical Classification. Hierarchical classification is the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences between the groups.
  • 39. Emotional and Personality Development THE SELF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT MORAL DEVELOPMENT GENDER
  • 40. The Self • Initiative Versus Guilt • Self-Understanding
  • 41. INITIATIVE VS. GUILT • Children use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen. • The governor of initiative is conscience, as children begin to hear the inner voice of self - observation. • Initiative may bring rewards or punishment.
  • 42. • Widespread disappointment leads to an unleashing of guilt that lowers self-esteem. • Leaving this stage with a sense of initiative rather than guilt depends on parental responses to children’s self-initiated activities.
  • 43. SELF-UNDERSTANDING • The child’s cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child’s self conceptions. • Based on the various roles and membership categories that define who they are. • In early childhood, children usually conceive of the self in physical terms. • The active dimension is a central component of the self, as children describe themselves in terms of such activities as play
  • 44. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Young Children’s Emotion Language and Understanding • Self-Conscious Emotions
  • 45. YOUNG CHILDREN’S EMOTION LANGUAGE AND UNDERSTANDING • Important changes in emotional development are the increased use of emotion language and the understanding of emotion. • Between 2 and 3 years, children considerably increase the number of terms they use to describe emotion.
  • 46. • Children also begin to learn about the causes and consequences of feelings. • At 4 -5 years, children show an increased ability to reflect on emotions and a growing awareness about controlling and managing emotions to meet social standards.
  • 48. Parenting Styles • Authoritarian Parenting • Authoritative Parenting • Neglectful Parenting • Indulgent Parenting
  • 49. PEER RELATIONS Peers - children of about the same age or maturity. The peer group provides a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family. Children receive feedback on their abilities from peers.
  • 50. Good peer relations appear to be necessary for normal social development. Children who are rejected by peers are at risk for depression.  Aggressive children are at risk for many problems.
  • 51. Group 4 • Briones, Baby Mariel • Macariola, Jocelle • Macalalad, Mary Jane • Malinao, Vivian