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NENA REGIONAL STAKEHOLDERS WORKSHOP
ON
Water Consumption, Water Productivity
And
Drought Management in Agriculture
27 – 29 October 2015
Egypt
Drought in Egypt
By
Dr. Mostafa Al Hakim
Agriculture and Drought Management
Expert (EEAA)
In Egypt, drought is closely linked with land
degradation (desertification) yet meteorological drought
is usually considered. This drought is defined as the
degree of dryness specified by difference of precipitation
and the duration of the dry spell which is distinguished
into absolute and partial drought. Absolute drought is
said to be 15 consecutive days none of which is credited
with 0.2 mm or of rainfall whereas partial drought is a
period of at least 29 consecutive days of which is main
rainfall does most exceed 0.2 mm.
In Egypt, Many areas receive no rainfall for months
or even years due to the extremely random storm
patterns (about 75% of the whole territory). During the
winter months (November – February), Egypt is
influenced by the Mediterranean depression and Sudan
low trough, while in the spring (March - May) the
southern and western winds become more effective.
The coefficient of drought variation in the
Mediterranean region which is the ratio of the net
radiation left on the surface to the product of the annual
rainfall at the evaporation temperature attains its highest
value in the desert areas where it usually exceeds 3,
while it is of the order of 1.5 in Europe (Accad – Unesco
1988).
As reported in the NAP report (2005), Egypt is classified,
on environmental basis, into four agro- ecological zones;
namely:-
- North Coastal Zone
- Nile Valley and Delta
- Inland Sinai and Eastern Desert
- Western Desert
The areal distribution, as well as the population
density over such zones are given in Tables (1&2) and
Map (1).
Climatically, the territory of Egypt is dominated by
arid to hyper arid conditions. Table (3) and Maps (2&3)
show the distribution of rainfall and aridity among the
assigned four agro-ecological zones.
Table (1). Areas and Percentages of the Agro-ecological
Zones
Zone
Number
Zone Name Area (Km2) Area (%)
I North Coastal Zone 56200 6.73%
II Nile Valley & Delta 53100 5.36%
III Western Desert 681.000 64.84%
IV
Eastern Desert &
Sinai Inland
281.100 25.06%
Source: WMRI (2004)
Western Desert
Eastern
Desert
Red Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Sinai
Peninsula
30
00
o
'
26
00
o
'
22
00
o
'
25 00o ' 30 00o ' 35 00o '
Northern Coast Agro-Ecological Zone Nile Valley Agro-Ecological Zone
Eastern Desert and Sinai Agro-Ecological ZoneWestern Desert Agro-Ecological Zone
LEGEND:
Map. (1). Base Map Showing the Distribution
Of the Agro-Ecological Zones of Egypt
Table (2). Population Percentages Distribution
Over Agro-Ecological Zones in Egypt
Agro-Ecological Zones Population Percentages (%)
Northern Coast 12.4
Nile Valley & Delta 85.2
Western Desert 0.2
Eastern Desert
& inland Sinai
2.2
Table (3). Aridity Classification and Areal Distribution in Egypt
Aridity classification Aridity index Area (%)
Hyper arid 0.00 86%
Arid 0.00 – 20.0 13%
Semi arid 20.0 – 50.0 1%
Western Desert
Eastern
Desert
Mediterranean Sea
Sinai
Peninsula
30
00
o
'
26
00
o
'
22
00
o
'
25 00o ' 30 00o ' 35 00o '
Northern Coast Agro-Ecological Zone Nile Valley Agro-Ecological Zone
Eastern Desert and Sinai Agro-Ecological ZoneWestern Desert Agro-Ecological Zone
LEGEND:
Red Sea
Map. (2). Average Annual Rainfall Contour Map for 50
Years Period (1950 – 2000)
Map. (3) Areal Distribution and aridity Classification of Egypt
Strategies for Avoiding Water Scarcity and Drought.
The Government of Egypt (MWRI) has formulated
strategies to face water scarcity and drought to the
years 2017 and 2050.
• Well- defined laws and regulations for controlling
groundwater consumption are necessary to avoid
further depletion and / or pollution.
• The use of water saving devices on each well is quite
important, in the developed aquifers in general and in
the coastal aquifer in particular.
• Regional, sub-regional and local technical agencies
responsible for water services are badly needed to
ensure policy cohesion and public support.
• The use of different techniques for runoff water as well
as rain water harvesting in the rainy seasons.
• Ensuring women’s participation in local decision
making bodies particularly in the frame allocation and
water saving purposes.
• Periodical monitoring of groundwater level and salinity
through a suitable network of the exhausted aquifers.
• Training of locals for groundwater works and usage.
• Provide the necessary information for monitoring the
effects of desertification and produce exhaustive
inventories of land degradation.
• Use of brakish water for sand dune fixation, and for salt
resistant plantation.
•
Drought in Egypt

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Drought in Egypt

  • 1. NENA REGIONAL STAKEHOLDERS WORKSHOP ON Water Consumption, Water Productivity And Drought Management in Agriculture 27 – 29 October 2015 Egypt
  • 2. Drought in Egypt By Dr. Mostafa Al Hakim Agriculture and Drought Management Expert (EEAA)
  • 3. In Egypt, drought is closely linked with land degradation (desertification) yet meteorological drought is usually considered. This drought is defined as the degree of dryness specified by difference of precipitation and the duration of the dry spell which is distinguished into absolute and partial drought. Absolute drought is said to be 15 consecutive days none of which is credited with 0.2 mm or of rainfall whereas partial drought is a period of at least 29 consecutive days of which is main rainfall does most exceed 0.2 mm.
  • 4. In Egypt, Many areas receive no rainfall for months or even years due to the extremely random storm patterns (about 75% of the whole territory). During the winter months (November – February), Egypt is influenced by the Mediterranean depression and Sudan low trough, while in the spring (March - May) the southern and western winds become more effective. The coefficient of drought variation in the Mediterranean region which is the ratio of the net radiation left on the surface to the product of the annual rainfall at the evaporation temperature attains its highest value in the desert areas where it usually exceeds 3, while it is of the order of 1.5 in Europe (Accad – Unesco 1988).
  • 5. As reported in the NAP report (2005), Egypt is classified, on environmental basis, into four agro- ecological zones; namely:- - North Coastal Zone - Nile Valley and Delta - Inland Sinai and Eastern Desert - Western Desert The areal distribution, as well as the population density over such zones are given in Tables (1&2) and Map (1). Climatically, the territory of Egypt is dominated by arid to hyper arid conditions. Table (3) and Maps (2&3) show the distribution of rainfall and aridity among the assigned four agro-ecological zones.
  • 6. Table (1). Areas and Percentages of the Agro-ecological Zones Zone Number Zone Name Area (Km2) Area (%) I North Coastal Zone 56200 6.73% II Nile Valley & Delta 53100 5.36% III Western Desert 681.000 64.84% IV Eastern Desert & Sinai Inland 281.100 25.06% Source: WMRI (2004)
  • 7. Western Desert Eastern Desert Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Sinai Peninsula 30 00 o ' 26 00 o ' 22 00 o ' 25 00o ' 30 00o ' 35 00o ' Northern Coast Agro-Ecological Zone Nile Valley Agro-Ecological Zone Eastern Desert and Sinai Agro-Ecological ZoneWestern Desert Agro-Ecological Zone LEGEND: Map. (1). Base Map Showing the Distribution Of the Agro-Ecological Zones of Egypt
  • 8. Table (2). Population Percentages Distribution Over Agro-Ecological Zones in Egypt Agro-Ecological Zones Population Percentages (%) Northern Coast 12.4 Nile Valley & Delta 85.2 Western Desert 0.2 Eastern Desert & inland Sinai 2.2 Table (3). Aridity Classification and Areal Distribution in Egypt Aridity classification Aridity index Area (%) Hyper arid 0.00 86% Arid 0.00 – 20.0 13% Semi arid 20.0 – 50.0 1%
  • 9. Western Desert Eastern Desert Mediterranean Sea Sinai Peninsula 30 00 o ' 26 00 o ' 22 00 o ' 25 00o ' 30 00o ' 35 00o ' Northern Coast Agro-Ecological Zone Nile Valley Agro-Ecological Zone Eastern Desert and Sinai Agro-Ecological ZoneWestern Desert Agro-Ecological Zone LEGEND: Red Sea Map. (2). Average Annual Rainfall Contour Map for 50 Years Period (1950 – 2000)
  • 10. Map. (3) Areal Distribution and aridity Classification of Egypt
  • 11. Strategies for Avoiding Water Scarcity and Drought. The Government of Egypt (MWRI) has formulated strategies to face water scarcity and drought to the years 2017 and 2050. • Well- defined laws and regulations for controlling groundwater consumption are necessary to avoid further depletion and / or pollution. • The use of water saving devices on each well is quite important, in the developed aquifers in general and in the coastal aquifer in particular. • Regional, sub-regional and local technical agencies responsible for water services are badly needed to ensure policy cohesion and public support. • The use of different techniques for runoff water as well as rain water harvesting in the rainy seasons.
  • 12. • Ensuring women’s participation in local decision making bodies particularly in the frame allocation and water saving purposes. • Periodical monitoring of groundwater level and salinity through a suitable network of the exhausted aquifers. • Training of locals for groundwater works and usage. • Provide the necessary information for monitoring the effects of desertification and produce exhaustive inventories of land degradation. • Use of brakish water for sand dune fixation, and for salt resistant plantation. •