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Bahram Taheri
Senior Environment, Health and Safety Advisor
To the Minister of Energy (and Water Resources)
Islamic Republic of Iran
bahramtaheri1011@yhoo.com
Operatioalizing the Regional Collaborative Platform to Address
“Water Consumption”, “Water Productivity” and “Drought Management”
In Agriculture
NENA Stakeholder Workshop
27-29 October, Cairo, Egypt
Lake Urmia, 1997
Blue Sky Meeting the Blue Water
Let’s Look at the Scale of Things!
All water on the planet (sphere over western U.S., 1384 Km in diameter)
Fresh liquid water in the ground, lakes, swamps, and rivers
(sphere over Kentucky, 273 Km in diameter), and
Fresh-water lakes and rivers (the Tiny sphere over Georgia, 56 Km in
diameter).
Earth, Water and Air
The thin Atmosphere, Moon and Earth
Layers of Water
Approx.
in m
Km V in Km3 A in Km2 Layer Thickness
R of Earth 6371 1.083E+12 510064041
Spread Over
Earth
R of Water Globe 692 1.388E+09 2721.33
R of Freah Water Globe 136.5 10653350 20.89
R of Fresh Surface W Globe 28 91952.245 0.18
Let Me Define A New Layer!
Let’s Check its Thickness
And Then
Teach it His Scale!?
World Population 7.5E+09
Avg. Weight in Kg 68
Total Weight in Kg 5.1E+11
Approx. Density 1
Human Volume in Liters 5.1E+11
Human Volume in Km3 0.51
Human Layer in Meters 9.999E-07
Human Layer in Microns 0.9998744
Human Layer, Defined By: Bahram Taheri, 2014
A Space of Waste
CO2 Concentration Change in the
Atmosphere within the Past 500,000 Years
Company Logo 12
Company Logo 13
Temperature Changes of Earth within the
Past 500,000 Years
An Alarming Correlation
CO2 Conc. Trend in Atm. 1959-2014
Source: NOAA
300.00
310.00
320.00
330.00
340.00
350.00
360.00
370.00
380.00
390.00
400.00
410.00
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
CO2 ppm
CO2 ppm
Monthly CO2 Concentrations in the
Atmosphere in 2014
394.00
395.00
396.00
397.00
398.00
399.00
400.00
401.00
402.00
403.00
0.00 6.00 12.00
2014, Monthly CO2 ppm
CO2 Concentration Changes in the Atmosphere,
Based on Measures Daily and Weekly Averages
Changes with Continental Scales!
Dark VS White Surfaces
A Runaway Procedure?
Losing the Elements of Thermal Balance
An Ever Reducing Space for Everyone!
Not Only for the Animals!
Some Will Drawn
Some Will Face Drought
Then We Will Pray
Either in the US
Or in Isfahan of Iran
The Young Kids in the Drought Stricken Villages of
Central Iran Pray for Rain
The Open and Closed Eyes of the
People of the Past, Present and
Future
How Can we Overlook the
Pyramid,
in the Land of Pyramids?
Food
Security
Environmental Security
Energy
Security
Water
Securit
y
Water Irr.
Rainfed
Study Zones
DAMS
Deep Wells
Shallow Wells
aline Wels,
WI
Irrigation &
Drainage
Systems
‫احیا‬‫ه‬‫ر‬‫دو‬
‫تثبیت‬‫ه‬‫ر‬‫دو‬
‫ی‬‫نهای‬‫احیای‬
‫اکولوژیک‬‫از‬‫ر‬‫ت‬
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Stabilization Period
Restoration
Period
Final Stage
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
Ecological
Level
Restoration of the Ecological Level
Vision for 2023
‫ارومیه‬
May 2014
Level=1270.53
‫ارویه‬
May 2002
Level=1274.5019th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
Schematic river basin lake, 15 Rivers Aji
Chai
Azarshahr
Chai
Ghaleh
Chai
Sofi
Chai
Mardogh
Chai
Laylan
Chai
Zarineh
rood
Simineh
rood
Lake Urmia
Zola Chai
Nazlou Chai
Rozeh Chai
Shahr Chai
Barandouz
Chai
Gadar Chai
Mahabad
Chai
Location of
major dams in
operation
Tajyar
sarab
Kordkand
y
Sarogh
Sharchi
Ghaleh
chi
Alaviyan
Nahand
Zola
Mahaba
d
Hasanl
o
Bokan
Salmas
Kordestan Province
E. Azarbaijan
W. Az. Province
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
More than 16,000 pumps are pumping water from
the surface and groundwater resources, mostly unauthorized.
2000 mobile pumps extract more then 100 MCM/Year alone.
One critical effect of Energy Consumption on Water Resources
Changes in
Water
Elevation and
Area of the
Lake between
1976 and 2011
Remarkable similarity Between the Sister
Lakes
50 km
Feb
1970
July
2000
4300 km2 Area 5100 km2
4.4 m Mean Depth 6 m
1280 m Elevation 1275 m
Both have causeways dividing them;
both have watersheds in 3 states
41°N 37°N
LU and GSL are both like flat Frying
Pans
51
‫آبي‬ ‫كم‬
‫خشك‬
‫تكامل‬ ‫روند‬
‫شورابه‬
Changing of major Ions of brine to 3 new stages in wet, semi arid
and arid conditions from 2007 to 2011
During the time, sodium concentrations have decreased compared to Mg
concentration, which indicates huge amounts of Halite have been deposited on
Lake’s periphery and bed. That is, sodium has passed from solution phase to solid
phase
$1,946
$651
Aquaculture
(brine shrimp)
Mining/Industrial
- magnesium
- potash
- titanium
Recreation
- hunting
- bird watching
- boating, swimming
$6800
Economic Value of the Great Salt Lake – $9.4 Billion (US)
8% of the gross economic product of the State of Utah
(Makes people interested in the lake)
(Bioeconomics 2012)
(72%)
(21%)
(7%)
Great Salt Lake
Resources
Recreation ($650 million)
Hunting
Boating
Bird watching
Swimming
Brine Shrimp
(Artemia franciscana)
$650 million of total
economic benefit
Connection of
Simineh
Gadar
Mahabad
Rivers
Vast dissipation
of
Zarrineh River
Before reaching
the lake
Sattelaite
Image
Water Losses Before Rivers Reach the Water Body
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
Slopes of the southern shores of the Lake
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
Slopes of the
Eastern Shores
Aji Chai
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
Thick Layers of Salt after Water
Evaporation
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
Silty-Clay Dusts
River Deltas
Around the Islands
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
Sand Dunes on the Southern Shores
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
No.
Area
Square
Km
Frequency
1391
2886
3231
4234
5444
Centersof ObservedDustStorms
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
‫ياچه‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫جنويب‬ ‫حمدوده‬–‫ارديبهشت‬1393
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
Southern Shores
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014
Water Withdrawals/year in MCM
Deep
Wells
Semi-
Deep
ElectricDieselTotal
MCM829119489711242022
# of
Wells
6,43880,80427,86359,37887,242
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014, Bahram Taheri
2006 Economic Statistics of the Basin
Sector
%
Basin
Gross Product
%
Employment
% Water
Consumption
Service5836.51
Industry2734.21.4
Agriculture1529.389
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014, Bahram Taheri
Land Ownership in the Basin
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
‫زیر‬‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬1‫تار‬‫هک‬ ‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬1‫تا‬5‫تار‬‫هک‬ ‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬5‫تا‬20‫تار‬‫هک‬ ‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬20‫تا‬50‫تار‬‫هک‬ ‫از‬‫بیش‬‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬50‫تار‬‫هک‬
%Ownershipoflands
Urmia
Iran
< 1 ha 1-5 ha 5-20ha 20-50 > 50 ha
19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September
1-5, 2014 (Bahram Taheri)
Saltwater Intrusion
Saltwater Intrusion
Saltwater Intrusion
Saltwater Intrusion
Where and When Did We Lose Our
Sight on the
Scope and Scale of Things?
Tabriz 700 Years Ago
The Largest City Within the LU Basin
Farmers pay a tax for using the water from artificial reservoirs and
Qanats, usually 1/3 of their yield.
I think, this city is the best trade center in the world. Merchants
would pay a transit fee as well as a tax on the merchandize they
trade.
24 trade offices by people of Genoa alone are operating in Tabriz.
The tax collected by the governor of Tabriz from the European
merchants who were crossing the safe transport roads
constructed and operated by the Empire, is more than the
entire tax the king of France collects from all of France.
Ref. Harold Lamb:
The Last Great
Conqueror
GDP Comparison of Iran and others
in the Top 25 (Source, Wikipedia)
Rank Country Nominal GDP Agr. %
Industry
% Services% Agr. Net Ind. Net
Services
Net
0 World 71,707,302 5.90% 30.50% 63.60% 4,230,731 21,870,727 45,605,844
1 United States 15,684,750 1.12% 19.10% 79.70% 188,217 2,995,787 12,500,746
2 China 9,181,377 10.00% 43.90% 46.10% 918,138 3,611,671 3,792,665
3 Japan 5,963,969 1.20% 27.50% 71.40% 71,568 1,640,091 4,258,274
4 Germany 3,400,579 0.80% 28.10% 71.10% 27,205 955,563 2,417,812
5 France 2,608,699 1.90% 18.30% 79.80% 49,565 477,392 2,081,742
6 United Kingdom 2,440,505 0.70% 21% 78.30% 17,084 512,506 1,910,915
7 Brazil 2,395,968 5.40% 27.40% 67.20% 129,382 656,495 1,610,090
8 Russia 2,021,960 3.90% 36% 60.10% 78,856 727,906 1,215,198
25 Iran 482,445 11.20% 40.60% 48.20% 54,034 195,873 232,538
The Share of Agriculture in GDP
Rank Country Nominal GDP Agr. % Industry % Services% Agr. Net Ind. Net Services Net
1 India 1,841,710 17.40% 25.80% 56.90% 320,458 475,161 1,047,933
2 Indonesia 894,854 14.30% 46.90% 38.80% 127,964 419,687 347,203
3 Iran 482,445 11.20% 40.60% 48.20% 54,034 195,873 232,538
4 China 9,181,377 10.00% 43.90% 46.10% 918,138 3,611,671 3,792,665
5 Turkey 783,064 8.90% 28.10% 63% 69,693 220,041 493,330
6 World 71,707,302 5.90% 30.50% 63.60% 4,230,731 21,870,727 45,605,844
21 Switzerland 622,855 1.30% 27.70% 71% 8,097 172,531 442,227
22 Japan 5,963,969 1.20% 27.50% 71.40% 71,568 1,640,091 4,258,274
23 United States 15,684,750 1.12% 19.10% 79.70% 188,217 2,995,787 12,500,746
24 Germany 3,400,579 0.80% 28.10% 71.10% 27,205 955,563 2,417,812
25 United Kingdom 2,440,505 0.70% 21% 78.30% 17,084 512,506 1,910,915
26 Belgium 513,396 0.70% 21.60% 77.70% 3,594 110,894 398,909
The Share of Industry in GDP
Rank Country Nominal GDP Agr. %
Industry
% Services% Agr. Net Ind. Net
Services
Net
1 Saudi Arabia 657,049 2% 66.90% 31.10% 13,141 439,566 204,342
2 Indonesia 894,854 14.30% 46.90% 38.80% 127,964 419,687 347,203
3 China 9,181,377 10.00% 43.90% 46.10% 918,138 3,611,671 3,792,665
4 Iran 482,445 11.20% 40.60% 48.20% 54,034 195,873 232,538
5 South Korea 1,151,271 2.70% 39.80% 57.50% 31,084 458,206 661,981
22 Netherlands 770,224 2.80% 24.10% 73.20% 21,566 185,624 563,804
23 Belgium 513,396 0.70% 21.60% 77.70% 3,594 110,894 398,909
24 United Kingdom 2,440,505 0.70% 21% 78.30% 17,084 512,506 1,910,915
25 United States 15,684,750 1.12% 19.10% 79.70% 188,217 2,995,787 12,500,746
26 France 2,608,699 1.90% 18.30% 79.80% 49,565 477,392 2,081,742
The Share of Service Sector in the GDP
Rank Country Nominal GDP Agr. %
Industry
%
Services
% Agr. Net Ind. Net
Services
Net
1 France 2,608,699 1.90% 18.30% 79.80% 49,565 477,392 2,081,742
2 United States 15,684,750 1.12% 19.10% 79.70% 188,217 2,995,787 12,500,746
3 United Kingdom 2,440,505 0.70% 21% 78.30% 17,084 512,506 1,910,915
4 Belgium 513,396 0.70% 21.60% 77.70% 3,594 110,894 398,909
21 South Korea 1,151,271 2.70% 39.80% 57.50% 31,084 458,206 661,981
22 India 1,841,710 17.40% 25.80% 56.90% 320,458 475,161 1,047,933
23 Iran 482,445 11.20% 40.60% 48.20% 54,034 195,873 232,538
24 China 9,181,377 10.00% 43.90% 46.10% 918,138 3,611,671 3,792,665
25 Indonesia 894,854 14.30% 46.90% 38.80% 127,964 419,687 347,203
26 Saudi Arabia 657,049 2% 66.90% 31.10% 13,141 439,566 204,342
Large Inter Basin Water Transfers
name
Year of
construction
Length
Capacity (Million cubic
meters/year)
Costs (US$
bn)
California State Water
Project (USA)
Early 1960s-1990s 715 km 25 (10,300 cubic feet/sec) 5.2
Colorado River
Aqueduct (USA)
1933–1941 392 km 1603.5 (1.3m acre-feet/year) ?
Central Arizona
Project (USA)
1973-93 541 km 1850.2 (1.5m acre-feet/year) 3.6
National Water
Carrier (Israel)
1953-64 130 km 1.7 ?
Cutzamala System
(Mexico)
Late 1970s-late 1990s 154 km 2.1 (24 m3
/s) 1.3
All-American
Canal (USA)
1930s 132 km 64 (740 m3
/s) ?
Periyar Project
(India)
Commissioned in
1895
? 3.5 (41 m3
/s) ?
Indira Gandhi
Canal (India)
Since 1958 650 km ? ?
Telugu Ganga
project (India)
1977–2004 406 km 10.1 (3.7 bn m3/year) ?
Irtysh-
Karaganda scheme
(Kazakhstan)
1962–1974 450 km 6.5 (75 m3
/s) ?
Brief Cost Estimate
‫زیستاب‬‫ژه‬‫و‬‫پر‬ ‫شماتیک‬ ‫نمای‬-‫اهر‬‫مسیر‬
The Salt Balance
For Conserved
Area 3500 km2
Estimated Net Evap m/y 0.85 m
Total Evap/yr Needed water 2.975 B C M
Transferred
water/year Salt/Liter Salt Content/Year SG Volume
Average
Thickness
In iters in Grams In Tons tons/m3 m3/year mm/year
2.975E+12 13 38,675,000 2.17 17,822,581 5.09
total initial Vol.
Salt Salt Content Age in yrs Salt Entry
Salt Entry
Ratio
m3 gr/lit tons Estimated
per year in
Tons Casp/Naural
30000000000 100 3000000000 20000 150000 258
‫شیرین‬ ‫ب‬‫ا‬‫به‬‫ری‬‫شو‬‫تهاجم‬
‫شیرین‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫به‬‫ری‬‫شو‬‫تهاجم‬
‫شیرین‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫به‬‫ری‬‫شو‬‫تهاجم‬
‫شیرین‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫به‬‫ری‬‫شو‬‫تهاجم‬
‫ذا‬ِ‫إ‬ َ‫و‬ ۗ ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫س‬ُ‫ف‬‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ِّروا‬‫ي‬َ‫غ‬ُ‫ي‬ ٰ‫ى‬ّ‫ت‬َ‫ح‬ ٍ‫وم‬َ‫ق‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ما‬ ُ‫ر‬ِّ‫ي‬َ‫غ‬ُ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ َ َّ‫َّللا‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬
‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ن‬‫دو‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ُم‬‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ ‫ما‬ َ‫و‬ ۚ ُ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ َّ‫د‬َ‫ر‬َ‫م‬ ‫ال‬َ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ً‫ء‬‫سو‬ ٍ‫وم‬َ‫ق‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ َّ‫َّللا‬ َ‫د‬‫را‬َ‫أ‬
ٍ‫وال‬

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Why do we need a nexus approach in addressing?, Bahram Taheri

  • 1. Bahram Taheri Senior Environment, Health and Safety Advisor To the Minister of Energy (and Water Resources) Islamic Republic of Iran bahramtaheri1011@yhoo.com Operatioalizing the Regional Collaborative Platform to Address “Water Consumption”, “Water Productivity” and “Drought Management” In Agriculture NENA Stakeholder Workshop 27-29 October, Cairo, Egypt
  • 2. Lake Urmia, 1997 Blue Sky Meeting the Blue Water
  • 3. Let’s Look at the Scale of Things!
  • 4. All water on the planet (sphere over western U.S., 1384 Km in diameter) Fresh liquid water in the ground, lakes, swamps, and rivers (sphere over Kentucky, 273 Km in diameter), and Fresh-water lakes and rivers (the Tiny sphere over Georgia, 56 Km in diameter).
  • 6. The thin Atmosphere, Moon and Earth
  • 7. Layers of Water Approx. in m Km V in Km3 A in Km2 Layer Thickness R of Earth 6371 1.083E+12 510064041 Spread Over Earth R of Water Globe 692 1.388E+09 2721.33 R of Freah Water Globe 136.5 10653350 20.89 R of Fresh Surface W Globe 28 91952.245 0.18
  • 8. Let Me Define A New Layer! Let’s Check its Thickness And Then Teach it His Scale!? World Population 7.5E+09 Avg. Weight in Kg 68 Total Weight in Kg 5.1E+11 Approx. Density 1 Human Volume in Liters 5.1E+11 Human Volume in Km3 0.51 Human Layer in Meters 9.999E-07 Human Layer in Microns 0.9998744 Human Layer, Defined By: Bahram Taheri, 2014
  • 9. A Space of Waste
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. CO2 Concentration Change in the Atmosphere within the Past 500,000 Years Company Logo 12
  • 13. Company Logo 13 Temperature Changes of Earth within the Past 500,000 Years
  • 15. CO2 Conc. Trend in Atm. 1959-2014 Source: NOAA 300.00 310.00 320.00 330.00 340.00 350.00 360.00 370.00 380.00 390.00 400.00 410.00 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 CO2 ppm CO2 ppm
  • 16. Monthly CO2 Concentrations in the Atmosphere in 2014 394.00 395.00 396.00 397.00 398.00 399.00 400.00 401.00 402.00 403.00 0.00 6.00 12.00 2014, Monthly CO2 ppm
  • 17. CO2 Concentration Changes in the Atmosphere, Based on Measures Daily and Weekly Averages
  • 19. Dark VS White Surfaces A Runaway Procedure?
  • 20. Losing the Elements of Thermal Balance
  • 21. An Ever Reducing Space for Everyone!
  • 22. Not Only for the Animals!
  • 24. Some Will Face Drought
  • 25. Then We Will Pray
  • 27. Or in Isfahan of Iran
  • 28. The Young Kids in the Drought Stricken Villages of Central Iran Pray for Rain
  • 29. The Open and Closed Eyes of the People of the Past, Present and Future
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. How Can we Overlook the Pyramid, in the Land of Pyramids? Food Security Environmental Security Energy Security Water Securit y
  • 38. DAMS
  • 43. ‫احیا‬‫ه‬‫ر‬‫دو‬ ‫تثبیت‬‫ه‬‫ر‬‫دو‬ ‫ی‬‫نهای‬‫احیای‬ ‫اکولوژیک‬‫از‬‫ر‬‫ت‬ 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Stabilization Period Restoration Period Final Stage 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014 Ecological Level
  • 44. Restoration of the Ecological Level Vision for 2023 ‫ارومیه‬ May 2014 Level=1270.53 ‫ارویه‬ May 2002 Level=1274.5019th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
  • 45. Schematic river basin lake, 15 Rivers Aji Chai Azarshahr Chai Ghaleh Chai Sofi Chai Mardogh Chai Laylan Chai Zarineh rood Simineh rood Lake Urmia Zola Chai Nazlou Chai Rozeh Chai Shahr Chai Barandouz Chai Gadar Chai Mahabad Chai
  • 46. Location of major dams in operation Tajyar sarab Kordkand y Sarogh Sharchi Ghaleh chi Alaviyan Nahand Zola Mahaba d Hasanl o Bokan Salmas Kordestan Province E. Azarbaijan W. Az. Province
  • 47. 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014 More than 16,000 pumps are pumping water from the surface and groundwater resources, mostly unauthorized. 2000 mobile pumps extract more then 100 MCM/Year alone. One critical effect of Energy Consumption on Water Resources
  • 48. Changes in Water Elevation and Area of the Lake between 1976 and 2011
  • 49. Remarkable similarity Between the Sister Lakes 50 km Feb 1970 July 2000 4300 km2 Area 5100 km2 4.4 m Mean Depth 6 m 1280 m Elevation 1275 m Both have causeways dividing them; both have watersheds in 3 states 41°N 37°N
  • 50. LU and GSL are both like flat Frying Pans
  • 51. 51 ‫آبي‬ ‫كم‬ ‫خشك‬ ‫تكامل‬ ‫روند‬ ‫شورابه‬ Changing of major Ions of brine to 3 new stages in wet, semi arid and arid conditions from 2007 to 2011 During the time, sodium concentrations have decreased compared to Mg concentration, which indicates huge amounts of Halite have been deposited on Lake’s periphery and bed. That is, sodium has passed from solution phase to solid phase
  • 52. $1,946 $651 Aquaculture (brine shrimp) Mining/Industrial - magnesium - potash - titanium Recreation - hunting - bird watching - boating, swimming $6800 Economic Value of the Great Salt Lake – $9.4 Billion (US) 8% of the gross economic product of the State of Utah (Makes people interested in the lake) (Bioeconomics 2012) (72%) (21%) (7%)
  • 53. Great Salt Lake Resources Recreation ($650 million) Hunting Boating Bird watching Swimming
  • 54. Brine Shrimp (Artemia franciscana) $650 million of total economic benefit
  • 55. Connection of Simineh Gadar Mahabad Rivers Vast dissipation of Zarrineh River Before reaching the lake Sattelaite Image Water Losses Before Rivers Reach the Water Body 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
  • 56. Slopes of the southern shores of the Lake 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
  • 57.
  • 58. Slopes of the Eastern Shores Aji Chai 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
  • 59. Thick Layers of Salt after Water Evaporation 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
  • 60. Silty-Clay Dusts River Deltas Around the Islands 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
  • 61. Sand Dunes on the Southern Shores 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
  • 64. Southern Shores 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014
  • 65. Water Withdrawals/year in MCM Deep Wells Semi- Deep ElectricDieselTotal MCM829119489711242022 # of Wells 6,43880,80427,86359,37887,242 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014, Bahram Taheri
  • 66. 2006 Economic Statistics of the Basin Sector % Basin Gross Product % Employment % Water Consumption Service5836.51 Industry2734.21.4 Agriculture1529.389 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014, Bahram Taheri
  • 67. Land Ownership in the Basin 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ‫زیر‬‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬1‫تار‬‫هک‬ ‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬1‫تا‬5‫تار‬‫هک‬ ‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬5‫تا‬20‫تار‬‫هک‬ ‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬20‫تا‬50‫تار‬‫هک‬ ‫از‬‫بیش‬‫اضی‬‫ر‬‫ا‬50‫تار‬‫هک‬ %Ownershipoflands Urmia Iran < 1 ha 1-5 ha 5-20ha 20-50 > 50 ha 19th Reform Group Meeting, Salzburg - September 1-5, 2014 (Bahram Taheri)
  • 72. Where and When Did We Lose Our Sight on the Scope and Scale of Things?
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75.
  • 76.
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79.
  • 80.
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83. Tabriz 700 Years Ago The Largest City Within the LU Basin Farmers pay a tax for using the water from artificial reservoirs and Qanats, usually 1/3 of their yield. I think, this city is the best trade center in the world. Merchants would pay a transit fee as well as a tax on the merchandize they trade. 24 trade offices by people of Genoa alone are operating in Tabriz. The tax collected by the governor of Tabriz from the European merchants who were crossing the safe transport roads constructed and operated by the Empire, is more than the entire tax the king of France collects from all of France. Ref. Harold Lamb: The Last Great Conqueror
  • 84. GDP Comparison of Iran and others in the Top 25 (Source, Wikipedia) Rank Country Nominal GDP Agr. % Industry % Services% Agr. Net Ind. Net Services Net 0 World 71,707,302 5.90% 30.50% 63.60% 4,230,731 21,870,727 45,605,844 1 United States 15,684,750 1.12% 19.10% 79.70% 188,217 2,995,787 12,500,746 2 China 9,181,377 10.00% 43.90% 46.10% 918,138 3,611,671 3,792,665 3 Japan 5,963,969 1.20% 27.50% 71.40% 71,568 1,640,091 4,258,274 4 Germany 3,400,579 0.80% 28.10% 71.10% 27,205 955,563 2,417,812 5 France 2,608,699 1.90% 18.30% 79.80% 49,565 477,392 2,081,742 6 United Kingdom 2,440,505 0.70% 21% 78.30% 17,084 512,506 1,910,915 7 Brazil 2,395,968 5.40% 27.40% 67.20% 129,382 656,495 1,610,090 8 Russia 2,021,960 3.90% 36% 60.10% 78,856 727,906 1,215,198 25 Iran 482,445 11.20% 40.60% 48.20% 54,034 195,873 232,538
  • 85. The Share of Agriculture in GDP Rank Country Nominal GDP Agr. % Industry % Services% Agr. Net Ind. Net Services Net 1 India 1,841,710 17.40% 25.80% 56.90% 320,458 475,161 1,047,933 2 Indonesia 894,854 14.30% 46.90% 38.80% 127,964 419,687 347,203 3 Iran 482,445 11.20% 40.60% 48.20% 54,034 195,873 232,538 4 China 9,181,377 10.00% 43.90% 46.10% 918,138 3,611,671 3,792,665 5 Turkey 783,064 8.90% 28.10% 63% 69,693 220,041 493,330 6 World 71,707,302 5.90% 30.50% 63.60% 4,230,731 21,870,727 45,605,844 21 Switzerland 622,855 1.30% 27.70% 71% 8,097 172,531 442,227 22 Japan 5,963,969 1.20% 27.50% 71.40% 71,568 1,640,091 4,258,274 23 United States 15,684,750 1.12% 19.10% 79.70% 188,217 2,995,787 12,500,746 24 Germany 3,400,579 0.80% 28.10% 71.10% 27,205 955,563 2,417,812 25 United Kingdom 2,440,505 0.70% 21% 78.30% 17,084 512,506 1,910,915 26 Belgium 513,396 0.70% 21.60% 77.70% 3,594 110,894 398,909
  • 86. The Share of Industry in GDP Rank Country Nominal GDP Agr. % Industry % Services% Agr. Net Ind. Net Services Net 1 Saudi Arabia 657,049 2% 66.90% 31.10% 13,141 439,566 204,342 2 Indonesia 894,854 14.30% 46.90% 38.80% 127,964 419,687 347,203 3 China 9,181,377 10.00% 43.90% 46.10% 918,138 3,611,671 3,792,665 4 Iran 482,445 11.20% 40.60% 48.20% 54,034 195,873 232,538 5 South Korea 1,151,271 2.70% 39.80% 57.50% 31,084 458,206 661,981 22 Netherlands 770,224 2.80% 24.10% 73.20% 21,566 185,624 563,804 23 Belgium 513,396 0.70% 21.60% 77.70% 3,594 110,894 398,909 24 United Kingdom 2,440,505 0.70% 21% 78.30% 17,084 512,506 1,910,915 25 United States 15,684,750 1.12% 19.10% 79.70% 188,217 2,995,787 12,500,746 26 France 2,608,699 1.90% 18.30% 79.80% 49,565 477,392 2,081,742
  • 87. The Share of Service Sector in the GDP Rank Country Nominal GDP Agr. % Industry % Services % Agr. Net Ind. Net Services Net 1 France 2,608,699 1.90% 18.30% 79.80% 49,565 477,392 2,081,742 2 United States 15,684,750 1.12% 19.10% 79.70% 188,217 2,995,787 12,500,746 3 United Kingdom 2,440,505 0.70% 21% 78.30% 17,084 512,506 1,910,915 4 Belgium 513,396 0.70% 21.60% 77.70% 3,594 110,894 398,909 21 South Korea 1,151,271 2.70% 39.80% 57.50% 31,084 458,206 661,981 22 India 1,841,710 17.40% 25.80% 56.90% 320,458 475,161 1,047,933 23 Iran 482,445 11.20% 40.60% 48.20% 54,034 195,873 232,538 24 China 9,181,377 10.00% 43.90% 46.10% 918,138 3,611,671 3,792,665 25 Indonesia 894,854 14.30% 46.90% 38.80% 127,964 419,687 347,203 26 Saudi Arabia 657,049 2% 66.90% 31.10% 13,141 439,566 204,342
  • 88. Large Inter Basin Water Transfers name Year of construction Length Capacity (Million cubic meters/year) Costs (US$ bn) California State Water Project (USA) Early 1960s-1990s 715 km 25 (10,300 cubic feet/sec) 5.2 Colorado River Aqueduct (USA) 1933–1941 392 km 1603.5 (1.3m acre-feet/year) ? Central Arizona Project (USA) 1973-93 541 km 1850.2 (1.5m acre-feet/year) 3.6 National Water Carrier (Israel) 1953-64 130 km 1.7 ? Cutzamala System (Mexico) Late 1970s-late 1990s 154 km 2.1 (24 m3 /s) 1.3 All-American Canal (USA) 1930s 132 km 64 (740 m3 /s) ? Periyar Project (India) Commissioned in 1895 ? 3.5 (41 m3 /s) ? Indira Gandhi Canal (India) Since 1958 650 km ? ? Telugu Ganga project (India) 1977–2004 406 km 10.1 (3.7 bn m3/year) ? Irtysh- Karaganda scheme (Kazakhstan) 1962–1974 450 km 6.5 (75 m3 /s) ?
  • 91. The Salt Balance For Conserved Area 3500 km2 Estimated Net Evap m/y 0.85 m Total Evap/yr Needed water 2.975 B C M Transferred water/year Salt/Liter Salt Content/Year SG Volume Average Thickness In iters in Grams In Tons tons/m3 m3/year mm/year 2.975E+12 13 38,675,000 2.17 17,822,581 5.09 total initial Vol. Salt Salt Content Age in yrs Salt Entry Salt Entry Ratio m3 gr/lit tons Estimated per year in Tons Casp/Naural 30000000000 100 3000000000 20000 150000 258
  • 96. ‫ذا‬ِ‫إ‬ َ‫و‬ ۗ ‫م‬ِ‫ه‬ِ‫س‬ُ‫ف‬‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ما‬ ‫ِّروا‬‫ي‬َ‫غ‬ُ‫ي‬ ٰ‫ى‬ّ‫ت‬َ‫ح‬ ٍ‫وم‬َ‫ق‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ما‬ ُ‫ر‬ِّ‫ي‬َ‫غ‬ُ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ َ َّ‫َّللا‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ِ‫ه‬ِ‫ن‬‫دو‬ ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ُم‬‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ ‫ما‬ َ‫و‬ ۚ ُ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ َّ‫د‬َ‫ر‬َ‫م‬ ‫ال‬َ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ً‫ء‬‫سو‬ ٍ‫وم‬َ‫ق‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ َّ‫َّللا‬ َ‫د‬‫را‬َ‫أ‬ ٍ‫وال‬