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1
CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY IN IRAN
27-29 OCT 2015 Cairo Egypt
By : N. RIAZI (Soil & Water Senior Expert)
I.R. of Iran
Ministry Of Jahad-e Agricultural
Soil & Water Deputy
2
SUBJECTS
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
2. NATURAL RESOURCES
3. WATER RESOURCES
4. COUNTRY LAND USE
5. YEARLY AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION
6. AGRICULTURAL EXECUTED INFRASTRUCTUR
7. COUNTRY CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY
8. GOVERNMENT POLICY & PROGRAMS FOR
INCREASING THE C.W.P
9. RESULTS
3
1-GENERAL INFORMATION
• SITUATION : SOUTHEAST OF ASIA
• PUPOLATION :8O.8 MILLION-2014 (17th in
the world)
• CAPITAL : TEHRAN
• AREA : 1,648,195 (SQ. KM)
• RELIGION : ISLAM)% 98 ) -OTHERS (%2)
• PRESIDENT : DR.ROUHANI
• MONEY UNIT : RIAL(1 USD=33000 RIALS)
• LANGUAGE : PERSIAN
4
2-NATURAL RESOURCE
• CLIMATE
– ARID : % 60
– SEMI ARID : % 25
– HUMID : %15
• ANNUAL PRENCIPITATION : 250 mm/y
(RECENTLY DROUGT PERIOD : 230 ,, ,, )
• ANNUAL EVAPORATION : 2100 mm/y
5
6
7
3-WATER RESOURCE
ANNUAL VOLUM
B.C.M
RAINFALL 400
RENEWAL WATER 130
AVIABLE W. POTENTIAL 113
AVIABLE W.
(CONSUMPTION)
92.2
8
REF. M.O.E (2010-2011)
ANNUAL WATER CONSUMPTION
SECTOR CONSUMPTION
) B.C.M (
%
AGRICULTUR 81.7 88.6
DRINK & SANITATION 8.6 9.3
INDUSTRIES 1.9 2.1
TOTAL 92.2 100
9
REF. M.O.E (2010-2011 )
ANNUAL AGRICULTURE WATER SUPPLY
TYPE RESOURCE VOLUM
B.C.M
%
1-SURFACE WATER
STORAGE DAMS 12.825 15.7
Pump Station & DIRECT DISCHARG
FROM RIVERS
1.425 1.7
2-UNDERGROUND WATER
WELLS 42.75 52.3
SPRINGS 17.1 21
QANATS 7.6 9.3
TOTAL - 81.7 100
10
REF. M.O.J.A (2010-2011)
REDUCTION TREND 0F
ANNUAL RENEWABLE WATER
VOLUM (B.C.M ) PERIOD
130 45 YEARS (1955-2000 )
122.5 45 Y. (1969-2013 )
115 15 Y. (1999-2013)
104 5 Y. (2008-2013 )
11
REF. M.O.E (2014)
12
4-COUNTRY LAND USE
ROW LAND USE AREA
MILLION HA
% DESCRIPTION
1 CULTIVATED LANDS 18.5 11.2 -
IRRIGATED L. 8.7 5.3 FALLOW (%7)
RAINFALL L. 9.8 5.9 FALLOW (%34)
2 FORESTS 12.4 7.5 -
3 PASTURES 90 54.6 RICH (%8)-MED.(%26)
POOR (%66)
4 DESERTS 34 20.6 -
5 LAKES,MARSHES,URBAN,VILLAGE,
INDUSTERIAL,……..ETC
10.1 6.1 -
T0TAL - 165 100 -
13REF. WATERSHED RESEARCH INSTITUTE M.O.J.A (2008)
EXPANDABLE AGRICULTUE LAND
• AS MENTIONED, AT PRESENT CONDITION THE
TOTAL LANDS UNDER CROPING CYCLE IS 18.5
MILLION HA. IT IS ABLE TO INCREASE TO 51
M.HA IF THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS ARE
SOLVED:
– 1-WATER SCARCITY
– 2-SOIL SALINITY , ALCALINITY & LOW DEPTH
– 3-WATER LOGGING , GRAVEL , LOW FERTILITY
14
5-YEARLY AGRICULTURE
PRODUCTION
ROW SUB SECTOR PRODUCTION
MILLION TON
IRRIGATED LAND P.
MILLION TON
RATIO
%
1 AGRONOMI 77.3 70.5 91.2
2 HORTICULTUR 17.1 15.6 91.2
3 LIVESTOCK & POULTRY 14.3 - -
4 FISHERY 0.74 - -
5 NATURAL RESOURCES 0.62 - -
TOTAL - 110.06 86.1 -
15
REF. E. & P. DEPUTY OF M.O.J .A.(2010-2O11)
KINDS OF AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION
1. AGRONOMY (6.7 M.HA)
1. CEREAL-%57(RICE,WHEAT,BARLEY,….
2. OTHERS-%43(VEGETABLE,BEET,MAIZE,SUGAR-
BEEN,OIL SEED, FORAGE,…….)
2. HURTICULTURE (2 M.HA )
1. FRUIT (APPLE,PEAR,PEACH,CHERRY,APRICOT,
1. ALMOND,DATE,POMEGRANATE,GRAPE,OLIVE,CITRUS,
…….)
2. FLOWER(ROSE,CARNATION,TULIP,NARCISSUS,…)
16
6-AGRICULTURE EXECUTED
INFRASTRUCTUR
ROW TYPE IRRIGATED LAND
MILLION HA
SECTOR
1
DAMS( STORAGE& DIVERSION( 3.2 M.O.E
1-1-MAIN IRR. & DRA. NETWORK 2.2 M.O.E
1-2-TRIBUTARY IRR. & DRA. NET. 1.1 M.O.J.A
1-3-ON FARM DEVELOPMENT 0.82 M.O.J.A
1-4-SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 0.22 M.O.J.A
2 PRESSURED IRRIGATION (SPRINKLE,
TRICKLE &MECHANIZATION SYS.)
1.45 M.O.J.A
3 PUBLIC WATER CONVEYANCE CHANNEL 1 M.O.J.A
4 DREDGING &REPAIR FOR QANAT 0.72 M.O.J.A
17
7-IRAN CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY
1. DEFINITION
-The term water productivity is used exclusively to
denote the amount or value of product over volume
or value of water that is consumed.
2. COMBINATION
- Productivity = Effectiveness + Efficiency
3. SPECIFICATION
-The meaning of productivity is very simple & clear
BUT its calculation, especially in agriculture water , is
very hard & difficult.
18
Water productivity Calculation
1. Amount
Physical water Productivity =
The amount of produced crops (Kg)
Water used (m3)
2. Value
Economic water Productivity =
Gross profit of the produced crops (Rls)
Water used (m3)
19
PhYSICAL C.W.P.
1. As mentioned data about annual amount
agriculture production& annul volume of water
consumption, c.w.p. is :
C.W.P. = 86.1(M.T) / 81.7(B.C.M) =1.05 Kg/cub m
2. Increasing c.w.p. in agriculture is very important
For Government, thus it aims to increase it to 1.5
Kg/cub m by the end of 6th 5-year Country Development
Plan at 2021.
20
8-GOVERNMENT POLICY & PROGRAMS
FOR INCREASING C.W.P.
1. Integrated soil &water management (policy(
1-Aims :a -Increasing c.w.p. and agriculture
production ,
Food security ,enough water supply for other
sectors
b-Conservation of environment
c-increasing employment(job creation)
d- increasing people’s satisfaction
2- Structure: next slide
21
22
High Water
Council
President
M.O.E.
Deputies
Provinces
M.O.J.A. M.O.I. D.O.E. M.O.T,M,I M.O.F
M.P.O
2 - Structure
Conti….
3-Documents :Iran has 6 main & 30 sub-main
catchments. Fortunately investigation, executive
and development plan document for start
((integrated natural resource management)) is
provided and approved by M.O.E. at 2012.
The primary coordination sessions with all
stakeholders for water allocation was held in
some provinces in 2015.
23
Conti…..
2-Ground water resource balance & revival plan (15 projects ) :
1)Drilling & mobilizeing5200 Piezometric wells in country plains.
2)Installation 20900 case equipment of measurement on water resources
Piezometer & exploratory wells.
3)Preparation balance & data bank at 609 study zone area (on line).
4)Zoning & survey risk of land subsidence at 609 study areas.
5) Creation& establishment of1200 local water market in country.
6)Creation of 1200 water user associations & supporting them by
technical & financial services .
7) Updating National Water Document at 609 study areas.
8)Purchasing low yield agricultural wells for ground water resource
balance.
9)Organizing drilling companies & installation of 1300 GPS devices on
drilling machines.
24
Conti…..
10) Replacement of waste water instead of water from agricultural wells
in prohibited plains.
11)Reinforcement & establishment of 600 patrol & inspection groups
across the country.
12)Preparation & installation of 360,000 water smart volumetric flow
meters, informing people about the monitoring & controlling system
for water discharge from the agricultural wells..
13)Closing illegal wells.
14) Execution of 400 artificial aquifer feeding & flood distribution project
at prohibited plains.
15)Survey & execution of watershed projects.
NOTE: M.O.J.A. Projects are rows 6, 7 &15 and others
belong to M.O.E.
25
RESULTS
1. With attention to climate status of IRAN during its 3000
years of history, has always been compatible
With water scarcity.
2. Increasing C.W.P. is necessary for compatibility with
drought & addition crop.
3. More than 50 parameters are effective at farming
production , and for high C.W.P. all of
them must be in suitable conditions, thus C.W.P. calculation is very
hard.
4. For high C.W.P. both structural & non-structural measures
must be applied together.
5. In arid &semi-arid countries yearly renewal water is
continuously reduced.
26
Conti…
6. For addition of C.W.P. (integrated soil & water
management) is best and is a very difficult
policy. Because stakeholders’ sectoral benefits should
be replaced with national benefits.
7. I.S.W.M. in Iran (preparation of development plan in
30 sub-catchment at 2011) has started in 2014.
8. Development of technical & financial collaboration
between NENA countries (exchange experiences ,
skills, new technologies and knowledge) can be
reduce water scarcity crisis effects & also increase
C.W.P.
27
28
THANK YOU FOR
YOUR ATTENTION
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Crop Water Productivity in Iran, N. RIAZI

  • 1. 1 CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY IN IRAN 27-29 OCT 2015 Cairo Egypt By : N. RIAZI (Soil & Water Senior Expert) I.R. of Iran Ministry Of Jahad-e Agricultural Soil & Water Deputy
  • 2. 2
  • 3. SUBJECTS 1. GENERAL INFORMATION 2. NATURAL RESOURCES 3. WATER RESOURCES 4. COUNTRY LAND USE 5. YEARLY AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION 6. AGRICULTURAL EXECUTED INFRASTRUCTUR 7. COUNTRY CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY 8. GOVERNMENT POLICY & PROGRAMS FOR INCREASING THE C.W.P 9. RESULTS 3
  • 4. 1-GENERAL INFORMATION • SITUATION : SOUTHEAST OF ASIA • PUPOLATION :8O.8 MILLION-2014 (17th in the world) • CAPITAL : TEHRAN • AREA : 1,648,195 (SQ. KM) • RELIGION : ISLAM)% 98 ) -OTHERS (%2) • PRESIDENT : DR.ROUHANI • MONEY UNIT : RIAL(1 USD=33000 RIALS) • LANGUAGE : PERSIAN 4
  • 5. 2-NATURAL RESOURCE • CLIMATE – ARID : % 60 – SEMI ARID : % 25 – HUMID : %15 • ANNUAL PRENCIPITATION : 250 mm/y (RECENTLY DROUGT PERIOD : 230 ,, ,, ) • ANNUAL EVAPORATION : 2100 mm/y 5
  • 6. 6
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  • 8. 3-WATER RESOURCE ANNUAL VOLUM B.C.M RAINFALL 400 RENEWAL WATER 130 AVIABLE W. POTENTIAL 113 AVIABLE W. (CONSUMPTION) 92.2 8 REF. M.O.E (2010-2011)
  • 9. ANNUAL WATER CONSUMPTION SECTOR CONSUMPTION ) B.C.M ( % AGRICULTUR 81.7 88.6 DRINK & SANITATION 8.6 9.3 INDUSTRIES 1.9 2.1 TOTAL 92.2 100 9 REF. M.O.E (2010-2011 )
  • 10. ANNUAL AGRICULTURE WATER SUPPLY TYPE RESOURCE VOLUM B.C.M % 1-SURFACE WATER STORAGE DAMS 12.825 15.7 Pump Station & DIRECT DISCHARG FROM RIVERS 1.425 1.7 2-UNDERGROUND WATER WELLS 42.75 52.3 SPRINGS 17.1 21 QANATS 7.6 9.3 TOTAL - 81.7 100 10 REF. M.O.J.A (2010-2011)
  • 11. REDUCTION TREND 0F ANNUAL RENEWABLE WATER VOLUM (B.C.M ) PERIOD 130 45 YEARS (1955-2000 ) 122.5 45 Y. (1969-2013 ) 115 15 Y. (1999-2013) 104 5 Y. (2008-2013 ) 11 REF. M.O.E (2014)
  • 12. 12
  • 13. 4-COUNTRY LAND USE ROW LAND USE AREA MILLION HA % DESCRIPTION 1 CULTIVATED LANDS 18.5 11.2 - IRRIGATED L. 8.7 5.3 FALLOW (%7) RAINFALL L. 9.8 5.9 FALLOW (%34) 2 FORESTS 12.4 7.5 - 3 PASTURES 90 54.6 RICH (%8)-MED.(%26) POOR (%66) 4 DESERTS 34 20.6 - 5 LAKES,MARSHES,URBAN,VILLAGE, INDUSTERIAL,……..ETC 10.1 6.1 - T0TAL - 165 100 - 13REF. WATERSHED RESEARCH INSTITUTE M.O.J.A (2008)
  • 14. EXPANDABLE AGRICULTUE LAND • AS MENTIONED, AT PRESENT CONDITION THE TOTAL LANDS UNDER CROPING CYCLE IS 18.5 MILLION HA. IT IS ABLE TO INCREASE TO 51 M.HA IF THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS ARE SOLVED: – 1-WATER SCARCITY – 2-SOIL SALINITY , ALCALINITY & LOW DEPTH – 3-WATER LOGGING , GRAVEL , LOW FERTILITY 14
  • 15. 5-YEARLY AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION ROW SUB SECTOR PRODUCTION MILLION TON IRRIGATED LAND P. MILLION TON RATIO % 1 AGRONOMI 77.3 70.5 91.2 2 HORTICULTUR 17.1 15.6 91.2 3 LIVESTOCK & POULTRY 14.3 - - 4 FISHERY 0.74 - - 5 NATURAL RESOURCES 0.62 - - TOTAL - 110.06 86.1 - 15 REF. E. & P. DEPUTY OF M.O.J .A.(2010-2O11)
  • 16. KINDS OF AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION 1. AGRONOMY (6.7 M.HA) 1. CEREAL-%57(RICE,WHEAT,BARLEY,…. 2. OTHERS-%43(VEGETABLE,BEET,MAIZE,SUGAR- BEEN,OIL SEED, FORAGE,…….) 2. HURTICULTURE (2 M.HA ) 1. FRUIT (APPLE,PEAR,PEACH,CHERRY,APRICOT, 1. ALMOND,DATE,POMEGRANATE,GRAPE,OLIVE,CITRUS, …….) 2. FLOWER(ROSE,CARNATION,TULIP,NARCISSUS,…) 16
  • 17. 6-AGRICULTURE EXECUTED INFRASTRUCTUR ROW TYPE IRRIGATED LAND MILLION HA SECTOR 1 DAMS( STORAGE& DIVERSION( 3.2 M.O.E 1-1-MAIN IRR. & DRA. NETWORK 2.2 M.O.E 1-2-TRIBUTARY IRR. & DRA. NET. 1.1 M.O.J.A 1-3-ON FARM DEVELOPMENT 0.82 M.O.J.A 1-4-SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 0.22 M.O.J.A 2 PRESSURED IRRIGATION (SPRINKLE, TRICKLE &MECHANIZATION SYS.) 1.45 M.O.J.A 3 PUBLIC WATER CONVEYANCE CHANNEL 1 M.O.J.A 4 DREDGING &REPAIR FOR QANAT 0.72 M.O.J.A 17
  • 18. 7-IRAN CROP WATER PRODUCTIVITY 1. DEFINITION -The term water productivity is used exclusively to denote the amount or value of product over volume or value of water that is consumed. 2. COMBINATION - Productivity = Effectiveness + Efficiency 3. SPECIFICATION -The meaning of productivity is very simple & clear BUT its calculation, especially in agriculture water , is very hard & difficult. 18
  • 19. Water productivity Calculation 1. Amount Physical water Productivity = The amount of produced crops (Kg) Water used (m3) 2. Value Economic water Productivity = Gross profit of the produced crops (Rls) Water used (m3) 19
  • 20. PhYSICAL C.W.P. 1. As mentioned data about annual amount agriculture production& annul volume of water consumption, c.w.p. is : C.W.P. = 86.1(M.T) / 81.7(B.C.M) =1.05 Kg/cub m 2. Increasing c.w.p. in agriculture is very important For Government, thus it aims to increase it to 1.5 Kg/cub m by the end of 6th 5-year Country Development Plan at 2021. 20
  • 21. 8-GOVERNMENT POLICY & PROGRAMS FOR INCREASING C.W.P. 1. Integrated soil &water management (policy( 1-Aims :a -Increasing c.w.p. and agriculture production , Food security ,enough water supply for other sectors b-Conservation of environment c-increasing employment(job creation) d- increasing people’s satisfaction 2- Structure: next slide 21
  • 23. Conti…. 3-Documents :Iran has 6 main & 30 sub-main catchments. Fortunately investigation, executive and development plan document for start ((integrated natural resource management)) is provided and approved by M.O.E. at 2012. The primary coordination sessions with all stakeholders for water allocation was held in some provinces in 2015. 23
  • 24. Conti….. 2-Ground water resource balance & revival plan (15 projects ) : 1)Drilling & mobilizeing5200 Piezometric wells in country plains. 2)Installation 20900 case equipment of measurement on water resources Piezometer & exploratory wells. 3)Preparation balance & data bank at 609 study zone area (on line). 4)Zoning & survey risk of land subsidence at 609 study areas. 5) Creation& establishment of1200 local water market in country. 6)Creation of 1200 water user associations & supporting them by technical & financial services . 7) Updating National Water Document at 609 study areas. 8)Purchasing low yield agricultural wells for ground water resource balance. 9)Organizing drilling companies & installation of 1300 GPS devices on drilling machines. 24
  • 25. Conti….. 10) Replacement of waste water instead of water from agricultural wells in prohibited plains. 11)Reinforcement & establishment of 600 patrol & inspection groups across the country. 12)Preparation & installation of 360,000 water smart volumetric flow meters, informing people about the monitoring & controlling system for water discharge from the agricultural wells.. 13)Closing illegal wells. 14) Execution of 400 artificial aquifer feeding & flood distribution project at prohibited plains. 15)Survey & execution of watershed projects. NOTE: M.O.J.A. Projects are rows 6, 7 &15 and others belong to M.O.E. 25
  • 26. RESULTS 1. With attention to climate status of IRAN during its 3000 years of history, has always been compatible With water scarcity. 2. Increasing C.W.P. is necessary for compatibility with drought & addition crop. 3. More than 50 parameters are effective at farming production , and for high C.W.P. all of them must be in suitable conditions, thus C.W.P. calculation is very hard. 4. For high C.W.P. both structural & non-structural measures must be applied together. 5. In arid &semi-arid countries yearly renewal water is continuously reduced. 26
  • 27. Conti… 6. For addition of C.W.P. (integrated soil & water management) is best and is a very difficult policy. Because stakeholders’ sectoral benefits should be replaced with national benefits. 7. I.S.W.M. in Iran (preparation of development plan in 30 sub-catchment at 2011) has started in 2014. 8. Development of technical & financial collaboration between NENA countries (exchange experiences , skills, new technologies and knowledge) can be reduce water scarcity crisis effects & also increase C.W.P. 27
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