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DIYgenomics: An Open Platform for Democratizing the Genome Melanie Swan, MBA  Founder DIYgenomics +1-650-681-9482 @DIYgenomics   www.DIYgenomics.org   [email_address] March 7, 2011, San Francisco CA Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Personal genome apps Crowd-sourced clinical trials
Agenda Introduction  Application of personal genomic data Patient-organized genomic studies Mobile and web apps March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: Getty Images
About Melanie Swan Founder, DIYgenomics Hedge fund manager, futurist MBA, Wharton; BA, Georgetown Univ.; Faculty, Singularity University Sample publications Swan, M. Multigenic Condition Risk Assessment in Direct-to-Consumer Genomic Services.  Genet. Med.   2010 , May;12(5):279-88. Swan, M. Translational antiaging research.  Rejuvenation Res.   2010 , Feb;13(1):115-7. Swan, M. Emerging patient-driven health care models: an examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking.  Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health   2009 , 2, 492-525. March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org
Information transmission eras March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Painting Transistor (1/0) DNA (ACTG) Analog Digital Life code ? 01101 100011011111011101 1 001100101 – I love you 01101 100011011111011101 0 001100101 – I hate you 2010-2100 1950-2010 17,300 years ago
DNA sequencing: 10x/yr improvement March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org April 1, 2010  Image credit: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/_img/87/i50/8750cover2_law.gif Dec. 14, 2009
Era of 3 rd  and 4 th  generation sequencing March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org 3 rd  Gen: Sequencing by Synthesis 2 nd  Gen: Parallelized sequencing 1 st  Gen: Sanger Sequencing 4 th  Gen: Electronic Sequencing Sources: http://www.genomicseducation.ca/files/images/information_articles/sequencing.gif, http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/News/2009/Features/WTX056032.htm, http://www.pacificbiosciences.com/video_lg.html,  http://www.nanoporetech.com/sequences
Agenda Introduction  Application of personal genomic data Patient-organized genomic studies Mobile and web apps March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: Getty Images
Numerous useful applications of genomics Traditional Ancestry Carrier status Identity (paternity, forensics) Maturing Health condition risk Pharmaceutical response Novel Athletic performance OTC product response Toxin processing Predictive wellness profiling Aging, cancer, immune response, organ health March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit:  http://bit.ly/fovpJc
Interpreting DNA information March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://123RF.com Example: rs1801133  A G   AA ,  A G ,  GG Allele, variant, SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism); “typo” in red; normal in green A C G T Example: rs7412  C T   CC ,  C T ,  TT
Personal genome results March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org
Example: what to do with your data Check if you have the risk allele for the BDNF gene Determine related SNP/rsID#, rs6265 (neuroplasticity) Search genomic data for rs6265 genotype (e.g., CC) Determine the risk allele (which letter?) (e.g.; G 1 ) Opportunity: genomic database with three minimal fields: gene, rsid# and risk allele  Current genomics search resources PharmGKB, dbSNP, GWAS catalog, SNPedia March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/10/genetically-bad-driving 1 Ribeiro, L. et. Al., The brain-derived neurotrophic factor rs6265 (Val66Met) polymorphism and depression in Mexican-Americans. Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience. May 8, 2007.
Finding your BDNF data, variant rs6265 March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Consumer genomic services genotype 600,000-1m variants but only map a few up to the annotation browser
Agenda Introduction  Application of personal genomic data Patient-organized genomic studies Mobile and web apps March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: Getty Images
DIYgenomics philosophy March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Goal: preventive medicine  Realize preventive medicine by establishing baseline markers of wellness and pre-clinical interventions Generalized hypothesis One or more polymorphisms may result in out-of-bounds baseline levels of phenotypic markers. These levels may be improved through personalized intervention. Source: http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/MTHFR Genotype Phenotype Intervention Outcome + + =
DIYgenomics study design template March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source:  http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/ http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/w/file/36469280/DIYgenomics+study+design+template+blank.doc
DIYgenomics study #1: MTHFR Do common mutations in the MTHFR gene prevent vitamin B from working correctly? Test whether 2 variations in the MTHFR gene (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) keep vitamin B9 (folic acid) from being metabolized into its active form (folate) rs1801133/C677T  rs1801131/A1298C Without this form of vitamin B, homocysteine may accumulate Risk: nutritional deficiencies and symptoms associated with diabetes complications, including vascular damage and nerve damage  50% or more of the population may have some form of MTHFR polymorphism March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/MTHFR Cyanocobalamin Image credit: http://wikimedia.org
Homocysteine metabolism pathway March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: Swan, M., Hathaway, K., Hogg, C., McCauley, R., Vollrath, A. Citizen science genomics as a model for crowdsourced preventive medicine research. J Participat Med. 2010 Dec 23; 2:e20.
MTHFR pilot study results March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Drug store vitamin (Centrum) reduced homocysteine levels for 6/7 participants Blood Test # 2. Homocysteine levels DIYgenomics MTHFR Vitamin B deficiency study 1 1. Genotype profiles Baseline LMF Source: Swan, M., Hathaway, K., Hogg, C., McCauley, R., Vollrath, A. Citizen science genomics as a model for crowdsourced preventive medicine research. J Participat Med. 2010 Dec 23; 2:e20.   1 Results are not statistically significant and are intended as a pilot demonstration of patient-organized genomic studies Baseline + LMF Centrum  Homocysteine umol/l Centrum  LMF = L-methylfolate
DIYgenomics studies March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://www.narsad.org/?q=node/11245 Study Status 1. MTHFR/Vitamin B Pilot complete, open enrollment 2. Memory filtering In design (Q1/Q2) 3. Aging Open enrollment 4. Vitamin D In design (Q2) 5. Mental performance In design (Q3) 6. Metabolism/cholesterol mgt In design (Q3) 7. Citizen scientist proposed… Ongoing
Memory filtering study March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Dopaminergic modulation of memory filtering Collaboration with the Laboratory of Cognitive Neuro-Rehabilitation, University Hospitals of Geneva  IRB and informed consent  Goal: 100 member healthy control cohort  Genotype: COMT, DRD2, SLC6A3 (~5 SNPs) (neurotransmitter modulation) Phenotype: memory filtering test (24 minutes) and reversal learning task (10 minutes) Background questionnaire: neurological or psychiatric antecedents, medications, demographic information, and IQ (WAIS, Raven’s Matrices) Image credit: http://bit.ly/g2DIcW
DIYgenomics aging study Genomics + physical biomarkers + intervention Top twenty genomic mechanisms of aging   Aging-specific genetics (IGF signaling, DNA repair, etc.) Diabetes and metabolic disease Catabolism (waste removal) and other Heart disease and blood operations Cancer Top twenty phenotypic biomarkers of aging Interventions Traditional  Novel (example: telomerase activation therapies) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org More information: http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/Aging Image credit: http://www-nmr.cabm.rutgers.edu
Innovating the research model March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Institutional PI (principal  investigator) Traditional Research Model Patient-organized Research Model Research subjects Citizen scientists*  Investigators = Participants *Self-selection bias: 100,000 consumer genomics customers Institutional Review Board (IRB) IRBs, FAQs, Citizen ethicists Grant funding Journal publication Self publishing Patient advocacy groups Research foundations Social VC Crowd-sourcing
Genomic study platform: Genomera March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org
Agenda Introduction  Application of personal genomic data Patient-organized genomic studies Mobile and web apps March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: Getty Images
4,000+ mobile app downloads Health condition, drug response, athletic performance  23andMe data upload Android iPhone March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Android development: Michael Kolb, Lawrence S. Wong, Laura Klemme, Melanie Swan iPhone development: Ted Odet, Greg Smith, Laura Klemme, Melanie Swan “ genomics” “ genomics”
Multi-view web app with private data upload March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Private data upload: Marat Nepomnyashy; https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/156946
Thank you! Melanie Swan Founder DIYgenomics +1-650-681-9482 @DIYgenomics www.DIYgenomics.org [email_address] Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Creative Commons 3.0 license Collaborators:   Lorenzo Albanello Cindy Chen John Furber Hong Guo Kristina Hathaway Laura Klemme Priya Kshirsagar  Lucymarie Mantese Raymond McCauley Marat Nepomnyashy Ted Odet Roland Parnaso William Reinhardt Greg Smith Aaron Vollrath Lawrence S. Wong  International collaborations: JST and Rikengenesis Takashi Kido Minae Kawashima Jin Yamanaka University Hospitals of Geneva Louis Nahum Armin Schnider Personal genome apps Crowd-sourced clinical trials
Consumer genomic comparison March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Three companies cover colorectal cancer Different genes and variants are reviewed
Drug response March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org
Ranking variant quality Background NIH plan to develop a Genetic Testing Registry (2011) Criteria proposed by Ioannidis JP et al. Int J Epidemiol. (2008): amount of evidence, replication, protection from bias Methodology: assign a composite score to each variant per the number of cases and controls, p-value, odds ratio, and journal ranking  March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: DIYgenomics Image credit: http://www.evexiscy.com
Athletic performance March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://www.istockphoto.com V = number of variants; % = ratio of favorable polymorphisms to total alleles for a sample individual; S = number of studies Source: Swan, M. Applied genomics: personalized interpretation of athletic performance GWAS. 2011 Jan. Submitted.   Category Genes V % S Endurance, power, and energy Endurance ACE, ACTN3, ADRB2/ ADRB3, BDKRB2, COL5A1, GNB3 7 50 22 Power ACE, ACTN3, AGT 3 50 8 Energy HIF1A, PPARGC1A  3 25 9 Musculature, and heart and lung capacity Muscle fatigue and repair HNF4A, NAT2 and IL-1B 5 40 4 Strength HFE, HIF1A, IGF1, MSTN GDF8  5 17 15 Heart and lung capacity  CREB1, KIF5B, NOS3, NPY and ADRB1, APOE, NRF1  9 36 11 Metabolism, recovery, and other    Metabolism  AMPD1, APOA1, PPARA, PPARD  5 50 9 Recovery  CKMM/CKM, IL6  2 50 5 Ligament and tendon strength   Ligament strength  COL1A1, COL5A1, CILP  3 50 4 Tendon strength  COL1A1, COL5A1, GDF5, MMP3  7 63 5
OTC product response, toxin processing OTC product response Skin (premature aging, wrinkles, sun damage, eczema, irritation, antioxidant treatment, anti-aging treatment) Hair (hair loss, premature greying, male pattern baldness) Esophagus (reflux, bile acid response) Teeth (periodontitis) Sleep (daytime sleepiness, caffeine-induced insomnia) Environmental exposure: toxin processing Benzene Quinone oxidoreductase PAHs metabolism Arylarene metabolism Mercury and lead exposure Liver and kidney health (general) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: DIYgenomics Image credit: http://sciencephoto.com
Predictive wellness profiling: cancer Proto-oncogene/tumor suppressor gene polymorphisms March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: DIYgenomics Image credit: http://utmb.edu TP53:  cell cycle arrest, PTEN: cell cycle progression modulator, MYC: cell cycle regulator
Lung cancer risk and drug response Risk and drug response for specific cancers March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: Swan, M. Review of cancer risk prediction in direct-to-consumer genomic services. (poster) Canary Foundation Early Detection Symposium, May 25-27, 2010, Stanford University, Stanford CA. Image credit: http://www.xianet.net
Wellness profiling: immune system Immune system genomic wellness profiling Immune response: T-cell activation  CTLA4, CD226, CD86, IL3 March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: DIYgenomics Image credit: http://www.iayork.com CTLA4: T-cell inhibition; IL3: growth-promoting cytokine
Aging (genomic markers) Top twenty genomic mechanisms of aging  (1,000 variants in DIYgenomics Aging GWAS database) Aging-specific genetics  (overall profile, IGF-1/insulin signaling, inflammation, immune system, DNA damage repair, cell cycle, telomere length, mitochondrial health)  Diabetes and metabolic disease  (cholesterol, obesity, adiposity, fat distribution)  Catabolism  (waste removal)  and other  (Alzheimer’s disease, macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, kidney and liver disease)  Heart disease and blood operations  (cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation)  Cancer  (profile for twenty cancers including breast, prostate, colorectal, lung, melanoma, glioma, ovarian, pancreatic) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://reisearch.net/biotech_page/dna_horizontal.gif Source: DIYgenomics Aging GWAS Database: http://bit.ly/fDobgO
Aging (phenotypic markers) Top twenty phenotypic biomarkers of aging  Aging-specific markers  (telomere length, lymphocyte regeneration, CD levels, inflammation, hormone levels) Diabetes and metabolic disease  (BMI, cholesterol (HDL/LDL/triglycerides; LDL particle size), Framingham Risk Score, fasting glucose, non-fasting glucose, albumin, uric acid) Catabolism and other  (VO2 max, bone mineral density, muscle mass, GOT, GPT, creatinine, eGFR) Heart disease and blood operations  (blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC, WBC, CRP, platelets, erythrocyte glycoslyation) Cancer  (granulocyte strength, blood-assay) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://reisearch.net/biotech_page/dna_horizontal.gif Source: DIYgenomics Aging Study,  http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/w/page/30326105/Aging
Aging (interventions) Top twenty aging interventions Traditional  (exercise, nutrition, sleep, vitamins, stress-reduction) Novel  (brain fitness programs and mid-life cholesterol management for Alzheimer’s disease, cholesterol management with CETP-inhibitor a nacetrapib,  TA-65 telomerase activation for telomere length management, resistance weight lifting for sarcopenia, interval training and aerobic exercise for VO2 max improvement, blood-based assays for early detection of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, macular degeneration, kidney and liver disease) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://reisearch.net/biotech_page/dna_horizontal.gif Source: DIYgenomics Aging Study,  http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/w/page/30326105/Aging
Would you like to know… … if your vitamin supplements are effective … which vitamin supplements would be effective and best for you … personalized interventionswhat conditions you are at higher genetic susceptibility for and are … your predictive wellness profile for aging, cancer, immune system response March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org

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DIYgenomics: An Open Platform for Democratizing the Genome

  • 1. DIYgenomics: An Open Platform for Democratizing the Genome Melanie Swan, MBA Founder DIYgenomics +1-650-681-9482 @DIYgenomics www.DIYgenomics.org [email_address] March 7, 2011, San Francisco CA Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Personal genome apps Crowd-sourced clinical trials
  • 2. Agenda Introduction Application of personal genomic data Patient-organized genomic studies Mobile and web apps March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: Getty Images
  • 3. About Melanie Swan Founder, DIYgenomics Hedge fund manager, futurist MBA, Wharton; BA, Georgetown Univ.; Faculty, Singularity University Sample publications Swan, M. Multigenic Condition Risk Assessment in Direct-to-Consumer Genomic Services. Genet. Med. 2010 , May;12(5):279-88. Swan, M. Translational antiaging research. Rejuvenation Res. 2010 , Feb;13(1):115-7. Swan, M. Emerging patient-driven health care models: an examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009 , 2, 492-525. March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org
  • 4. Information transmission eras March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Painting Transistor (1/0) DNA (ACTG) Analog Digital Life code ? 01101 100011011111011101 1 001100101 – I love you 01101 100011011111011101 0 001100101 – I hate you 2010-2100 1950-2010 17,300 years ago
  • 5. DNA sequencing: 10x/yr improvement March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org April 1, 2010 Image credit: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/_img/87/i50/8750cover2_law.gif Dec. 14, 2009
  • 6. Era of 3 rd and 4 th generation sequencing March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org 3 rd Gen: Sequencing by Synthesis 2 nd Gen: Parallelized sequencing 1 st Gen: Sanger Sequencing 4 th Gen: Electronic Sequencing Sources: http://www.genomicseducation.ca/files/images/information_articles/sequencing.gif, http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/News/2009/Features/WTX056032.htm, http://www.pacificbiosciences.com/video_lg.html, http://www.nanoporetech.com/sequences
  • 7. Agenda Introduction Application of personal genomic data Patient-organized genomic studies Mobile and web apps March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: Getty Images
  • 8. Numerous useful applications of genomics Traditional Ancestry Carrier status Identity (paternity, forensics) Maturing Health condition risk Pharmaceutical response Novel Athletic performance OTC product response Toxin processing Predictive wellness profiling Aging, cancer, immune response, organ health March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://bit.ly/fovpJc
  • 9. Interpreting DNA information March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://123RF.com Example: rs1801133 A G AA , A G , GG Allele, variant, SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism); “typo” in red; normal in green A C G T Example: rs7412 C T CC , C T , TT
  • 10. Personal genome results March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org
  • 11. Example: what to do with your data Check if you have the risk allele for the BDNF gene Determine related SNP/rsID#, rs6265 (neuroplasticity) Search genomic data for rs6265 genotype (e.g., CC) Determine the risk allele (which letter?) (e.g.; G 1 ) Opportunity: genomic database with three minimal fields: gene, rsid# and risk allele Current genomics search resources PharmGKB, dbSNP, GWAS catalog, SNPedia March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/10/genetically-bad-driving 1 Ribeiro, L. et. Al., The brain-derived neurotrophic factor rs6265 (Val66Met) polymorphism and depression in Mexican-Americans. Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience. May 8, 2007.
  • 12. Finding your BDNF data, variant rs6265 March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Consumer genomic services genotype 600,000-1m variants but only map a few up to the annotation browser
  • 13. Agenda Introduction Application of personal genomic data Patient-organized genomic studies Mobile and web apps March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: Getty Images
  • 14. DIYgenomics philosophy March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Goal: preventive medicine Realize preventive medicine by establishing baseline markers of wellness and pre-clinical interventions Generalized hypothesis One or more polymorphisms may result in out-of-bounds baseline levels of phenotypic markers. These levels may be improved through personalized intervention. Source: http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/MTHFR Genotype Phenotype Intervention Outcome + + =
  • 15. DIYgenomics study design template March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/ http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/w/file/36469280/DIYgenomics+study+design+template+blank.doc
  • 16. DIYgenomics study #1: MTHFR Do common mutations in the MTHFR gene prevent vitamin B from working correctly? Test whether 2 variations in the MTHFR gene (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) keep vitamin B9 (folic acid) from being metabolized into its active form (folate) rs1801133/C677T rs1801131/A1298C Without this form of vitamin B, homocysteine may accumulate Risk: nutritional deficiencies and symptoms associated with diabetes complications, including vascular damage and nerve damage 50% or more of the population may have some form of MTHFR polymorphism March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/MTHFR Cyanocobalamin Image credit: http://wikimedia.org
  • 17. Homocysteine metabolism pathway March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: Swan, M., Hathaway, K., Hogg, C., McCauley, R., Vollrath, A. Citizen science genomics as a model for crowdsourced preventive medicine research. J Participat Med. 2010 Dec 23; 2:e20.
  • 18. MTHFR pilot study results March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Drug store vitamin (Centrum) reduced homocysteine levels for 6/7 participants Blood Test # 2. Homocysteine levels DIYgenomics MTHFR Vitamin B deficiency study 1 1. Genotype profiles Baseline LMF Source: Swan, M., Hathaway, K., Hogg, C., McCauley, R., Vollrath, A. Citizen science genomics as a model for crowdsourced preventive medicine research. J Participat Med. 2010 Dec 23; 2:e20. 1 Results are not statistically significant and are intended as a pilot demonstration of patient-organized genomic studies Baseline + LMF Centrum Homocysteine umol/l Centrum LMF = L-methylfolate
  • 19. DIYgenomics studies March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://www.narsad.org/?q=node/11245 Study Status 1. MTHFR/Vitamin B Pilot complete, open enrollment 2. Memory filtering In design (Q1/Q2) 3. Aging Open enrollment 4. Vitamin D In design (Q2) 5. Mental performance In design (Q3) 6. Metabolism/cholesterol mgt In design (Q3) 7. Citizen scientist proposed… Ongoing
  • 20. Memory filtering study March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Dopaminergic modulation of memory filtering Collaboration with the Laboratory of Cognitive Neuro-Rehabilitation, University Hospitals of Geneva IRB and informed consent Goal: 100 member healthy control cohort Genotype: COMT, DRD2, SLC6A3 (~5 SNPs) (neurotransmitter modulation) Phenotype: memory filtering test (24 minutes) and reversal learning task (10 minutes) Background questionnaire: neurological or psychiatric antecedents, medications, demographic information, and IQ (WAIS, Raven’s Matrices) Image credit: http://bit.ly/g2DIcW
  • 21. DIYgenomics aging study Genomics + physical biomarkers + intervention Top twenty genomic mechanisms of aging Aging-specific genetics (IGF signaling, DNA repair, etc.) Diabetes and metabolic disease Catabolism (waste removal) and other Heart disease and blood operations Cancer Top twenty phenotypic biomarkers of aging Interventions Traditional Novel (example: telomerase activation therapies) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org More information: http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/Aging Image credit: http://www-nmr.cabm.rutgers.edu
  • 22. Innovating the research model March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Institutional PI (principal investigator) Traditional Research Model Patient-organized Research Model Research subjects Citizen scientists* Investigators = Participants *Self-selection bias: 100,000 consumer genomics customers Institutional Review Board (IRB) IRBs, FAQs, Citizen ethicists Grant funding Journal publication Self publishing Patient advocacy groups Research foundations Social VC Crowd-sourcing
  • 23. Genomic study platform: Genomera March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org
  • 24. Agenda Introduction Application of personal genomic data Patient-organized genomic studies Mobile and web apps March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: Getty Images
  • 25. 4,000+ mobile app downloads Health condition, drug response, athletic performance 23andMe data upload Android iPhone March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Android development: Michael Kolb, Lawrence S. Wong, Laura Klemme, Melanie Swan iPhone development: Ted Odet, Greg Smith, Laura Klemme, Melanie Swan “ genomics” “ genomics”
  • 26. Multi-view web app with private data upload March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Private data upload: Marat Nepomnyashy; https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/156946
  • 27. Thank you! Melanie Swan Founder DIYgenomics +1-650-681-9482 @DIYgenomics www.DIYgenomics.org [email_address] Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Creative Commons 3.0 license Collaborators: Lorenzo Albanello Cindy Chen John Furber Hong Guo Kristina Hathaway Laura Klemme Priya Kshirsagar Lucymarie Mantese Raymond McCauley Marat Nepomnyashy Ted Odet Roland Parnaso William Reinhardt Greg Smith Aaron Vollrath Lawrence S. Wong International collaborations: JST and Rikengenesis Takashi Kido Minae Kawashima Jin Yamanaka University Hospitals of Geneva Louis Nahum Armin Schnider Personal genome apps Crowd-sourced clinical trials
  • 28. Consumer genomic comparison March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Three companies cover colorectal cancer Different genes and variants are reviewed
  • 29. Drug response March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org
  • 30. Ranking variant quality Background NIH plan to develop a Genetic Testing Registry (2011) Criteria proposed by Ioannidis JP et al. Int J Epidemiol. (2008): amount of evidence, replication, protection from bias Methodology: assign a composite score to each variant per the number of cases and controls, p-value, odds ratio, and journal ranking March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: DIYgenomics Image credit: http://www.evexiscy.com
  • 31. Athletic performance March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://www.istockphoto.com V = number of variants; % = ratio of favorable polymorphisms to total alleles for a sample individual; S = number of studies Source: Swan, M. Applied genomics: personalized interpretation of athletic performance GWAS. 2011 Jan. Submitted. Category Genes V % S Endurance, power, and energy Endurance ACE, ACTN3, ADRB2/ ADRB3, BDKRB2, COL5A1, GNB3 7 50 22 Power ACE, ACTN3, AGT 3 50 8 Energy HIF1A, PPARGC1A 3 25 9 Musculature, and heart and lung capacity Muscle fatigue and repair HNF4A, NAT2 and IL-1B 5 40 4 Strength HFE, HIF1A, IGF1, MSTN GDF8 5 17 15 Heart and lung capacity CREB1, KIF5B, NOS3, NPY and ADRB1, APOE, NRF1 9 36 11 Metabolism, recovery, and other   Metabolism AMPD1, APOA1, PPARA, PPARD 5 50 9 Recovery CKMM/CKM, IL6 2 50 5 Ligament and tendon strength  Ligament strength COL1A1, COL5A1, CILP 3 50 4 Tendon strength COL1A1, COL5A1, GDF5, MMP3 7 63 5
  • 32. OTC product response, toxin processing OTC product response Skin (premature aging, wrinkles, sun damage, eczema, irritation, antioxidant treatment, anti-aging treatment) Hair (hair loss, premature greying, male pattern baldness) Esophagus (reflux, bile acid response) Teeth (periodontitis) Sleep (daytime sleepiness, caffeine-induced insomnia) Environmental exposure: toxin processing Benzene Quinone oxidoreductase PAHs metabolism Arylarene metabolism Mercury and lead exposure Liver and kidney health (general) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: DIYgenomics Image credit: http://sciencephoto.com
  • 33. Predictive wellness profiling: cancer Proto-oncogene/tumor suppressor gene polymorphisms March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: DIYgenomics Image credit: http://utmb.edu TP53: cell cycle arrest, PTEN: cell cycle progression modulator, MYC: cell cycle regulator
  • 34. Lung cancer risk and drug response Risk and drug response for specific cancers March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: Swan, M. Review of cancer risk prediction in direct-to-consumer genomic services. (poster) Canary Foundation Early Detection Symposium, May 25-27, 2010, Stanford University, Stanford CA. Image credit: http://www.xianet.net
  • 35. Wellness profiling: immune system Immune system genomic wellness profiling Immune response: T-cell activation CTLA4, CD226, CD86, IL3 March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Source: DIYgenomics Image credit: http://www.iayork.com CTLA4: T-cell inhibition; IL3: growth-promoting cytokine
  • 36. Aging (genomic markers) Top twenty genomic mechanisms of aging (1,000 variants in DIYgenomics Aging GWAS database) Aging-specific genetics (overall profile, IGF-1/insulin signaling, inflammation, immune system, DNA damage repair, cell cycle, telomere length, mitochondrial health) Diabetes and metabolic disease (cholesterol, obesity, adiposity, fat distribution) Catabolism (waste removal) and other (Alzheimer’s disease, macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, kidney and liver disease) Heart disease and blood operations (cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation) Cancer (profile for twenty cancers including breast, prostate, colorectal, lung, melanoma, glioma, ovarian, pancreatic) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://reisearch.net/biotech_page/dna_horizontal.gif Source: DIYgenomics Aging GWAS Database: http://bit.ly/fDobgO
  • 37. Aging (phenotypic markers) Top twenty phenotypic biomarkers of aging Aging-specific markers (telomere length, lymphocyte regeneration, CD levels, inflammation, hormone levels) Diabetes and metabolic disease (BMI, cholesterol (HDL/LDL/triglycerides; LDL particle size), Framingham Risk Score, fasting glucose, non-fasting glucose, albumin, uric acid) Catabolism and other (VO2 max, bone mineral density, muscle mass, GOT, GPT, creatinine, eGFR) Heart disease and blood operations (blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC, WBC, CRP, platelets, erythrocyte glycoslyation) Cancer (granulocyte strength, blood-assay) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://reisearch.net/biotech_page/dna_horizontal.gif Source: DIYgenomics Aging Study, http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/w/page/30326105/Aging
  • 38. Aging (interventions) Top twenty aging interventions Traditional (exercise, nutrition, sleep, vitamins, stress-reduction) Novel (brain fitness programs and mid-life cholesterol management for Alzheimer’s disease, cholesterol management with CETP-inhibitor a nacetrapib, TA-65 telomerase activation for telomere length management, resistance weight lifting for sarcopenia, interval training and aerobic exercise for VO2 max improvement, blood-based assays for early detection of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, macular degeneration, kidney and liver disease) March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org Image credit: http://reisearch.net/biotech_page/dna_horizontal.gif Source: DIYgenomics Aging Study, http://diygenomics.pbworks.com/w/page/30326105/Aging
  • 39. Would you like to know… … if your vitamin supplements are effective … which vitamin supplements would be effective and best for you … personalized interventionswhat conditions you are at higher genetic susceptibility for and are … your predictive wellness profile for aging, cancer, immune system response March 7, 2011 DIYgenomics.org