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Philosophy of Technology

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Contemporary issues in philosophy of technology: complexity, unthinkability, temporality, and blockchain

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Philosophy of Technology

  1. 1. Prof. David Chalmers NYU, New York NY, Nov 15, 2016 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Philosophy of Technology Melanie Swan Blockchain Theorist Philosophy & Economic Theory New School for Social Research, NY NY melanie@BlockchainStudies.org
  2. 2. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology 1 Melanie Swan  Blockchain Theorist, Philosophy and Economic Theory, New School for Social Research, NY  Founder, Institute for Blockchain Studies  Instructor, Singularity University; Affiliate Scholar, Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technology (IEET); Contributor, EDGE; Advisor FQXi Traditional Markets Background Economic Theory Leadership http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Book: Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy
  3. 3. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Agenda  Contemporary Philosophy of Technology  Historical view and Capacity vs Morphology  Unthinkability  Complexity  Temporality  Overall theme: composable reality  Philosophy of Blockchain 2 One source: recent conferences: HSS: History of Science & Society, PSA: Philosophy of Science Association, SPEP: Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy
  4. 4. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Central Issue in the Contemporary Philosophy of Technology 3 http://www.robotandhwang.com/attorneys/ San Francisco CA law firm Human-Machine Collaboration: How might we develop human- machine collaborations that empower both parties?
  5. 5. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Human-Machine Collaboration  Effectuating an orderly transition to the Automation Economy and Technological Unemployment  “Technological breakthroughs endanger up to 47% of total employment in the US” – Carl Frey, Oxford, 2015  “Endanger jobs” or “invite opportunity”? 4 Source: Book chapter: Swan, M. "Automation Economy: An Abundance Philosophy of Economics" In Surviving the Machine Economy. Eds. Hughes, LaGrandeur, Palgrave Macmillan. 2017.
  6. 6. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology The Prosthetic Relation Extending body and brain into composable reality 5 I. Addition Accepting the foreign into the body Merging body-brain with the foreign Blind man’s cane Extending the reach of the physical body Heart transplant II. Integration III. Synthesis BCI cloudminds Time and space are fixed and immobile Time and space start to become contingent Time and space are fully contingent and composable Melanie Swan, Philosophy, New School, Oct 29, 2016
  7. 7. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Human Integration Relation with Technology 6 1. The Prosthetic Relation 2. The Drone Relation L’Intrus (The Intruder) – Jean-Luc Nancy Théorie du drone (Drone Theory) – Gregoire Chamayou Impoverished relation: roving invisible Panopticon, never safe from unseen eyes Intimate relation: Accepting the foreign into our own body
  8. 8. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology 3. The Data Relation  Cloud, background, crunching away, silent tracking, continuous uploading  Algorithms predicting and defining our preferences  What is our relation? Impoverished: neither side has full mental model of the other (the very basis for conducive interaction with another)  Data models humans as a sketch: purchasing agent not aspirational being  Humans have no way see, grasp or act on big data, it acts on us (drone relation) 7
  9. 9. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology 8 Thinking through the problem of human-machine collaboration in one of the most vulnerable cases: opening brains up to big data in BCI Cloudminds Cloudmind: digitally-linked minds (human or otherwise) in the Internet cloud for integrated processing , collaborative problem- solving, and idea generation. Source: Swan, Melanie. (2016). The Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces: Blockchaining Your Way into a Cloudmind, JET 26(2).
  10. 10. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Brain-Computer Interface applications  A brain-computer interface (BCI) is any technology linking the human brain to a computer  A computational system implanted in the brain that allows a person to control a computer using only brainwaves; for example reading the electrical signals from the brain as a person focuses on a computer screen  Key new functionality of BCIs  24-7 connectivity to the Internet and other minds  Implication: applications such as cloudminds (linked human and machine minds) 9 Source: http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Cochlear-Implant-Frequently-Asked-Questions/
  11. 11. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Short History of Philosophy of Technology Historical Moments 10 Source: Heidegger, M. The Question Concerning Technology, 1954. “Our attunement to technology as an enabling background helps us see the possibilities for the true meaningfulness of our being”  From the farther future how did we get here?  Aristotle: distinguishes between technology and nature  Always-already technological: making tools out of tools  Heidegger: warns of the danger, right-wrong relation  Spinoza: capacity vs morphology
  12. 12. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Spinoza and Conatus 11 Conatus: perseverance as our “vital [life] force” in interacting with the environment we encounter, our “actual essence,” where as individuals, we strive to sustain and increase our power of acting in the world, to “affect and be affected by” Not about what we are (classification); it is about our capacity for action in the world Source: Spinoza, The Collected Works of Spinoza, vol. 1, 1985, Ethics, IVP18S, IVP35c2 Spinoza, Dutch Philosopher 1632-1677
  13. 13. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Short History of Philosophy of Technology Modern Moments  Cybernetics, Systems Theory, French Theorists  George Canguilhem, "Machine and Organism," 1947  Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics, 1948  Gilbert Simondon, On the Mode of Existence of Technical Objects, 1958  Cyborg  Manfred Clynes & Nathan Kline, “Cyborgs and Space,” 1960  Donna Haraway, “A Cyborg Manifesto,” 1985  Kevin Warwick, I, Cyborg, 2002  Posthumanism, Transhumanism  Cary Wolfe, What is Posthumanism?, 2009  Rosi Braidotti, The Posthuman, 2013 12
  14. 14. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Not all Reality is Thinkable  Problem of Unthinkability  Becoming aware of and coming to terms with phenomena that are “bigger” than humans  Features of the world that are outside our perceptual and experiential domains  Existing situations  Quantum physics, black holes, global warming, the Florida everglades, the biosphere, derivatives, capitalism, neuroscience, big data, blockchains  Radically-different future-tech situations  Life extension, digital societies, cloudminds 13
  15. 15. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Thinking Unthinkability 14  Need new models for conceiving the correspondence between internal experience and the external world like radical contingency  Ancestrality (Meillassoux), hyperobjects (Morton), superjects (Hansen), object-oriented ontologies (Harman), black swans and convexification (linear regression) (Taleb)  Result: human existence decentered
  16. 16. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Agenda  Contemporary Philosophy of Technology  Historical view and Capacity vs Morphology  Unthinkability  Complexity  Temporality  Overall theme: composable reality  Philosophy of Blockchain 15 One source: recent conferences: HSS: History of Science & Society, PSA: Philosophy of Science Association, SPEP: Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy
  17. 17. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Systems Theory  Interdisciplinary study of the abstract organization of complex phenomena,  independent of their substance, type, or spatial-temporal scale of existence,  investigating and describing principles common to all complex entities or systems of behavior 16 Source: http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/systheor.html
  18. 18. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Complexity  Systems that are non- linear, dynamic, emergent, open, unknowable at the outset, interdependent, self-organizing 17 Sources: Morin, Edgar. (2007). "Restricted complexity, general complexity." Trans. C. Gershenson. In Worldviews, Science and Us: Philosophy and Complexity, ed. C. Gershenson, D. Aerts, and B. Edmonds, 5–29. World Scientific, Singapore.
  19. 19. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Big Data: Complexity and Machine Learning 18 1. Science and Biology become a math problem 2. Simple Machine Learning algorithms running over large data corpora 3. Deep-learning algorithms: real-time image & video processing, lip-reading transcription, emotion-recognition Sources: http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.6209, http://karpathy.github.io
  20. 20. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Complexity and Big Data Analytics 19 Source: https://medium.com/@akelleh/if-correlation-doesnt-imply-causation-then-what-does-c74f20d26438#.mrmot5t7t  Contemporary era: Algorithmic reality, big data, machine learning analytics  Similar goals in causal analysis frameworks  Whether structural equation modeling, causal graphical models, potential outcomes…  ...mindset shift from Causality to Predictability
  21. 21. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Relational Processes  Beyond the morphology-capacity binary  The relations between entities, and the effects produced by interactions are more relevant than the underlying substance, morphology, or classification  Relational Ontology (Barad): replace agential realist conceptions of causality  Process Philosophy (Alfred North Whitehead): substance is temporary patterns produced by processes  Assemblages (Deleuze and Guattari)  Fusion of horizons (Gadamer) 20 Source: Barad, K. (2003). Posthumanist Performativity
  22. 22. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Agenda  Contemporary Philosophy of Technology  Historical view and Capacity vs Morphology  Unthinkability  Complexity  Temporality  Overall theme: composable reality  Philosophy of Blockchain 21 One source: recent conferences: HSS: History of Science & Society, PSA: Philosophy of Science Association, SPEP: Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy
  23. 23. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Humans and machines are running different temporality paradigms  Human-time  Continuous flow of physics-biology time  Compute-time: computing clocktime eras 1. General: time becomes stoppable and malleable 2. Machine learning/big data temporality: time becomes future-addressable  All human and natural patterns modeled  Shifts focus from reactive response to proactive attending to the real-time present and future 3. Blocktime: time becomes future-assignable, future-creatable with blockchain-based smart contracts 22
  24. 24. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Inspiration: Light’s Wave-Particle Duality  The first ever photograph of light as both a particle and wave (Mar 2015)  Light's wave-particle duality imaged in physical reality for the first time  Schrödinger's cat: dead or alive? 23 Source: http://phys.org/news/2015-03-particle.html, http://actu.epfl.ch/news/the-first-ever-photograph-of-light-as-both-a-parti The bottom 'slice' of the image shows the particles, while the top image shows light as a wave Particle Wave
  25. 25. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology 24 1. Retention 1. Protention Present Now Primal Impression 2. Recollection (Discrete) (Discrete) A middle kind of time: time as a ‘raw material’ existing uncollapsed as simultaneously discrete and continuous; a snapshot and a flow (like light as a superposition of a particle and a wave); a perdurant khôra-spacing; time is an uncollapsed raw material until deployed into a specific situation Adds to our conceptual model of time (Continuous) (Continuous) Husserl’s Internal Time Consciousness Adding a New Kind of Time Husserl’s Missing Middle Third time term 3. X-tention 3. X-tention 2. Expectation (Discrete and Continuous) (Discrete and Continuous) Source: Extended from Husserl, Edmund. (1991, 1964). On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time (1893-1917). Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht NL. Past Future
  26. 26. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Composability of Physical Time  Information Theory  Formulate spacetime as simultaneously discrete and continuous (Shannon’s sampling)  Time and matter are composable at small scales  Matter at the atomic scale (1×10−9) via positional nanoassembly (actual)  Possibly time and matter at the Planck scale (1×10−35) via Lego- like time fabric bricks (loop quantum gravity) (theoretical) 25 Source: http://www.dedoimedo.com/physics/what-is-time.html, Kempf, Achim. (2010). “Spacetime could be simultaneously continuous and discrete, in the same way that information can be.” New Journal of Physics. 12. Atomic-scale Positional Nanoassembly of Matter Planck-scale ‘Lego-like’ Assembly of Spacetime
  27. 27. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Future Temporalities  Radically-different situations  Life extension, digital societies, cloudminds  Temporality and spatiality have been the fundamental organizing parameter in the physical world but less relevant in digital situations  Example: “location” not among 20 features in WoW event-recording software Prat  Need new models for correspondence between internal mind/experience and external objects  Meillassoux: conceptual grounds for the necessary contingency of reality 26 Source: WoW = World of Warcraft http://www.wowace.com/addons/prat-3-0
  28. 28. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology “More time” Parallelism Argument  Conjecture: make more time  Any compute-time creates a differential with human-time  Since there are multiple time regimes, one can experience “more time” by accessing events in other time trajectories  History is a form of time parallelism  Time parallelism already exists via history where we access events pre-dating and existing outside of our own direct experience of time as individuals 27 Source: Carr, D. (2014). Experience and History: Phenomenological Perspectives on the Historical World.
  29. 29. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology More philosophical questions raised…  Do we need “more time”?  How can we experience the benefit and meaning of more time and alternative time trajectories?  How to integrate myriad subjective time regimes and event trajectories?  Moore’s Law for time?  Limits of computational complexity and time? 28
  30. 30. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Temporality Thesis Statement 29 A concept of temporality is needed that is adequate to the future; a model that has an open possibility space for both the form and content of time; that is multiple and complex; discrete and continuous; and integrates the unstoppable flow of physics and biology human-time with manipulable compute-time
  31. 31. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Agenda  Contemporary Philosophy of Technology  Historical view and Capacity vs Morphology  Unthinkability  Complexity  Temporality  Overall theme: composable reality  Philosophy of Blockchain 30 One source: recent conferences: HSS: History of Science & Society, PSA: Philosophy of Science Association, SPEP: Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy
  32. 32. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain 31 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  33. 33. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Thesis Statement Blockchain: a Singularity-class technology  No other technology has the power to… 1. …uplift 2 billion people out of poverty overnight  intermediary-free international remittance 2. …produce a safe and orderly transition to the automation economy  humans and machines in collaboration, friendly artificial intelligence enacted 3. …fundamentally transform the only remaining sectors not yet re- engineered for the Internet era: economics and politics 32 Source: Blockchain Singularities :http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-singularities-65443340
  34. 34. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Agenda I. Blockchain technology: What is it?  Automation economy II. Singularity-class applications  Farther-future  Friendly AI  Bio-cryptoeconomy  Nanotech/Synbio  Blockchains in Space  Nearer-term  Financial services, Energy, Logistics  IOT, Health, Economic Development III. Conclusion: our Singularity futures 33
  35. 35. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain Technology: What is it? 34  Blockchain technology is the secure distributed ledger software that underlies cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin  “Internet of Money” leapfrog technology; Skype is an app allowing phone calls via Internet without POTS; Bitcoin is an app allowing money transfer via Internet without banks; ‘decentralized Paypal’ Internet (decentralized network) Blockchain Bitcoin Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Application Layer Protocol Layer Infrastructure Layer SMTP Email VoIP Phone calls OSI Protocol Stack:
  36. 36. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain (not Bitcoin) is the revolution 35  Internet phase transitions  Phase I: transfer information  Modernize publishing, books, music, news, information  Phase 2: transfer value (money, property)  Modernize of economics and finance  Providing the digital payments layer the Internet never had  Instantiating the qualitative good of trust in the infrastructure Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491
  37. 37. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Smartnetwork vision Pushing more complexity through the Internet pipes 36 Information Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Sci-fi inspiration: Accelerando, Lady of Mazes, Blindsight, The Golden Age, Glasshouse Confirmation of Automated Distribution of Transfer of  Growing classes of activities for smartnetwork execution  I: Information; II: Money, finance, economics; energy; supply chain, logistics, transportation; health; IOT; III: identity, preference, intangible resources Value Identity Preference Registration of 20161990 2025e 2050e 2075e Automated Propagation of Voting Policy Opinion Participation GBI Energy Trust Autonomy Recognition Economics Politics Ideas Health Collaboration opportunities Instantiation Upload integrity Smart- resources Smart- currencies 2090e Internet Smartnetwork
  38. 38. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology 37 Currency Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491 Property: Assets Inventory Securities: stocks, bonds, government issue, futures and options, FX contracts Hard assets: cars, houses, global supply chain, medical inventories; Intangible assets: IP Money, digital payments, remittance Programmable smartmoney Fundamental enabling infrastructure Economics Governance & Legal Services Global-scale projects Politics Singularity All contractual arrangements Blockchain’s vast reach beyond currency Financial instruments: mortgage, loans Million-person genome banks, supply chain management, autonomous driving fleets Voting, identity, citizenship, civic services Legal documents, contracts, wills, agreements
  39. 39. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Why is it called blockchain? Blockchain: a chain of transaction blocks  Every 10 minutes, the latest block of submitted transactions is validated (by cryptographic mining) and posted to a single distributed ledger  Each new block of transactions calls the last block, so that the transactions are chained together sequentially, hence the word blockchain 38 Source: Satoshi Nakamoto whitepaper: https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf, https://blockexplorer.com
  40. 40. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Permissioned (identity-known) and Permissionless (anonymous) Ledgers 39 Source: Swan, M. Blockchain Consensus Protocols. http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-consensus-protocols extended from: Swanson, T. (2015). Consensus as a service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems New car: Enduser freedom • Censorship-resistant • ‘Brave new world’ apps • Anonymous validators (network vulnerable to anonymous attack) Better horse: Enterprise efficiency • Identity-confirmed • ‘Reinvent the existing world’ improvement apps • Official legal registry Stellar
  41. 41. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain crucial for the Singularity-class project: Financial Inclusion  Just as the Printing Press and the Internet flattened access to communicating information...  …blockchains are giving the power of the printing press to banking, credit, and money  Access to economic and financial systems (credit) as a basic human right (4 billion under-banked)  Long-tail economics: eBay of money  Blockcerts, digital academic certifications, MIT Media Lab 40 Source: http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/mit-media-lab-releases-blockcerts-blockchain-credential-brian-ahier
  42. 42. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Issue: hierarchy is not scalable 41 Sources: What is Decentralization? http://futurememes.blogspot.com/search?q=datt.co, http://blog.midem.com/2016/04/blockchain-broken-music-industry/  Blockchains are a form of trust-making technology  A system of checks and balances that is universal and planetary-scale (Kardashev-level)  New tiers of scalability are needed  Million-genome repositories (largest is 3700 currently), connectome databases to reveal brain structure
  43. 43. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Smartnetwork theme: design Optimality  Optimal mix of centralized and decentralized models  Rethinking Coase’s firm size  Manufacturing reorganization per electricity; industries rethought per decentralized networks  Tighter supply chain integration  Complexity design principles  Decentralization here to stay  Proven decentralized scalability paradigm: Internet  Bitcoin, blockchain, decentralization 42 Sources: Coase, RH, The Nature of The Firm, 1937, http://www3.nccu.edu.tw/~jsfeng/CPEC11.pdf Decentralization Blockchain Bitcoin
  44. 44. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain Economics and Finance Apparatus for constituting the present and the future 43 Bitcoin, Crypto-currencies Smart Contracts Economics Finance Spot, Cash Market Futures, Options Market Present Future Source: http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-payment-systems, http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-financial- networks, http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-temporality-smart-contract-timespecifiability-with-blocktime Real-time payments Utility Settlement Coin (USC) (8/24/16) Temporality Regime
  45. 45. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Decentralized Economics and Finance Current mode is one kind of system for organizing access to resources 44 The organizing assumption of economic systems has been scarcity; an orientation to the production and distribution of scarce material goods. This no longer holds in an era of digital services, non-rival goods, and complementarity Mindset Shifts: 1. Scarcity to Abundance 2. Labor to Fulfillment 3. Hierarchy to Decentralization The organizing assumption of financial systems has been the control or at least prediction of the future value of assets and liabilities; finance = credit (credit is really about trust). Also no longer holding. Mindset Shifts: 1. Access instead of Ownership 2. Topological Ranges instead of Point Values 3. Assurity instead of Insufficiency Sources: http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2016/09/defining-blockchain-economy-what-is.html and New Economies and Finance at the New School: http://blockchainstudies.org/NSNE.pdf Economics Finance Present FutureTemporality Regime
  46. 46. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Agenda I. Blockchain technology: What is it?  Automation economy II. Singularity-class applications  Farther-future  Friendly AI  Bio-cryptoeconomy  Nanotech/Synbio  Blockchains in Space  Nearer-term  Financial services, Energy, Logistics  IOT, Health, Economic Development III. Conclusion: our Singularity futures 45
  47. 47. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Singularity-class Problems (Kardashev-scale; impact 1 billion people within 10 years) 46  Artificial Intelligence and deep learning  Friendly AI and “What is consciousness?”  Multi-species intelligence  BCI cloudmind collaborations (>1 thinking)  Virtual reality  Integrating virtual and physical reality  Nanotechnology and synthetic biology  Space settlement  Automation economy  Autonomous driving  Medical nanorobotics  Manufacturing and social robotics Source: Blockchain Singularities :http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-singularities-65443340 BCI: brain computer interface
  48. 48. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Argument: Blockchain can help all Singularity-class Problems 47 Source: Blockchain Singularities :http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-singularities-65443340  Any significant future operation running on digital smartnetworks, needing coordination  Blockchain properties  Secure, trackable, automated coordination of large-scale projects with many items  Automated system of checks and balances; all transactions must confirm via smartnetwork  Moves any sort of quantized/unitized packets on the smartnetwork: energy, cars, synapse firings  Fleet management  Autonomous vehicles, IOT sensors, social robotics, synaptic connections, deep-learners, medical nanorobots, planet terraformers, synbio agents, environmental cleanup bots
  49. 49. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain AI Apps Enact Friendly AI (Artificial Intelligence) 48  Digital intelligences running on consensus-managed smartnetworks  Not in isolation  Good reputational standing required to conduct operations  Transactions to access resources (like fund-raising), provide services, enter into contracts, retire  Smartnetwork consensus only validates and records bonafide transactions from ‘good’ agents Sources: http://cointelegraph.com/news/113368/blockchain-ai-5-top-reasons-the-blockchain-will-deliver-friendly-ai, http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/swan20141117
  50. 50. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Basic Application Deep-thinkers Registry  Register deep learners with blockchains  Tracking  Security  Remuneration  Examples  Autonomous lab robots  On-chain IP discovery tracking  Roving agricultural bots  Manufacturing bots  Intelligent gaming  Go-playing algorithms 49 Source: Swan, M. Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC. Neural Turing Machines: https://arxiv.org/abs/1410.5401. IPFS (Benet): https://medium.com/@ConsenSys/an-introduction-to-ipfs-9bba4860abd0#.bgig18cgp
  51. 51. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Advanced Application BCI Cloudminds and Chainbrains  Cloudmind: cloud-based thinking entity, comprised of >1 brains  Problem: Safe collaboration of minds  Joining a cloudmind collaboration, blockchains (cryptographic ledgers) to administer cloudminds  Line-item tracking and credit- assignation (like Github, or SVN/CVS for brainstorming)  Privacy, security, remuneration  Protect against personal identity loss and absorption into a groupmind 50 Source: http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-cloudminds-humanmachine-pooledmind-dacs; Mind’ is generally denoting an entity with some capacity for processing, not the volitionary action and free will of a consciousness agent
  52. 52. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Nanotech Grey Goo and runaway Synbio 51 Source: Blockchain Singularities :http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-singularities-65443340  Worry: Grey Goo (unchecked nanotech proliferation), DNA- printed synthetic bio-plague  Science fiction examples: Blood Music, Prey  Solution: signing logged to blockchains  As physical-world engineers sign the bridges they build, likewise synbio engineers sign DNA and nanotech designs  Unavoidable “signing” per detectable origins
  53. 53. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology  Medical nanorobotics as the coming- onboard repair platform for the human body  Vision: a nanorobot in every cell  Bio-Nano Repair DACs  DAC: Decentralized Autonomous Corporation (packages of smart contracts)  Bio-cryptoeconomic principles  High number of agents and “transactions”  Secure automation is obvious requirement  Bio-Nano Repair DACs for secure, trackable automation and coordination of medical nanorobotics for cellular repair 52 Sources: Bio-Cryptoeconomy: Nanorobotic DACs for Cell Repair and Enhancement http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2016/08/bio-cryptoeconomy-nanorobotic-dacs-for.html Bio-cryptoeconomy Medical nanorobotic DACs to coordinate cell repair
  54. 54. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Spacechains: Blockchains in Space 53 Source: Blockchain Singularities :http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-singularities-65443340  Advances in space  Launch: microsats, small rockets, commercial launch (reusability, rocket design), regular Mars launches planned each 26 months with large-cargo drops, communications networks,  Light sail and optical propulsion  Asteroid mining, space settlement, transport  Exoplanet discovery in habitable zones (Alpha Centauri, TRAPPIST-1)  Singularity-class blockchain functionality  Secure, trackable, automated coordination of high numericity and dimensionality at scale  Autonomous entities, Bitsat backup network
  55. 55. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchains and Singularity-class Problems  Argument: smartnetworks thesis that complex future operations will involve automated coordination via smartnetworks, using some kind of technology like blockchains  Blockchain smartnetwork properties:  Asset registry and fleet coordination of items (registry, ownership and transfer of “quantized” units)  Security  Trackability  Automation  Coordination 54 Source: Blockchain Singularities :http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-singularities-65443340
  56. 56. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Crypto-Enlightenment 55 “One ought to think autonomously, free of the dictates of external authority” - Immanuel Kant Kant, I. "Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?" (German: Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?). 1784.
  57. 57. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology  Level 1: the new literacy: digital literacy  Manage private key access  Back-up your money  Manage digital identity, EMR health wallet  Level 2: self-authority taking  Designing personalized long-tail economic, political, and social systems  Civic project participations (P2P micropolis), provide peergrid resources Digital Cryptocitizen Sensibility 56 Source: Swan, M. Crypto Enlightenment: A Social Theory of Blockchains http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/the-crypto- enlightenment-social-theory-of-blockchains; EMR: electronic medical record; P2P: peer-to-peer Sense of duty in serving the republic Civic Duty Civic Collaboration Greek Statesman Cryptocitizen Sense of meaning in sustaining community
  58. 58. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Agenda I. Blockchain technology: What is it?  Automation economy II. Singularity-class applications  Farther-future  Friendly AI  Bio-cryptoeconomy  Nanotech/Synbio  Blockchains in Space  Nearer-term  Financial services, Energy, Logistics  IOT, Health, Economic Development III. Conclusion: our Singularity futures 57
  59. 59. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Financial Services  Distributed ledger  Instant transaction validation  Settlement, clearing, audit  Simpler, more secure, less expensive financial services  Use case applications  Industry-wide collaboration  Securities asset registries  Value chain efficiency: custody, titling, insurance  Financial-inclusion addressable market  Digital identity, banking 58 Source: https://www.cbinsights.com/blog/financial-services-corporate-blockchain-investments
  60. 60. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Energy grid smartnetworks  Concept: the power grid of every continent is an energy Internet  “Quantized units” are energy: kWh/kWm  Use case applications  Automatic markets: off-hour and lowest cost demand fulfillment  Smart grid management  Energy price and trade validation  Resource self-pricing  Source fungibility: wind, solar power  P2P microgrid infrastructure 59 Sources: Rifkin, J. The Zero Marginal Cost Society; https://www.newscientist.com/article/2079334-blockchain-based- microgrid-gives-power-to-consumers-in-new-york/ Cryptosustainability Micropolis Example: Peer-to-peer Microgrids
  61. 61. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Supply chain & logistics grid smartnetworks  Tamper-proof record-keeping  Register assets and inventory  Assure provenance, custody  Track quantity and transfer of assets (pallets, trailers, containers) moving through supply chain nodes  Track purchase orders, change orders, receipts, shipment notifications  Assign and verify custody and product certification  Link physical goods to serial numbers, bar codes, RFID tags  Virtual reality rapid simulation and event-history keeping (>transactions) 60
  62. 62. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Autonomous Driving  Fleet coordination of “quantized units” of km/miles and vehicles  Autonomous passenger cars  Singapore self-driving taxis - 8/24/16  Uber’s first self-driving fleet arrives in Pittsburgh – Aug 2016  Commercial trucking  “Autonomous Driving Long-Distance Trucks within Ten Years” - 2014 61 Source: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/aug/25/hail-progress-singapore-launches-worlds-first-self-driving-taxi- service, http://truckyeah.jalopnik.com/autonomous-driving-long-distance-trucks-will-be-a-reali-1603746933 http://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2016-08-18/uber-s-first-self-driving-fleet-arrives-in-pittsburgh-this-month-is06r7on
  63. 63. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain IOT 62 Sources: http://www.zdnet.com/article/internet-of-things-market-to-hit-7-1-trillion-by-2020-idc/, http://www.amazon.com/Bitcoin-Blueprint-New-World-Currency/dp/1491920491  Blockchain-based IOT connected objects  M2M/IOT Bitcoin payment network to enable the machine economy  IOT 2020: 26 bn devices in a $7 tn market  The economic layer the web never had  Smarthome IOT networks  Self-mining ecologies  Privacy orchestration: devices, robotics, digital personal health assistants  Blockchains: economic principle-driven large-scale resource allocation and coordination mechanism Smartcity Connected Car Coordination Smarthome IOT and Personal Robotics Coordination
  64. 64. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain Social Robotics  Personal voice assistants, social robotics  Implication: voice interfaces, all apps become voice-activated and interactive; “My Dad, the App”  Requirements: security, financial transactability, liability tracking  Cross-cloud interconnection (IOT smarthome, connected car, smartcity)  Fleet coordination functionality  Automated, secure, tracking/logging, remuneration, transaction coordination, apps/processes (smart contracts), coordination (updates), audit log 63 Source: Swan, M. Philosophy of Social Robotics: Abundance Economics. Sociorobotics, 2016. http://www.melanieswan.com/documents/SocialRobotics.pdf.
  65. 65. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology 1. EMRs (electronic medical records)  Personal health record access and administration  Users key-permission doctors into records 2. Health insurance billing chains  Blockchain-based health insurance claims processing: automated proof of identity and insurance; claims payment  Enable ahead of time service price-quoting 3. Digital health wallet  Private key identity + EMR (medications) + health insurance info + payment data + basic income health plan administration  Doctor vendor RFP services; preventive longevity treatments 4. Health Data Research Commons  Biobanks, QS (DNA.bits), genome and connectome files 64 Source: http://futurememes.blogspot.fr/2014/09/blockchain-health-remunerative-health.html Blockchain Health
  66. 66. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology 65
  67. 67. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Bitcoin MOOCs Long-tail of learning  Blockchain-based “Kiva for literacy”  Long-tail peer-to-peer learning contracts  Literacy beyond reading  Technical, agricultural, vocational literacy  Blockchain-based personal development contracts  QS-biometric utility function imputation and tracking  Maslow chains, subjectivation and actualization chains  Development Economics 2.0: CoinDrops  Literacy contracts, remittances, blockchain-tracked aid, microcredit, decentralized credit bureaus  Open-source FICO scores  Peer-vouched reputation 66
  68. 68. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Politics: Legal services and Governance 67  High impact, low current activity  Local government RFPs for title registries  Legal services: IP, contract registry, attestation  Register contracts, agreements, wills, IP  Functionality: hash + timestamp + blockchain record  Voting: electronic ballot, identity confirmation  Futarchy, delegative democracy, random sample elections  Opt-in personalized governance services  Composting vs education; digital identity system, voting, dispute resolution, basic income distribution, public document registry  Blockchain weddings (Bitcoin, Ethereum) Sources: http://merkle.com/papers/DAOdemocracyDraft.pdf, http://www.proofofexistence.com/, https://bitnation.co/ , World’s First Blockchain Marriage: David Mondrus and Joyce Bayo, 10/5/14, ConsenSys wedding : Kim Jackson and Zach LeBeau, 11/2/15
  69. 69. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Agenda I. Blockchain technology: What is it?  Automation economy II. Singularity-class applications  Farther-future  Friendly AI  Bio-cryptoeconomy  Nanotech/Synbio  Blockchains in Space  Nearer-term  Financial services, Energy, Logistics  IOT, Health, Economic Development III. Conclusion: our Singularity futures 68
  70. 70. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Blockchain downside and risks? ISSUE 69 Satoshi Roundtable #3: Scaling Bitcoin Milan Oct 8-9, 2016 Hacking Scandals Mt Gox, Ethereum DAO, Bitfinex Silk Road, drug dealers, terrorists, criminals Scalability, evolution Block size, sidechains Mining Centralization RESPONSE Centralization temporary; wide-spread at higher- scale; move to 16 nm, solar/hydro-powered chips Building resilient system constantly under open attack 24/7 (remember early Internet DNS attacks) Blockchains are a universal technology available to all; non-criminal activity predominates Early Internet: “this will never scale, insecure, not resilient;” Yahoo, AltaVista down for days due to DNS attacks Source: http://www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-scaling-conference-italy Technology Risk Perception Risk Regulatory Risk, Economic Risk National government regulation, bans Governments modernizing economic infrastructure with blockchains too; licensing, open dialogue
  71. 71. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Thesis Statement Blockchain: a Singularity-class technology  No other technology has the power to… 1. …uplift 2 billion people out of poverty overnight  intermediary-free international remittances 2. …produce a safe and orderly transition to the automation economy  humans and machines in collaboration, friendly artificial intelligence enacted 3. …fundamentally transform the only remaining sectors not yet re- engineered for the Internet era: economics and politics 70 Source: Blockchain Singularities :http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/blockchain-singularities-65443340
  72. 72. Nov 15, 2016 Philosophy of Technology Decentralized Economics and Finance Blockchain academic collaboration  New Economies and Finance at the New School  Mission statement: http://blockchainstudies.org/NSNE.pdf  Join: https://www.facebook.com/groups/NewEconomies  CFPs: books, special journal issues, conferences  Decentralized Blockchain Economics and Finance  http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2016/09/defining-blockchain- economy-what-is.html  “Blockchain Philosophy” 4,000 words, Wiley and Sons, Metaphilosophy  http://blockchainstudies.org/Metaphilosophy_CFP.pdf  Events: NY and CA  Rethink/ECONOMICS, Thursday, September 15, 7-9 pm  http://www.meetup.com/NYC_Ethereum/events/233643675/ 71 Sources: http://blockchainstudies.org and http://blockchainstudies.org/NSNE.pdf
  73. 73. Prof. David Chalmers NYU, New York NY, Nov 15, 2016 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Philosophy of Technology Melanie Swan Blockchain Theorist Philosophy & Economic Theory New School for Social Research, NY NY melanie@BlockchainStudies.org Thank You! Questions?

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