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- 1. Philosophy-aided Physics At the Boundary of Quantum-Classical Reality Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World Estes Park CO 9 Jul 2022 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan, PhD University College London History is “the slaughter-bench at which the happiness of peoples, the wisdom of states, and the virtue of individuals have been victimized” - Hegel, The Philosophy of History, 35
- 2. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality 1 Thesis 1. the time series is of crucial importance in physical reality, understood through philosophy and physics, for identifying and integrating divergent scales 2. intelligent exoplanetary life, if found, may be in the form of a Hegelian self-knowing time series A philosophy-aided physics approach suggests that foundational conceptualizations of time and space contribute to the resolution of truth and knowledge (appearance vs reality) problems at the quantum-classical boundary and provide conceptual resources for problem- solving in social philosophy (through formulations of difference), with the implications that
- 3. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Agenda Quantum: What, Why, Status Truth and Knowledge Kant and Time The Self-knowing Time Series Conclusion 2
- 4. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Space: We are Here~! 3 Source: Tully, R.B., Courtois, H., Hoffman, Y. & Pomarede, D. (2014). The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies. Nature. 513(7516):71. Distribution of Galaxies Location of the Milky Way Galaxy (Virgo Supercluster) within the Laniakea Supercluster Decentered in the supercluster, the local group, the galaxy, and the solar system Laniakea Supercluster Milky Way Galaxy Novel method: analyze relative velocities of galaxies as watershed divides (turbulence)
- 5. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Time: seeing farther back into the Big Bang 4 Source: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/content/about/comparisonWebbVsHubble.html Hubble (HST) can see “toddler galaxies” Webb (JWST) can see “baby galaxies” 6.25x larger collecting area than Hubble James Webb Space Telescope (launched Dec 2021) “See” farther back in time with infrared spectrum
- 6. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Other Potential Life: 5,059+ exoplanets discovered (Jun 2022) NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Over 800 have more than one planet 5 Source: https://www.jwst.nasa.gov/content/about/comparisonWebbVsHubble.html Atmosphere, volcanism, sun-planet relation Habitable zone (CHON carbon-hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen)
- 7. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality 3 physical theories describe reality 6 Quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, general relativity Quantum effects visible at 10-9 m Relativistic effects present at any speed (matter of precision) Scale Measure Comments 1 5.1 x 1096 Planck density Kg/Meter3 Density of the universe immediately after the Big Bang 2 1 x 1080 Particles Total particles in the observable universe (est.) 3 1 x 1014 Cells Cells in the human body (9 out of 10 are bacteria) 4 8 x 1010 Stars Number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy (est.) 5 1 x 102 Meter Earth Earth’s atmosphere: 10,000 ft life support, 62 mi to space 6 1 x 101 Meter Human Human-scale: Classical Mechanics 7 1 x 10-9 Nanometer Atoms Quantum mechanics (nanotechnology) 8 1 x 10-12 Picometer Ions, photons Optics, photonics 9 1 x 10-15 Femtometer Subatomic Gauge theories 10 1 x 10-35 Planck scale Meters Smallest known length scale 11 5.4 x 10-44 Planck time Seconds Shortest meaningful interval of time Source: The Universe by Numbers. https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/numbers.html Physical Theories Large-scale: General Relativity (GR) Small-scale: Quantum Mechanics (QM) Human-scale: Classical Mechanics
- 8. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Large and small scales 7 Human-scale is an anomaly in the scales of the very-large and the very-small Scale Measure Comments 1 5.1 x 1096 Planck density Kg/Meter3 Density of the universe immediately after the Big Bang 2 1 x 1080 Particles Total particles in the observable universe (est.) 3 1 x 1014 Cells Cells in the human body (9 out of 10 are bacteria) 4 8 x 1010 Stars Number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy (est.) 5 1 x 102 Meter Earth Earth’s atmosphere: 10,000 ft life support, 62 mi to space 6 1 x 101 Meter Human Human-scale: Classical Mechanics 7 1 x 10-9 Nanometer Atoms Quantum mechanics (nanotechnology) 8 1 x 10-12 Picometer Ions, photons Optics, photonics 9 1 x 10-15 Femtometer Subatomic Gauge theories 10 1 x 10-35 Planck scale Meters Smallest known length scale 11 5.4 x 10-44 Planck time Seconds Shortest meaningful interval of time Source: The Universe by Numbers. https://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/numbers.html
- 9. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality The outlier is the human scale 8 The very big: General Relativity (GR) Human-scale: Classical Mechanics The very small: Quantum Mechanics (QM) Quantum effects: 10-9 m and below Relativistic effects: at any speed (measurement context is relevant) Known scales are mostly much bigger and much smaller than human scale Classical mechanics is the outlier in the middle Strange pinching in at the scale of classical mechanics
- 10. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Decenterings of the Human 1. Copernican Turn (1543) Earth revolves around the sun 2. Kant’s Copernican Revolution in Philosophy (1781) Objects conform to our spatial and temporal cognition (B xvi) 3. Freud: psyche comprised of ego, super-ego, id (1923) Post-colonialism/Feminism: white male decentered Plant intelligence and communication (“wood wide web”) Animal intelligence, communication, emotionality Tree of life: bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes Earth+ resources: steward not exploit Scale decentering: human-scale in quantum-classical-relativistic physical reality 9
- 11. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Quantum scale 10 QCD: Quantum Chromodynamics Subatomic particles Matter particles: fermions (quarks) Force particles: bosons (gluons) Scale Entities Physical Theory 1 1 x101 m Meter Humans Newtonian mechanics 2 1 x10-9 m Nanometer Atoms Quantum mechanics (nanotechnology) 3 1 x10-12 m Picometer Ions, photons Optics, photonics 4 1 x10-15 m Femtometer Subatomic particles QCD/gauge theories 5 1 x10-35 m Planck scale Planck length Planck scale Atoms Quantum objects: atoms, ions, photons “Quantum” = anything at the scale of atomic and subatomic particles (10-9 to 10-15) Theme: ability to study and manipulate physical reality at smaller scales Study phenomena (e.g. neurons) in the native 3D structure of physical reality
- 12. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Quantum computing 11 Scale 2 1 x10-9 m Nanometer 3 1 x10-12 m Picometer 4 1 x10-15 m Femtometer Quantum computing Hold all combinations of a problem in superposition simultaneously 10 quantum bits hold 1,024 (210) different numbers simultaneously Process all possible solutions simultaneously, use quantum effects Classical computing Hold one permutation at a time Process sequentially, at the nanoscale, suppress not exploit quantum effects Bloch sphere: 3D particle movement in X, Y, Z directions Particle exists in all positions until collapsed in measurement Quantum Computing: physical systems comprised of quantum objects (atoms, ions, photons) manipulated through logic gates Quantum Computing (3D complex- valued qubits) Classical Computing (0/1 bits) Quantum computing Classical computing
- 13. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Status Quantum computing is available via cloud services 12 Sources: Company press releases, QCWare, Preskill, J. (2021). Quantum computing 40 years later. arXiv:2106.10522, https://amitray.com/roadmap-for-1000-qubits-fault-tolerant-quantum-computers https://arstechnica.com/science/2021/11/ibm-clears-the-100-qubit-mark-with-its-new-processor Era Organization Qubit Method # Qubits Status 1 IBM, academia (factor the number 15) NMR, optical, solid-state superconducting 4-7 Demo (2001-2012) 2a IBM (Almaden CA) Superconducting (gate model) 127 Available (Nov 2021) 2b D-Wave Systems (Vancouver BC) Superconducting (quantum annealing) 2048 Available (May 2019) 2c Rigetti Computing (Berkeley CA) Superconducting (gate model) 80 Available (Dec 2021) 2d IonQ (College Park MD) Trapped Ions 32 Available (Sep 2021) 2c Google (Mountain View CA) Superconducting (gate model) 53 (72) Backend: Google cloud 2e Microsoft (Santa Barbara CA) Majorana Fermions Unknown Backend: Azure cloud 3 Technical breakthrough needed Universal quantum computing 1 million Hypothetical future Quantum error correction needed to scale to million-qubit machines Current platforms: NISQ (noisy intermediate- scale quantum) devices without error correction Future platforms: error-corrected FTQC (fault- tolerant quantum computing) Few-qubit (2000s) –> 100-qubit (2021) –> million-qubit general computing (error-correct breakthrough needed)
- 14. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Future of quantum computing Technology is notoriously difficult to predict “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers” - Watson, IBM CEO, 1943 13 Source: Strohmeyer, R. (2008). The 7 Worst Tech Predictions of All Time. PCWorld. D-Wave Systems 10-feet tall, $15m Current: Ytterbium- 171 isotopes at 1 Kelvin (-458°F) Actual room- temperature superconductors: ?? 70 years IBM quantum experience
- 15. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Quantum Studies in the Academy 14 Digital Accompaniment Arts Sciences Quantum Accompaniment computational astronomy, computational biology Digital Humanities (literature & painting analysis, computational philosophy1) Quantum Humanities quantum chemistry, quantum finance, quantum biology, quantum ecology Apply quantum methods to study field-specific problems e.g. quantum machine learning Apply data science methods to study field-specific problems e.g. machine learning Data science institutes now including quantum What are Digital Humanities / Quantum Humanities? 1. Apply digital/quantum methods to research questions 2. Find digital/quantum examples in field subject matter (e.g. quantum mechanical formulations in Shakespeare) 3. Open new investigations per digital/quantum conceptualizations Sources: Miranda, E.R. (2022). Quantum Computing in the Arts and Humanities. London: Springer. Barzen, J. & Leymann, F. (2020). Quantum Humanities: A First Use Case for Quantum Machine Learning in Media Science. Digitale Welt. 4:102-103. 1Example of computational philosophy: investigate formal axiomatic metaphysics with an automated reasoning environment Big Data Science Vermeer imaging (1665-2018) Textual analysis
- 16. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Scale: current topic in Social Philosophy Talk Titles at Mediating Scale conference June 2022 Close Reading in the Age of Climate Change: Scale in Interpretative Methodologies Simultaneity of Scale: Contemporary Transglossic Literature Scaling the Mesocosm Looking through the myriad lenses of a fly’s eye: the persistence and transformations of an entomological scale play and a microscopic-telescopic experience Expanding Timescales: the Long Now Foundation and its Longue Durée Scale Intimacies Oppressive Heat: Scaling Extreme Weather in Local Television Flusser, Simondon and the temporal scales of contemporary photography The Cosmic Non-Place: Intelligence and Scale in Frant Gwo’s The Wandering Earth Universal Basic Service: Scalability of CFHT & DAO 衣食住行 • 道 Media and Forensics: Activism Across Investigatory Scales Spectroscopic Pasts and Tele-scoping Futures on the Red Planet 15 Source: Mediating Scale, Lille FR, June 2022, https://mediatingscale.com/programme/
- 17. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Agenda Quantum: What, Why, Status Truth and Knowledge Kant and Time The Self-knowing Time Series Conclusion 16
- 18. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Truth and Knowledge Truth: being in accord with fact or reality Knowledge: justified true belief (Plato, Theaetetus) 17 e More certainty Less certainty Reality Truth Knowledge (second-order) Knowledge (first-order) Second-order knowledge: knowledge about knowledge e.g. knowledge about biology First-order knowledge: knowledge about reality e.g. knowledge about anatomy Gettier problem: a justified true belief that is false (the reasons for the belief are justified but false) Logos (word): definitive pronouncement of objective truth What counts as truth: valid reasons for thought and behavior (individual and collective) Source: IEP “I love a ballad in print o’ life, for then we are sure they are true” – Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale
- 19. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Truth and Knowledge Tableau 18 Source: Swan, M. (2020). Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances.
- 20. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Truth and Knowledge Two-level truth creation 19 Situating Difference and Identity: Four Eras of Difference Early Modern (Leibniz, Hume) German Idealism (Kant, Hegel) French Philosophies of Difference (Deleuze, Derrida) Contemporary Emphasis on identity Emphasis on unity of identity and difference Emphasis on lack of fixed identity, finality impossible Bifurcation: post-truth society and still committed to truth Leibniz: small difference = identity (law of the identity of indiscernibles) Kant: can only know the representation of an object, not the thing in itself Deleuze: difference is ontologically free-standing, not opposed to identity Brandom: commitment not belief; integrate difference found in mind and world Hume: correspondence theory of truth (correspondence between appearance and reality) Hegel: Thesis-Antithesis- Synthesis dialectics (identity is sublational unity of difference) Derrida: any “text” constantly open to re-reading and re- signification via différance Aesthetics: extra-philosophical truth (Nietzsche, Adorno) Keats: negative capability (remain in uncertainty) There is no truth Post-Structuralism There is no reality, only appearance (Baudrillard) Kant, Hegel Contemporary Social Ontology Ontology All “truth” is manufactured Hume, Leibniz Those in power make truth Mutual recognition of free agents determines truth Truth is valid reasons for thought and behavior Philosophy of Literature: Shakespeare constantly challenging assumptions that appearance is identical with reality
- 21. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality The Phenomenology of Spirit forms of spirit The “goal” is “Absolute Knowing, or Spirit that knows itself as Spirit” (808, p. 493) Achieved by “consciousness … pressing forward to true knowledge” through a “series of its own configurations” (77, p. 49) 20 Source: Swan, M. (2020). Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances. NOTE: All Hegel references to Hegel, G.W.F. (1977 [1807]). Phenomenology of Spirit. Trans. A.V. Miller, Ed. J.N. Findlay. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- 22. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality 3 Moments in The Phenomenology of Spirit 21 Source: Swan, M. (2020). Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances. S = Subject; O = Object The knowledge of the object is not the truth of the object
- 23. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality History: contingent series of world spirit 22 Absolute Knowing Sense-certainty Religion Spirit Reason Self-consciousness Understanding Perception Consciousness Self-knowing Spirit (Absolute Knowing): Series of self-knowing spirit, reflected in its unity History (Absolute Spirit): Series of self-knowing spirits, recollected in their unity Absolute Spirit Contingent series closed when Spirit attains knowledge of itself that is both in and for itself (794, p. 483) Collective history: Spirit completes itself as world-Spirit (802, p. 488) Individual Spirit Collective Spirit Source: Swan, M. (2022).
- 24. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality 3 Moments in The Phenomenology of Spirit 23 Source: Swan, M. (2020). Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances. S = Subject; O = Object The knowledge of the object is not the truth of the object Difference is the lever
- 25. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Hegel’s ontological definition of truth Truth is a standpoint (mode of being) of the Concept in its movement of self-determination The “moment” of truth is the “pure Concept and its onward movement,” depending “solely on its [own] pure determinateness” (805, p. 491) Any entity that has won its form as a Concept is able to determine its own truth in its logical self-progression A Concept is a self-determining substance that has logical reality and truth, with reference to Spinoza’s conatus and Aristotle’s “purposive activity [of a] self-moving” substance (22, p. 12) Contrast with Kantian epistemological knower Are you in a stance of Absolute Knowing? See yourself as the whole of a series of previous shapes in unity See yourself as a self-moving Concept (mobile, abstract) 24
- 26. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Hegel: social philosophy impact Sanctity of self-determination Truth is the standpoint of the Concept in its movement of self-determination Subject as substance is a conceptual entity relying solely on its own pure determinateness Any entity in the form as a Concept is able to determine its own truth in its logical self-progression Life philosophy Desire (two-tier: appetitive and worthwhile projects) Mutual recognition of free self-consciousnesses Difference Recognitive philosophies of difference and dignity (Cooke, Harris, Simpson, Cavarero, Cheah) 25
- 27. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Truth and Knowledge – Solutions Accept the problematic Hegel, Benjamin (non-synthesis), Heidegger (Aletheia) Foucault (cannot escape, no critical philosophy without negation) Deny the problematic Deleuze, Derrida Frame an orthogonal problematic Brandom (commitment not belief) Aesthetics Nietzsche (aphorisms, unreason) Heidegger (poetic language, work of art) Artworks create truth as shared understanding of being Orrell (truth and beauty is the opposition) Keats (negative capability – embrace uncertainty) 26
- 28. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Truth and Knowledge Tableau 27 Source: Swan, M. (2020). Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances.
- 29. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Truth and Knowledge Tableau 28 Source: Swan, M. (2020). Kant and Hegel's Philosophical Thirds: A New Perspective on Explaining Appearances.
- 30. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Agenda Quantum: What, Why, Status Truth and Knowledge Kant and Time The Self-knowing Time Series Conclusion 29 But “where is the time which we directly read off any pocket watch?” Heidegger, Being and Time, §80, p. 469
- 31. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kant (Critique of Pure Reason) (1781) 30 Time and space A priori synthetic unity of the manifold of time and space Transcendental condition of possibility for any object to appear Transcendentally ideal and empirically real Transcendentally ideal: abstract conceptual formulation Empirically real: concretized operational deployment “the empirical reality of space…though to be sure at the same time its transcendental ideality” (B44/A28) Faculties: two stems of knowing Sensibility and understanding “Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind” (A51/B75) Sensibility Understanding Time and Space Transcendentally Ideal Empirically Real NOTE: All CPR references to Kant, I. (1988 [1781/1787]). Critique of Pure Reason. Trans. and ed. P. Guyer & A.W. Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- 32. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kant 31 Problem: the faculties operate at different tiers Sensibility (form of intuition) at the transcendentally ideal Manifold as ideal infinite magnitude of time and space Understanding (formal intuition) at the empirically real Performative action of line-drawing “Space, represented as object (as is really required in geometry)” (B160n) “We cannot think of a line without drawing it in thought” (B155) Time and Space Sensibility Understanding Transcendentally Ideal Infinite magnitude (form of intuition) (Transcendental Aesthetic A29/B45, A49/B68) Empirically Real Time series of points in line-drawing (formal intuition) (Transcendental Deduction §26 B160n)
- 33. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kant 32 Solution: the time series The two stems of knowing are brought together by the meta-faculty of the imagination The imagination is a “faculty for representing an object even without its presence in intuition” (§24 B151, p. 256) The figurative synthesis of the imagination determines the sensibility a priori as “an effect of the understanding on sensibility” through the temporal series (§24 B152, p. 257) Needed because “we must order the determinations of inner sense as appearances in time” (§24 B156, p. 259) Imagination Time and Space Sensibility Understanding Transcendentally Ideal Infinite magnitude (form of intuition) (A29/B45, A49/B68) Empirically Real (Figurative Synthesis) Synthesize series of snapshot images from sensibility Time series of points in line-drawing (formal intuition) (§26 B160n) Image credit: Tamara Fakhoury, North American Kant Society
- 34. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kant 33 Defining the empirically-real tier for Sensibility suggests the transcendentally ideal level of Understanding The eternal temporality and unity of the concept The logical forms of judgment and the categories “infinite judgments must also be distinguished” (B97/A72, p. 207) “all synthesis, through which even perception itself becomes possible, stands under the categories” (B161, p. 262) “the categories are conditions of the possibility of experience, and are thus also valid a priori of all objects of experience” (B161, p. 262) Time and Space Sensibility Understanding Transcendentally Ideal Infinite magnitude (form of intuition) (A29/B45, A49/B68) Eternality and unity of the concept Empirically Real (Figurative Synthesis) Synthesize series of snapshot images from sensibility Time series of points in line-drawing (formal intuition) (§26 B160n) Faculty-based Transcendentally Ideal and Empirically Real Formulations of Time and Space
- 35. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Critique of Pure Reason 34 Faculties Two heavyweight faculties to recognize any object Sensibility, Understanding Three faculties needed to cognize any object Sensibility, Understanding, Reason (perceive, apperceive (recognize), cognize) “All our cognition starts from the senses, goes from there to the understanding, and ends with reason” (A298/B355, p. 386) Interoperation Understanding “gives the unity of the representation” of the object perceived by sensibility (B160n, p. 261) Reason “finds the unconditioned for conditioned cognitions of the understanding with which its unity is completed” (B364/A307, p. 391) Reason is in touch with the unconditioned (absolute) Transcendental Dialectic Transcendental Analytic Transcendental Logic Transcendental Aesthetic Division Understanding Reason Sensibility Faculty
- 36. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kantian faculties and time 35 Each faculty has its own time and space regime Both transcendentally-ideal and empirically-real Reason: The “absolutely unconditioned” or absolute totality of conditions is “what is unconditioned in every relation” (A326/B383) The time series is the empirically real lever for interconnecting the faculties The syllogistic series either ascends towards the unconditioned via reason or descends towards the conditioned via the understanding (B388/A332, p. 404) In the descending series, if a condition exists, “the understanding by itself makes every step downwards from the condition to the conditioned” (B394/A337, p. 407) In the ascending series, reason is used “for ascending in the series of conditions to the unconditioned” (B394/A337, p. 407) Sensibility Understanding Reason Transcendentally Ideal Infinite magnitude (form of intuition) (A29/B45, A49/B68) Eternality and unity of the concept Universality, totality (totality as allness) (A322/B379) Empirically Real Synthesize time series of snapshot images Time series of points in line- drawing (formal intuition) (§26 B160n) Time series ascending to the unconditioned (B394/A337)
- 37. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kantian faculties and time 36 Tier similarities Transcendentally-ideal: all synonyms for infinite magnitude Absolute totality, unconditioned, universality, eternality Empirically-real: characterized by the time series One mode emphasized for each faculty (bold) Transcendentally-ideal: Sensibility, Reason Empirically-real: Understanding Faculty-based Transcendentally Ideal and Empirically Real Formulations of Time and Space Sensibility Understanding Reason Transcendentally Ideal Infinite magnitude (form of intuition) (A29/B45, A49/B68) Eternality and unity of the concept Universality, totality totality as allness (A322/B379) Empirically Real Synthesize time series of snapshot images Time series of points in line- drawing (formal intuition) (§26 B160n) Time series ascending to the unconditioned (B394/A337) Time series Infinite magnitude
- 38. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kantian faculties and time 37 Map the default modes emphasized for faculty- based time and space formulations Infinite magnitude (Sensibility) Pinched-in center of concrete line-drawing (Understanding) Universality, totality as allness (Reason) Faculty Regime Emphasis Figure Kantian Formulation Sensibility Transcendental Ideality Infinite magnitude (form of intuition) (A29/B45, A49/B68) Understanding Empirical Reality Line-drawing (formal intuition) (§26 B160n) Reason Transcendental Ideality Universality, totality (totality as allness) (A322/B379) Faculty-based Time and Space Formulations
- 39. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kant and scientific theories 38 Kantian configurations correspond to scientific theories General relativity, quantum mechanics: infinite magnitudes Classical: concrete human-scale Kantian schema likewise reveals The classical regime is the outlier What is strange is the “squeezing in” of Earth’s classical regime Central problem of time Faculty Regime Emphasis Figure Kantian Formulation Scientific Theory Sensibility Transcendental Ideality Infinite magnitude (form of intuition) (A29/B45, A49/B68) General Relativity Understanding Empirical Reality Line-drawing (formal intuition) (§26 B160n) Human Scale Reason Transcendental Ideality Universality, totality (totality as allness) (A322/B379) Quantum Mechanics
- 40. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Central problem of time 39 General Relativity Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Time is of the same nature and units but in non-classical domains Distorted (GR) and multiple (QM) Non-Euclidean spacetime geometry Positive/negative curvature not flat Simultaneity and multiplicity Infinite magnitude Newtonian spacetime Time bent and stretched, warped Non-Euclidean spacetime Hyperbolic geometry Superpositioned time Non-Euclidean spacetime Hyperbolic geometry Normal Earth time Euclidean spacetime Neutral geometry Elliptic geometry (positively-curved) Hyperbolic geometry (negatively-curved) Flat geometry (no curvature) Euclidean and beyond spacetimes
- 41. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Problem of time in physical theories 40 Same “time” but different mathematics GR & QM incompatible as traditionally formulated Different mathematical time and space regimes Quantum mechanics (Schrödinger wavefunction) Formulated in the background of the Newtonian framework of absolute time and space General relativity Based on Riemannian curved geometry in time and space that twists and fluctuates dynamically Lack of an integrated theory of quantum- classical-relativistic regimes Source: Barbour, J. (2009). The Nature of Time. arXiv: 0903.3489.
- 42. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Scientific theories – Solution 41 Eventual reformulation (GR, QM) Modern integrated formulations Field-based approaches (both gravity and gauge theories are field-based) 1. Gauge/gravity theories: AdS/CFT (Anti-de Sitter Space/Conformal Field Theory) Describe physical volume with surface theory in one fewer dimension Operational examples: AdS/Neuroscience, AdS/Machine Learning 2. Random tensors: sum of geometrical tensor indices (in 3+ D) New multidisciplinary fields (harnessing quantum effects) Relativistic quantum information Study GR and QM together: black holes, Big Bang, dark energy Relativistic quantum chemistry Calculate heavy element properties (e.g.; color of gold, due to relativistic effects, not silvery like other metals) AdS/Brain: multiscalar neural signaling: network, neuron, synapse, ion AdS/CFT: describe volume from surface in one less dimension
- 43. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Problem of time - Approaches 42 Challenge: interoperate GR-classical-QM Kantian methods Connect inoperable time-space regimes with time series Figurative synthesis of the imagination (sensibility-understanding) Ascending-descending time series (understanding-reason) Scientific methods Treat time as an engineering problem Floquet circuits Discrete time crystals Novel matter phases without thermal equilibrium Hyperbolic Bloch theorem (non-Euclidean time-space) More than four squares connect at vertices in a hyperbolic lattice Images: Maciejko, J. & Rayan, S. (2021). Hyperbolic band theory. Sci. Adv. 7:eabe9170. Mi, X. et al. (2021). Observation of Time- Crystalline Eigenstate Order on a Quantum Processor. arXiv:2107.13571. (Google Quantum AI and collaborators) Hyperbolic band theory Time-crystalline Eigenstate order
- 44. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Practical Application Interoperability: quantum-classical-relativistic De facto time-space integration in technology platforms Foundational physics as an engineering problem 43 General Relativity Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics GPS, spacecraft navigation, orbits, cometary trajectories (classical computing) Quantum machine learning, quantum biology (quantum computing) Quantum computing in space: orbits, trajectories, navigation (quantum computing)
- 45. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Practical Application Time on Mars 44 Sources: https://www.giss.nasa.gov/tools/mars24, https://marsclock.com 15-minute communications delay, hence Rover-helicopter coordination Mars24 Sunclock Earth-day and Martian-sol Asynchronous time-tech
- 46. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Philosophy-aided physics 45 Kant: fundamental theorist of time and space Identifies interoperate GR-QM and also explain classical regime Transcendentally ideal time as infinite magnitude and quantum- mechanical uncertainty and multiplicity Empirically real time can be connected with the time series Philosophy more relevant than ever in GM-classical-QM Approach to conceive and resolve problems in the hard sciences Scientific Theories and Faculty-based Time and Space Formulations in the Critique of Pure Reason Scientific Theory Regime Emphasis Figure Kantian Formulation Faculty General Relativity Transcendental Ideality Infinite magnitude (form of intuition) (A29/B45, A49/B68) Sensibility Human Scale Empirical Reality Line-drawing (formal intuition) (§26 B160n) Understanding Quantum Mechanics Transcendental Ideality Universality, totality (totality as allness) (A322/B379) Reason
- 47. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Agenda Quantum: What, Why, Status Truth and Knowledge Kant and Time The Self-knowing Time Series Conclusion 46
- 48. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Kant-Hegel and Physics: Time Series 47 Ascending Series (Understanding) Descending Series (Reason) Drawing a geometrical object in space Kant: Sensibility – Understanding – Reason Hegel: Absolute Knowing – Absolute Spirit Object Cognition Series endpoint (philosophy): perceive, apperceive, cognize an object; know self as stance of knowing and integrated unity of shapes Series endpoint (physics): collapse in measurement to a specific Heisenberg uncertainty variable: time-location, speed-energy, etc. “mountain” Two-cultures corroboration of time series as foundational aspect of physical reality Wavefunction: fundamental object in quantum physics Particles move in a series of points of time and space, unknowable (time, position) until collapsed in measurement EΨ(r) = -ћ2/2m ∇2 Ψ(r) + V(r)Ψ(r) Schrödinger wave equation
- 49. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Hegel & (potential) Exoplanetary Life 48 Does self-knowing spirit exist in the universe? Like humanity, AI and exoplanetary intelligence likely to be societal Shapes are contingent, but series completion is self-knowing spirit, a mobile Concept of knowing and self-determination If same physics and mathematics universe-wide, same knowing? Exoplanetary Life?
- 50. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality The Quantum Mindset The Quantum Mindset: thinking in terms of quantum properties to solve problems Superposition: literally co-existing realities before collapsed Superpositioned data modeling (all possible system states tested simultaneously); quantum product manager (Gartner) Quantum machine learning Unsupervised learning with Born machine replacing the Boltzmann machine (probabilistic energy function) and neural operators 49 Classical System (0/1 bits) Quantum System (complex-valued qubits on a Bloch sphere) Domain Properties Definition Quantum Matter Symmetry Looking the same from different points of view (e.g. a face, cube, laws of physics); symmetry breaking is phase transition Topology Geometric structure preserved under deformation (bending, stretching, twisting, and crumpling, but not cutting or gluing); doughnut and coffee cup both have a hole Quantum Information Superposition An unobserved particle exists in all possible states simultaneously, but once measured, collapses to just one state (superpositioned data modeling of all possible states) Entanglement Particles connected such that their states are related, even when separated by distance (a “tails-up/tails-down” relationship; one particle in one state, other in the other) Interference Waves reinforcing or canceling each other out (cohering or decohering) Source: Swan, M., dos Santos, R.P. & Witte, F. (2022). Quantum Neurobiology. Quantum Reports. 4(1):107-127.
- 51. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Quantum Science 50 New ontologies in material and computation Quantum matter (topological materials) Novel phases of matter that emerge at zero-temperature with exotic properties described with symmetry and topology Quantum information (quantum computing) Information-theoretic formulations of physics problems (e.g. evaluate information content in quantum states with entropy) Quantum Science: classification, manipulation, and creation of matter at the quantum scale Source: Swan, M., dos Santos, R.P. & Witte, F. (2022). Quantum Matter Overview. J. 5(2):232-254.
- 52. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality 51 Quantum Math Quantum Science Classical Mindset Quantum Mindset Quantum Mindset Classical Mind Quantum Mind The self-knowing time series Classical Math Classical Science Mindset progression All physics and mathematics ever developed until recently was with the Classical Mindset 5 properties: symmetry, topology, superposition, entanglement, interference Hyperbolic band theory (Bloch theorem), quantum statistics Quantum machine learning (Born machine, neural operators)
- 53. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Quantum Mind as Self-knowing Time Series Thinking in the mode of physics concepts Time series as the foundational clue Ideal-real tiers, integration of diverse scale domains Time dilation in thought Radical uncertainty, all events are probabilistic Knowability trade-offs (time-location, speed-energy, etc.) Superpositioned thinking Holding multiple positions in mind simultaneously before collapsing to a measurement 52 Quantum microscopy Schrödinger cat states Hyperbolic space
- 54. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Agenda Quantum: What, Why, Status Truth and Knowledge Kant and Time The Self-knowing Time Series Conclusion 53
- 55. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Conclusion Recasting truth and knowledge in the context of physical scale tiers, it becomes clear that both our conceptualization frames and our technologies must necessarily treat the uncertainty and multiplicity of the relativistic and the quantum Hence, define the self-knowing time series as a scale-free theory of knowing 54 General Relativity Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Simultaneity and multiplicity Infinite magnitude Newtonian spacetime
- 56. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Conclusion Two philosophical trajectories Truth and knowledge Hegel’s ontological definition of truth: truth is a standpoint (mode of being) of the Concept in its movement of self-determination Orthogonal focus: Brandom (commitments), Keats (uncertainty) Kant and time Ideal (infinite magnitude, multiplicity), real (concrete time series) Implications for social philosophy Crucial importance of self-determination Self-moving Concept of the agent Misrecognition problems Failure to acknowledge free self-consciousnesses Philosophies of difference and dignity 55
- 57. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality 56 Thesis 1. the time series is of crucial importance in physical reality, understood through philosophy and physics, for identifying and integrating divergent scales 2. intelligent exoplanetary life, if found, may be in the form of a Hegelian self-knowing time series A philosophy-aided physics approach suggests that foundational conceptualizations of time and space contribute to the resolution of truth and knowledge (appearance vs reality) problems at the quantum-classical boundary and provide conceptual resources for problem- solving in social philosophy (through formulations of difference), with the implications that
- 58. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Risks and Limitations 57 Human-Technology Relation Digital divide Cost, accessibility, overwhelm, constraint Lack of right Heideggerian relation with technology Humans willingly enframed as standing reserve instead of technology as background enabler Alienation One-way panopticon surveillance, no sousveillance counterbalance (Brin): drones, private data monopolies Scale: difficulty working across scales Quantum-classical-relativistic Heidegger, The Question Concerning Technology
- 59. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality The human-technology relation 58 Source: Swan, M., dos Santos, R.P. & Witte, F. (2020). Quantum Computing: Physics, Blockchains, and Deep Learning Smart Networks. London: World Scientific. Evolution image: Gerd Leonhard, https://www.futuristgerd.com 1990-2020 2010-2050e 2020-2050e Information businesses: News, media, entertainment, stock trading, mortgage finance, credit Cryptographic assets: Blockchain-based cryptocurrencies and smart contracts: digitization of money, economics, financial instruments, legal agreements All remaining industries: Biology, healthcare, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, building materials, construction, automotive, transportation, energy Digitization of classical industries to information technology sectors Digitization revolution The information-based transition of all industries to digital network instantiation Farther future aim: Kardashev-plus society marshalling all tangible and intangible resources
- 60. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Philosophy of Literature Unitary scale examples (1:1 units) Growing-shrinking paradigm Alice in Wonderland, The Time Machine, Fantastic Voyage Large distance 20,000 Leagues Under the Seas, Around the World in 80 Days Orders-of-magnitude tier progression Dante’s Inferno (nine concentric circles) “The journey” The Odyssey, Journey to the West, Moby-Dick, Don Quixote An out-of-scale moment in a time and space vacuum Journey endpoint unclear Nostalgia, (impossible) homecoming 59
- 61. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Philosophy of Literature Exponential scale examples Exponential physical movement Exponential analogue to Alice in Wonderland, characters grow exponentially threefold up or down in size to move instead of walking forward one step at a time (“3-adica,” Greg Egan) Exponential growth Prey, Michael Crichton (grey-goo nanotechnology take-off) Blood Music, Greg Bear (human augmentation) Beggars in Spain, Nancy Kress (human augmentation) Ancestral Night, Elizabeth Bear (Alcubierre FTL drive) Pandemic literature (exponential disease model) The Plague (La Peste) (Camus), “The Masque of the Red Death” (Poe), Death in Venice (Mann), Andromeda Strain (Crichton), “Radicalized” (Cory Doctorow, 2019) 60
- 62. Philosophy-aided Physics At the Boundary of Quantum-Classical Reality Society for Philosophy in the Contemporary World Estes Park CO 9 Jul 2022 Slides: http://slideshare.net/LaBlogga Melanie Swan, PhD University College London History is “the slaughter-bench at which the happiness of peoples, the wisdom of states, and the virtue of individuals have been victimized” - Hegel, The Philosophy of History, 35 Thank you! Questions?
- 63. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality Wavefunction The wavefunction (Ψ) (psi “sigh”) The fundamental object in quantum physics Complex-valued probability amplitude (with real and imaginary wave-shaped components) [intractable] Contains all the information of a quantum state For single particle, complex molecule, or many-body system (multiple entities) 62 Source: Carleo, G. & Troyer, M. (2017). Solving the Quantum Many-Body Problem with Artificial Neural Networks. Science. 355(6325):602-26. Ψ = the wavefunction that describes a specific wave (represented by the Greek letter Ψ) EΨ(r) = -ћ2/2m ∇2 Ψ(r) + V(r)Ψ(r) Total Energy = Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy (motion) (resting) Schrödinger wave equation Schrödinger equation Measures positions or speeds (momenta) of complete system configurations Wavefunction: description of the quantum state of a system Wave Packet
- 64. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality 63 Simondon: Technical Objects Simondon: (1924-1989) I. On the Mode of Existence of Technical Objects II. Theory of Individuation The field of technical objects is oriented by scalability (milieu)
- 65. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality 64
- 66. 9 Jul 2022 Quantum-Classical Reality What is Quantum Science? 65 Quantum Science: Theoretical Foundations, Quantum Matter, and Quantum Information